View More View Less
  • 1 Clinique-réseau intégrée Maisonneuve, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2 Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • 3 Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Open access

Background and aims

In an effort to provide further empirical evidence of meaningful differences, this study explores, in a student population, the distinctions in gambling behavioral patterns and specific associated problems of two levels of gambling severity by comparing problem gamblers (PG) and moderate-risk gamblers (MR) as defined by the score on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI; MR: 3-7; PG: 8 and more).

Methods

The study sample included 2,139 undergraduate students (male = 800, mean age = 22.6) who completed the PGSI and questionnaires on associated problems.

Results

Results show that problem gamblers engage massively and more diversely in gambling activities, more often and in a greater variety of locations, than moderate-risk gamblers. In addition, important differences have been observed between moderate-risk and problem gamblers in terms of expenditures and accumulated debt. In regards to the associated problems, compared to moderate-risk gamblers, problem gamblers had an increased reported psychological distress, daily smoking, and possible alcohol dependence.

Discussion and Conclusions

The severity of gambling and associated problems found in problem gamblers is significantly different from moderate-risk gamblers, when examined in a student population, to reiterate caution against the amalgamation of these groups in future research.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Allen, J. P., Litten, R. Z., Fertig, J. B. & Babor, T. (1997). A review of research on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21(4), 613619

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Association of Universities and Colleges Canada (AUCC). (2014). Directory of Canadian Universities. Retrieved from http://www.aucc.ca/can_uni/our_universities/index_e.html#Quebec

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. H. & Tidwell, M.-C. O. (2010). Comparisons of gambling and alcohol use among college students and noncollege young people in the United States. Journal of American College Health, 58(5), 443452

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, S. L. & Jonkman, J. N. (2007). Disordered gambling among college students: A meta-analytic synthesis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(2), 175183

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonke, J. & Borregaard, K. (2009). The prevalence of problematic gambling behaviour: A Scandinavian comparison. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 37(6), 654660

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canadian Partnership for Responsible Gambling. (2007). Canadian Gambling Digest 2005–2006. Retrieved February 4, 2008, from http://www.cprg.ca

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C. & Casey, D. M. (2013). Validity of the problem gambling severity index interpretive categories. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(2), 311327

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Desai, R. & Potenza, M. (2008). Gender differences in the associations between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(3), 173183

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gainsbury, S. M., Russell, A. & Blaszczynski, A. (2014). Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1(30), 1125

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giroux, I., Jacques, C., Ladouceur, R., Leclerc, M. & Brochu, P. (2012). Prévalence des habitudes de jeu en Gaspésie et aux Îles-de-la-Madeleine en 2009. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(3), 192199

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldberg, D. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson

  • Goldberg, D., Gater, R., Sartorius, N., Ustun, T., Piccinelli, M., Gureje, O. & Rutter, C. (1997). The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychological Medicine, 27(1), 191197

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griffiths, M., Parke, J., Wood, R. & Rigbye, J. (2010). Online poker gambling in university students: Further findings from an online survey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(1), 8289

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kairouz, S. (2005). Chapter 6: Gambling. Canadian Campus Survey 2004. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

  • Kairouz, S., Nadeau, L. & Paradis, C. (2011). Portrait of gambling in Quebec: Prevalence, incidence and trajectories over four years. Montreal, QC: ENHJEU-QUEBEC Survey

    • Export Citation
  • Kennedy, S. H., Welsh, B. R., Fulton, K., Soczynska, J. K., McIntyre, R. S., O’Donovan, C. & Zimmerman, M. (2010). Frequency and correlates of gambling problems in outpatients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 568576

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaBrie, R. A., Shaffer, H. J., LaPlante, D. A. & Wechsler, H. (2003). Correlates of college student gambling in the United States. Journal of American College Health, 52(2), 5362

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A. & Shaffer, H. J. (2006). Men & women playing games: Gender and the gambling preferences of Iowa gambling treatment program participants. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(1), 6580

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorains, F. K., Cowlishaw, S. & Thomas, S. A. (2011). Prevalence of comorbid disorders in problem and pathological gambling: Systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys. Addiction, 106(3), 490498

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marmurek, H. H., Switzer, J. & D’Alvise, J. (2014). A comparison of university student and community gamblers: Motivations, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3(1), 5464

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martins, S. S., Ghandour, L. A., Lee, G. P. & Storr, C. L. (2010). Sociodemographic and substance use correlates of gambling behavior in the Canadian general population. Journal of AddictiveDiseases, 29(3), 338351

