View More View Less
  • 1 Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia
Open access

A diverse class of stimuli, including certain foods, substances, media, and economic behaviours, may be described as ‘reward-oriented’ in that they provide immediate reinforcement with little initial investment. Neurophysiological and personality concepts, including dopaminergic dysfunction, reward sensitivity and rash impulsivity, each predict the existence of a latent behavioural trait that leads to increased consumption of all stimuli in this class. Whilst bivariate relationships (co-morbidities) are often reported in the literature, to our knowledge, a multivariate investigation of this possible trait has not been done. We surveyed 1,194 participants (550 male) on their typical weekly consumption of 11 types of reward-oriented stimuli, including fast food, salt, caffeine, television, gambling products, and illicit drugs. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare models in a 3×3 structure, based on the definition of a single latent factor (none, fixed loadings, or estimated loadings), and assumed residual covariance structure (none, a-priori / literature based, or post-hoc / data-driven). The inclusion of a single latent behavioural ‘consumption’ factor significantly improved model fit in all cases. Also confirming theoretical predictions, estimated factor loadings on reward-oriented indicators were uniformly positive, regardless of assumptions regarding residual covariances. Additionally, the latent trait was found to be negatively correlated with the non-reward-oriented indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption. The findings support the notion of a single behavioural trait leading to increased consumption of reward-oriented stimuli across multiple modalities. We discuss implications regarding the concentration of negative lifestyle-related health behaviours.

  • Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N., O’Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D. & Schulenberg, J. E. (2013). Smoking, drinking, and druguse in young adulthood: The impacts of new freedoms and newresponsibilities. Washington DC: Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balogh, K., Mayes, L. & Potenza, M. (2013). Risk-taking and decision-making in youth: Relationships to addiction vulnerability. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(1), 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrett, D. (2010). Supernormal stimuli: How primal urges overran their evolutionary purpose. New York: WW Norton &Company.

  • Benson, L. A., Norman, C. & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). The role of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping, and year of study in student gambling: A pilot study. International Journal of MentalHealth and Addiction, 10, 461473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergh, C., Eklund, T., Södersten, P. & Nordin, C. (1997). Altered dopamine function in pathological gambling. PsychologicalMedicine, 27, 473475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blum, K., Cull, J. G., Braverman, E. R. & Comings, D. E. (1996). Reward deficiency syndrome. American Scientist, 84(2), 132145.

  • Blum, K., Sheridan, P. J., Wood, R. C., Braverman, E. R., Chen, T. J., Cull, J. G. & Comings, D. E. (1996). The D2 dopamine receptor gene as a determinant of reward deficiency syndrome. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 89(7), 396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bobo, J. K. & Husten, C. (2000). Sociocultural influences on smoking and drinking. Alcohol Research and Health, 24(4), 225232.

  • Breen, R. B. & Zuckerman, M. (1999). Chasing in gambling behavior: Personality and cognitive determinants. Personalityand Individual Differences, 27, 10971111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Browne, M. W. & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230258.

  • Bush, K., Kivlahan, D. R., McDonell, M. B., Fihn, S. D. & Bradley, K. A. (1998). The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): An effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Archives ofInternal Medicine, 158(16), 17891795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carver, C. S. & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personalityand Social Psychology, 67, 319333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, A. C. H., Porjesz, B., Rangaswamy, M., Kamarajan, C., Tang, Y., Jones, K. A., Chorlian, D. B., Stimus, A. T. & Begleiter, H. (2007). Reduced frontal lobe activity in subjects with high impulsivity and alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinicaland Experimental Research, 31, 156165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claes, L., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Agüera, Z., Sánchez, I., Santamaría, J., Granero, R. & Fernández-Aranda, F. (2012). Eating disorders and pathological gambling in males: Can they be differentiated by means of weight history and temperament and character traits? Eating Disorders, 20, 395404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curtin, R., Presser, S. & Singer, E. (2005). Changes in telephone survey nonresponse over the past quarter century. Public OpinionQuarterly, 69(1), 8798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawe, S., Gullo, M. J. & Loxton, N. J. (2004). Reward drive and rash impulsiveness as dimensions of impulsivity: Implications for substance misuse. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 13891405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, D. A., Smith, S. M., Saha, T. D., Rubinsky, A. D. & Grant, B. F. (2012). Comparative performance of the AUDIT-C in screening for DSM-IV and DSM-V alcohol use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 126(3), 384388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donohew, R. L., Hoyle, R. H., Clayton, R. R., Skinner, W. F., Colon, S. E. & Rice, R. E. (1999). Sensation seeking and drug use by adolescents and their friends: Models for marijuana and alcohol. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 60(5), 622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drasgow, F. (1986). Polychoric and polyserial correlations. In S. Kotz & N. L. Johnson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of statisticalsciences (Vol. 7) (pp. 6874). New Jersey: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, A. H., Lawrence, A. D., Potts, J., MacGregor, L., Katzenschlager, R., Shaw, K., Zijlmans, J. & Lees, A. J. (2006). Relationship between impulsive sensation seeking traits, smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake, and Parkinson’s disease. Journal ofNeurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 77(3), 317321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faber, R. J., Christenson, G. A., de Zwaan, M. & Mitchell, J. (1995). Two forms of compulsive consumption: Comorbidity of compulsive buying and binge eating. Journal of ConsumerResearch, 22, 296304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Francis, L. A., Lee, Y. & Birch, L. L. (2003). Parental weight status and girls’ television viewing, snacking, and body mass indexes. Obesity Research, 11(1), 143151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franken, I. H. (2002). Behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity predicts alcohol craving. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 349355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuentes, D., Tavares, H., Artes, R. & Gorenstein, C. (2006). Selfreported and neuropsychological measures of impulsivity in pathological gambling. Journal of the International NeuropsychologicalSociety : JINS, 12, 90712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gay, P., Rochat, L., Billieux, J., d’Acremont, M. & van der Linden, M. (2008). Heterogeneous inhibition processes involved in different facets of self-reported impulsivity: Evidence from a community sample. Acta Psychologica, 129(3), 332339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gore, S. A., Foster, J. A., DiLillo, V. G., Kirk, K. & Smith West, D. (2003). Television viewing and snacking. Eating Behaviors, 4(4), 399405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246276). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenberg, J. L., Lewis, S. E. & Dodd, D. K. (1999). Overlapping addictions and self-esteem among college men and women. Addictive Behaviors, 24(4), 565571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gullo, M. J., Ward, E., Dawe, S., Powell, J. & Jackson, C. J. (2011). Support for a two-factor model of impulsivity and hazardous substance use in British and Australian young adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 1018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Han, D. H., Lee, Y. S., Yang, K. C., Kim, E. Y., Lyoo, I. K. & Renshaw, P. F. (2007). Dopamine genes and reward dependence in adolescents with excessive Internet video game play. Journalof Addiction Medicine September 2007, 1(3), 133138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hantula, D. A. (2003). Guest editorial: Evolutionary psychology and consumption. Psychology and Marketing, 20, 757763.

  • Holderness, C. C., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Warren, M. P. (1994). Comorbidity of eating disorders and substance abuse review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16, 134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, P. M. & Kenny, P. J. (2010). Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Nature Neuroscience, 13(5), 635641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kane, T. A., Loxton, N. J., Staiger, P. K. & Dawe, S. (2004). Does the tendency to act impulsively underlie binge eating and alcohol use problems? An empirical investigation. Personality andIndividual Differences, 36, 8394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, D.-Y. & Lee, J.-H. (2011). Effects of the BAS and BIS on decision-making in a gambling task. Personality and IndividualDifferences, 50(7), 11311135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. H., Baik, S.-H., Park, C. S., Kim, S. J., Choi, S. W. & Kim, S. E. (2011). Reduced striatal dopamine D2 receptors in people with Internet addiction. Neuroreport, 22(8), 407411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lal, A. & Siahpush, M. (2008). The effect of smoke-free policies on electronic gaming machine expenditure in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62(1), 1115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McIlwraith, R. D. (1998). “I’m addicted to television”: The personality, imagination, and TV watching patterns of self-identified TV addicts. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 42(3), 371386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nesse, R. M. & Berridge, K. C. (1997). Psychoactive drug use in evolutionary perspective. Science, 278(5335), 6366.

  • Passamonti, L., Rowe, J. B., Schwarzbauer, C., Ewbank, M. P., von dem Hagen, E. & Calder, A. J. (2009). Personality predicts the brain’s response to viewing appetizing foods: The neural basis of a risk factor for overeating. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(1), 4351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Penolazzi, B., Natale, V., Leone, L. & Russo, P. M. (2012). Individual differences affecting caffeine intake. Analysis of consumption behaviours for different times of day and caffeine sources. Appetite, 58, 971977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pentz, M. A., Spruijt-Metz, D., Chou, C. P. & Riggs, N. R. (2011). High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior. International Journal of Environmental Research and PublicHealth, 8, 44064424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petry, N. M. (2001). Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 63, 2938.

  • R Development Core Team. (2010). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from http://www.R-project.org

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rockloff, M. J. (2011). Validation of the Consumption Screen for Problem Gambling (CSPG). Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 207216.

  • Rozin, P. & Stoess, C. (1993). Is there a general tendency to become addicted? Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 8187.

  • Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A. & King, J. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of EducationalResearch, 99(6), 323338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Small, D. M., Zatorre, R. J., Dagher, A., Evans, A. C. & Jones-Gotman, M. (2001). Changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate from pleasure to aversion. Brain, 124(9), 17201733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sussman, S., Lisha, N. & Griffiths, M. (2010). Prevalence of the addictions: A problem of the majority or the minority? Evaluation& the Health Professions, 34, 356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinbergen, N. & Perdeck, A. C. (1950). On the stimulus situation releasing the begging response in the newly hatched herring gull chick (Larus argentatus argentatus Pont.). Behaviour, 139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Villella, C., Martinotti, G., Di Nicola, M., Cassano, M., La Torre, G., Gliubizzi, M. D., Messeri, I., Petrucelli, F., Bria, P., Janiri, L. & Conte, G (2011). Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: Results from a prevalence study. Journal ofGambling Studies, 27(2), 203214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, G.-J., Volkow, N. D., Telang, F., Jayne, M., Ma, J., Rao, M., Zhu, W., Wong, C. T., Pappa, N. R., Geliebter, A. & Fowler, J. S. (2004). Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain. NeuroImage, 21(4), 17901797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., Obici, S., Morgan, K., Barzilai, N., Feng, Z. & Rossetti, L. (2001). Overfeeding rapidly induces leptin and insulin resistance. Diabetes, 50(12), 27862791.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weed, N. C., Butcher, J. N., McKenna, T. & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (1992). New measures for assessing alcohol and drug abuse With the MMPI-2: The APS and AAS. Journal of PersonalityAssessment, 58(2), 389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegener, D. T. & Fabrigar, L. R. (2008). Analysis and design for non-experimental data: Addressing causal and non-causal hypotheses. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of researchmethods in social and personality psychology (pp.412450). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamato, T., Yamasaki, S., Misumi, Y., Kino, M., Obata, T. & Aomine, M. (2002). Modulation of the stress response by coffee: an in vivo microdialysis study of hippocampal serotonin and dopamine levels in rat. Neuroscience Letters, 332(2), 8790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeinali, A. & Vahdat, R. (2011). Construction and validation of the Addiction Susceptibility Questionnaire (ASQ). Procedia — Socialand Behavioral Sciences, 30, 17421747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science [Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch®)
  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
  • Social Sciences Citation Index®
  • Journal Citation Reports/ Social Sciences Edition
  • Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • EBSCO
  • GoogleScholar
  • PsychInfo
  • PubMed Central
  • SCOPUS
  • Medline
  • CABI
2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
sumbission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 850 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 10
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • H. N. Alexander LOGEMANN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Attila SZABÓ (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Róbert URBÁN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Beáta BÖTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

 

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
May 2021 0 5 5
Jun 2021 0 6 6
Jul 2021 0 1 0
Aug 2021 0 3 0
Sep 2021 0 8 1
Oct 2021 0 9 6
Nov 2021 0 0 0