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mihaylova, T., Kairouz, S. & Nadeau, L. (2013). Online poker gambling among university students: Risky endeavour or harmless pastime? Journal of Gambling Issues, (28), 118. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2012.27.15

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Momper, S. L., Delva, J., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Sanchez, N. & Volberg, R. A. (2010). The association of at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling with substance use, depression, and arrest history. Journal of Gambling Issues, (24), 732

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montazeri, A., Harirchi, A. M., Shariati, M., Garmaroudi, G., Ebadi, M. & Fateh, A. (2003). The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): Translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1(1), 6669

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nowak, D. E. & Aloe, A. M. (2013). The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students: A meta-analytic synthesis, 2005–2013. Journal of Gambling Studies, 125. doi: 10.1007/s10899-013-9399

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nower, L., Martins, S. S., Lin, K.-H. & Blanco, C. (2013). Subtypes of disordered gamblers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Addiction, 108(4), 789798

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oliveira, M. P. M. & Silva, M. T. A. (2001). A comparison of horse-race, bingo, and video poker gamblers in Brazilian gambling settings. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(2), 137149

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oster, S. L. & Knapp, T. J. (2001). Underage and pathological gambling by college students: Emerging problem on campus? Psychology and Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 38(2), 1519

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, J. & Ogeil, R. (2011). Decisional styles and risk of problem drinking or gambling. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(4), 521526

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rush, B. R., Bassani, D. G., Urbanoski, K. A. & Castel, S. (2008). Influence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders on the prevalence of problem gambling in Canada. Addiction, 103(11), 18471856

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StataCorp (2011). Stata Statistical Software: Release 12. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP

  • Stucki, S. & Rihs-Middel, M. (2007). Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: An update. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(3), 245257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wardle, H., Moody, A., Griffiths, M., Orford, J. & Volberg, R. (2011). Defining the online gambler and patterns of behavior integration: Evidence from the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010. International Gambling Studies, 11(3), 339356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wardle, H., Sproston, K., Orford, J., Erens, B., Griffiths, M. D., Constantine, R. & Pigott, S. (2007). British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007. London: National Centre for Social Research

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welte, J., Barnes, G., Wieczorek, W., Tidwell, M. & Hoffman, J. (2007). Type of gambling and availability as risk factors for problem gambling: A Tobit regression analysis by age and gender. International Gambling Studies, 7(2), 183198

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wohl, M. J. A., Matheson, K., Young, M. M. & Anisman, H. (2008). Cortisol rise following awakening among problem gamblers: Dissociation from comorbid symptoms of depression and impulsivity. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(1), 7990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, R. T. A., Griffiths, M. D. & Parke, J. (2007). Acquisition, development, and maintenance of online poker playing in a student sample. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 10(3), 354361

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, M. & Stevens, M. (2009). Player preferences and social harm: An analysis of the relationships between player characteristics, gambling modes, and problem gambling. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7(1), 262279

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

  • Impact Factor (2018): 4.873
  • Psychiatry and Mental Health SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1
  • Medicine (miscellaneous) SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 1.624
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 29

Language: English

Founded in 2011
Publication: One volume of four issues annually

Publishing Model: Gold Open Access
Article processing charge: EUR 850.00 (as for discounts, please, check Author's instructions

Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 9.
Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science [Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch®)
  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
  • Social Sciences Citation Index®
  • Journal Citation Reports/ Social Sciences Edition
  • Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • EBSCO
  • GoogleScholar
  • PsychInfo
  • PubMed Central
  • SCOPUS
  • Medline

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt Demetrovics

Associate Editor(s): Click for the contact list

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla Ágoston

Editorial Board

  • Max W. Abbott (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. Aboujaoude (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat Adeli (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex Baldacchino (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex Blaszczynski (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Kenneth Blum (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta Bowden-Jones (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Gerhard Bühringer (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Wim van den Brink (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Sam-Wook Choi (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan Denys (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi Fineberg (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie Grall-Bronnec (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. Grant (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark Griffiths (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Heather Hausenblas (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias Hayer (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu Higuchi (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David Hodgins (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric Hollander (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung Jeong (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser Khazaal (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya Király (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel Kuntsche (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook Lee (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel Lejoyeux (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó Maráz (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Giovanni Martinotti (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Frederick Gerard Moeller (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor Olason (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy Petry (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina Pikó (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József Rácz (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. Reid (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. Spada (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel Spritzer (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. Stein (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. Stewart (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila Szabó (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Túry (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred Uhl (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Johan Vanderlinden (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. Voiskounsky (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Kimberly Young (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute: ELTE Institute of Psychology
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
Fax: +36-1-461-2697
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

 

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION