Authors:
Amitai Abramovitch Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, USA

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Dean McKay Fordham University, Bronx, New York, USA

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Background

Grassi et al. (2015) collected data to examine impulsivity in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to nonpsychiatric controls. Their aim was to examine whether OCD may be fully captured by the behavioral addiction model, using the prototypical mechanism underlying drug addiction as their framework. Based on their findings, Grassi et al. concluded that OCD shares behavioral components with addictions, particularly behavioral impulsivity and risky decision making. Furthermore, the authors suggested that this model may be superior to the prevailing psychological model of OCD.

Findings

We argue that based on the nature of their data as well as the current dominant conceptualization of OCD in the literature, this conclusion is untenable. The authors inferred behavioral impulsivity, whereas their main finding was concerning cognitive impulsivity or difficulties in planning. Such items on the Barratt impulsiveness scale have been shown in other research to overpredict behavioral impulsive tendencies in OCD, where the nature of the condition involves doubting of action and a conservative estimate of how one’s cognitions may impact behavior.

Conclusions

We conclude that similar to drug addiction, compulsive rituals in OCD may be governed by a negative reinforcement mechanism; the available data indicate that OCD does not share the two main components seen in addiction, namely, behavioral impulsivity and risky decision making.

Abstract

Background

Grassi et al. (2015) collected data to examine impulsivity in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to nonpsychiatric controls. Their aim was to examine whether OCD may be fully captured by the behavioral addiction model, using the prototypical mechanism underlying drug addiction as their framework. Based on their findings, Grassi et al. concluded that OCD shares behavioral components with addictions, particularly behavioral impulsivity and risky decision making. Furthermore, the authors suggested that this model may be superior to the prevailing psychological model of OCD.

Findings

We argue that based on the nature of their data as well as the current dominant conceptualization of OCD in the literature, this conclusion is untenable. The authors inferred behavioral impulsivity, whereas their main finding was concerning cognitive impulsivity or difficulties in planning. Such items on the Barratt impulsiveness scale have been shown in other research to overpredict behavioral impulsive tendencies in OCD, where the nature of the condition involves doubting of action and a conservative estimate of how one’s cognitions may impact behavior.

Conclusions

We conclude that similar to drug addiction, compulsive rituals in OCD may be governed by a negative reinforcement mechanism; the available data indicate that OCD does not share the two main components seen in addiction, namely, behavioral impulsivity and risky decision making.

In their recent article, Grassi et al. (2015) compared 38 individuals diagnosed with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with 39 nonpsychiatric control participants, on two tasks of decision making, and the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). The authors found significantly higher scores in the OCD group, on two out of three BIS-11 scores, and on the total score, and concluded that “OCD patients are more impulsive than controls and demonstrate risky decision making…,” arguing that these results suggest that OCD may share core behavioral component associated with addiction, and thus behavioral addiction. We submit that in light of the results reported by the authors and the available literature, these conclusions cannot be drawn.

First, the authors present evidence supporting their rationale by noting that “several clinical studies suggest that impulsivity may be a feature of OCD” (Grassi et al., 2015, p. 263), referencing two studies (Benatti, Dell’Osso, Arici, Hollander, & Altamura, 2014; Ettelt et al., 2007). However, these studies found elevated scores within the OCD samples only on the BIS-11 “cognitive impulsivity” scale that taps difficulties in regulating thoughts and managing distractions (e.g., “I often have extraneous thoughts when thinking,” “I do not pay attention”). No group differences were found in these studies on motor impulsivity (e.g., “I do things without thinking,” “I act on impulse”) and nonplanning impulsivity (e.g., “I plan trips well ahead of time,” “I plan for job security”). The BIS-11 “motor impulsivity” factor is the only factor that corresponds to the classic definition of impulsive behavior as “actions that appear poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation and that often result in undesirable consequences” (Daruna & Barnes, 1993, p. 23). On the other hand, cognitive impulsivity and nonplanning impulsivity do not speak of impulsive disinhibited behaviors, let alone in the context of addiction-related sensation seeking and the need for immediate reward.

In fact, a number of studies, not cited in Grassi et al. that utilized the BIS-11, found similar results, namely, that individuals with OCD score higher than controls on the cognitive impulsivity and not on the motor impulsivity factor (Boisseau et al., 2012; Stein, Hollander, Simeon, & Cohen, 1994; Summerfeldt, Hood, Antony, Richter, & Swinson, 2004). Indeed, Summerfeldt et al. (2004) concluded that the higher score on the total BIS-11 is an artifact of higher cognitive impulsivity scores, and that in fact, OCD is associated with risk aversion, inhibited temperament, and heightened tendency for forethought and premeditation. Moreover, studies employing other measures of impulsivity have found individuals with OCD to show either comparable or less impulsivity than controls (Alonso et al., 2008; Bejerot, Schlette, Ekselius, Adolfsson, & von Knorring, 1998; Fullana et al., 2004; Lyoo, Gunderson, & Phillips, 1998; Richter, Summerfeldt, Joffe, & Swinson, 1996; Shoval, Zalsman, Sher, Apter, & Weizman, 2006; Tavares & Gentil, 2007; Wu, Clark, & Watson, 2006). In fact, one of the largest studies to examine impulsivity in OCD (n = 431) compared to controls (n = 151) that utilized the BIS-11 reported significantly higher motor impulsivity among controls compared to OCD, and no difference on the two other factors (Stein et al., 1994). Lack of difference on self-report impulsivity measures was also recently found between high and low OC symptom groups in an analogue sample study (Abramovitch, Shaham, Levin, Bar-Hen, & Schweiger, 2015). Notably, OCD may be associated with biased perception of control over behavior, evidenced by a study documenting no difference in self-reported behavioral impulsivity scores between OCD and control samples, although a significantly higher proportion of “yes” responses to the question “Are you an impulsive person?” was found in the OCD sample (Abramovitch, Dar, Hermesh, & Schweiger, 2012).

In light of the cumulative evidence, the early notion that OCD has been associated with behavioral impulsivity has been largely abandoned. This was primarily due to the work of Hollander (2005), outlining an impulsive–compulsive continuum supported by converging pharmacological, behavioral, and neurobiological findings pertaining to differences between impulsiveness and compulsivity (Hollander, 2005). This conceptualization has been in development for over 20 years (i.e., Hollander, 1993) and has undergone numerous refinements that have largely involved narrowing the group of putative obsessive–compulsive related disorders. In the most recent iteration of this model (Hollander, Braun, & Simeon, 2008), OCD was classified as a core condition marked by a behaviorally inhibited temperament, but at the same time, as a condition that is associated with response inhibition deficiencies, predominantly on the cognitive level. Indeed, characterized by impulsive behavior, sensation seeking, and risk taking, impulse control and addictive disorders were “eliminated” from the class of putative obsessive–compulsive related disorders. This shift is a result of virtually no data supporting the inclusion of addictions as a group of conditions that share any endophenotypes with OCD (i.e., Abramowitz, Storch, McKay, Taylor, & Asmundson, 2009). In short, there is little in the way of supportive data for defining OCD as a condition that shares characteristics with drug addiction given the relative lack of impulsivity and risk taking.

In fact, compulsive rituals are carefully planned, timed and executed, and individuals with OCD can frequently delay performance of rituals (Abramovitch & Cooperman, 2015). This is in contrast to the former belief that performance of repetitive rituals are indicative of a difficulty inhibiting impulsive responses. The vast majority of studies assessing commission errors (a measure of action suppression) in OCD versus controls do not show any differences between OCD and control samples, while studies assessing “stop reaction time,” a measure of response cancellation, support the notion that individuals with OCD may have difficulty stopping a ritual only once it has been started (Abramovitch & Cooperman, 2015). Notably, impulsivity and compulsivity are thought to have orthogonal factors across some conditions (Fineberg et al., 2010), but notwithstanding, there is no evidence to support the presence of behavioral impulsivity in OCD.

Based on their results, Grassi et al. (2015) concluded that the “…behavioral addiction model may be more suitable than the anxiety-avoidance model” for the conceptualization of OCD. The idea of behavioral addiction stems from the notion of non-drug related addictive-like properties of certain behaviors (Holden, 2001). Compulsive gambling may be a contemporary example. However, in the classic addiction models, first instances of drug use are associated with high impulsivity, risk taking, and a tendency to seek immediate positive reward. Later, with repeated use, this behavior becomes compulsive, where the major motivation changes from sensation seeking and positive reward, to negative reinforcement in which drug administration alleviates withdrawal symptoms. We have previously maintained that the behavioral addiction paradigm may be a useful framework in the context of OCD (Abramovitch, Pizzagalli, Reuman, & Wilhelm, 2014). However, this does not suggest that OCD is a disorder that is similar to drug addiction. While risk taking, impulsivity and sensation seeking are not part of the repertoire of OCD, ritualistic behavioral in OCD is a strong example of a behavioral cycle of negative reinforcement. Initially, individuals diagnosed with OCD, in a series of relatively random behavioral events, come upon behaviors that bring relief from the distress that accompanies obsessive thoughts. Theoretically, these behaviors that become associated with relief acquire reinforcing properties due to simple co-occurrence with a natural reduction in anxiety and distress at some point in the trajectory of the emotional disturbance. This reinforced behavior is then adopted and quickly becomes a powerful ritual that negatively reinforces the distress associated with obsessive thoughts. Thus, behavioral addiction may be a useful framework for understanding OCD, but as opposed to addiction, rituals in OCD are associated with negative reinforcement from the onset of the disorder. Impulsive acts intended to bring positive reward seen in addiction are not a part of the strong behavioral addiction mechanism seen in OCD. Furthermore, Grassi et al. conclude that OCD is associated with risky decision making. This conclusion is based on their results showing one out of six outcome measures from the Iowa gambling task that indicated significant difference from controls, and a significant difference found on the Beads task, favoring controls. Both these findings could be easily accounted for by doubting, which is central to OCD. Moreover, it is harm and risk avoidance that is characteristic of OCD rather than risk taking (Abramowitz, Taylor, & McKay, 2009).

In conclusion, the data described by Grassi et al. (2015) permits the conclusion that individuals with OCD are struggling with futile efforts to control intrusive thoughts, are having problems concentrating to allow intact planning and may underperform on decision-making tasks. These results do not permit the conclusion that individuals diagnosed with OCD are behaviorally impulsive.

Authors’ contribution

AA and DM co-authored the present manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest relevant to the present article.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , Dar, R. , Hermesh, H. , & Schweiger, A. (2012). Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive–compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD. Journal of Neuropsychology, 6, 161191. doi:10.1111/j.1748-6653.2011.02021.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , Pizzagalli, D. A. , Reuman, L. , & Wilhelm, S. (2014). Anhedonia in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Beyond comorbid depression. Psychiatry Research, 216, 223229. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , Shaham, N. , Levin, L. , Bar-Hen, M. , & Schweiger, A. (2015). Response inhibition in a subclinical obsessive–compulsive sample. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 46, 6671. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.09.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramowitz, J. S. , Storch, E. A. , McKay, D. , Taylor, S. , & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2009). The obsessive–compulsive spectrum: A critical review. In D. McKay, J. S. Abramowitz, S. Taylor, & G. J. G. Asmundson (Eds.), Current perspectives on anxiety disorders: Implications for DSM-V and beyond (pp. 329352). New York: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramowitz, J. S. , Taylor, S. , & McKay, D. (2009). Obsessive–compulsive disorder. Lancet, 374, 491499. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60240-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alonso, P. , Menchon, J. M. , Jimenez, S. , Segalas, J. , Mataix-Cols, D. , Jaurrieta, N. , Labad, J. , Vallejo, J. , Cardoner, N. , & Pujol, J. (2008). Personality dimensions in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Relation to clinical variables. Psychiatry Research, 157, 159168. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.06.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bejerot, S. , Schlette, P. , Ekselius, L. , Adolfsson, R. , & von Knorring, L. (1998). Personality disorders and relationship to personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98, 243249. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb10075.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benatti, B. , Dell’Osso, B. , Arici, C. , Hollander, E. , & Altamura, A. C. (2014). Characterizing impulsivity profile in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 18, 156160. doi:10.3109/13651501.2013.855792

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boisseau, C. L. , Thompson-Brenner, H. , Caldwell-Harris, C. , Pratt, E. , Farchione, T. , & Barlow, D. H. (2012). Behavioral and cognitive impulsivity in obsessive–compulsive disorder and eating disorders. Psychiatry Research, 200, 10621066. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.06.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daruna, J. H. , & Barnes, P. A. (1993). The impulsive client: Theory, research and treatment. In W. G. McCown, J. L. Johnson, & M. B. Shure (Eds.), A neurodevelopmental view of impulsivity. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fineberg, N. A. , Potenza, M. N. , Chamberlain, S. R. , Berlin, H. A. , Menzies, L. , Bechara, A. , Sahakian, B. J. , Robbins, T. W. , Bullmore, E. T. , & Hollander, E. (2010). Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: A narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 591604. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.185

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fullana, M. A. , Mataix-Cols, D. , Caseras, X. , Alonso, P. , Manuel, M. J. , Vallejo, J. , & Torrubia, R. (2004). High sensitivity to punishment and low impulsivity in obsessive–compulsive patients with hoarding symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 129, 2127. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.02.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grassi, G. , Pallanti, S. , Righi, L. , Figee, M. , Mantione, M. , Denys, D. , Piccagliani, D. , Rossi, A. , & Stratta, P. (2015). Think twice: Impulsivity and decision making in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 263272. doi:10.1556/2006.4.2015.039

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holden, C. (2001). ‘Behavioral’ addictions: Do they exist? Science, 294, 980982. doi:10.1126/science.294.5544.980

  • Hollander, E. (1993). Obsessive–compulsive related disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

  • Hollander, E. (2005). Obsessive–compulsive disorder and spectrum across the life span. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 9, 7986. doi:10.1080/13651500510018347

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollander, E. , Braun, A. , & Simeon, D. (2008). Should OCD leave the anxiety disorders in DSM-V? The case for obsessive–compulsive related disorders. Depression & Anxiety, 25, 317329. doi:10.1002/da.20500

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyoo, K. , Gunderson, J. G. , & Phillips, K. A. (1998). Personality dimensions associated with depressive personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 4655. doi:10.1521/pedi.1998.12.1.46

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richter, M. A. , Summerfeldt, L. J. , Joffe, R. T. , & Swinson, R. P. (1996). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 65, 185188. doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(96)02944-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shoval, G. , Zalsman, G. , Sher, L. , Apter, A. , & Weizman, A. (2006). Clinical characteristics of inpatient adolescents with severe obsessive–compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 6270. doi:10.1002/da.20135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, D. J. , Hollander, E. , Simeon, D. , & Cohen, L. (1994). Impulsivity scores in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 240241. doi:10.1097/00005053-199404000-00009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Summerfeldt, L. J. , Hood, K. , Antony, M. M. , Richter, M. A. , & Swinson, R. P. (2004). Impulsivity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Comparisons with other anxiety disorders and within tic-related subgroups. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 539553. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00113-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tavares, H. , & Gentil, V. (2007). Pathological gambling and obsessive–compulsive disorder: Towards a spectrum of disorders of volition. Revista Brasileira Psiquiatria, 29, 107117. doi:10.1590/S1516-44462007000200005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, K. D. , Clark, L. A. , & Watson, D. (2006). Relations between obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality: Beyond axis I–axis II comorbidity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 695717. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.11.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , & Cooperman, A. (2015). The cognitive neuropsychology of obsessive–compulsive disorder: A critical review. Journal of Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders, 5, 2436. doi:10.1016/j.jocrd.2015.01.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , Dar, R. , Hermesh, H. , & Schweiger, A. (2012). Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive–compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD. Journal of Neuropsychology, 6, 161191. doi:10.1111/j.1748-6653.2011.02021.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , Pizzagalli, D. A. , Reuman, L. , & Wilhelm, S. (2014). Anhedonia in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Beyond comorbid depression. Psychiatry Research, 216, 223229. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramovitch, A. , Shaham, N. , Levin, L. , Bar-Hen, M. , & Schweiger, A. (2015). Response inhibition in a subclinical obsessive–compulsive sample. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 46, 6671. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.09.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramowitz, J. S. , Storch, E. A. , McKay, D. , Taylor, S. , & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2009). The obsessive–compulsive spectrum: A critical review. In D. McKay, J. S. Abramowitz, S. Taylor, & G. J. G. Asmundson (Eds.), Current perspectives on anxiety disorders: Implications for DSM-V and beyond (pp. 329352). New York: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abramowitz, J. S. , Taylor, S. , & McKay, D. (2009). Obsessive–compulsive disorder. Lancet, 374, 491499. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60240-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alonso, P. , Menchon, J. M. , Jimenez, S. , Segalas, J. , Mataix-Cols, D. , Jaurrieta, N. , Labad, J. , Vallejo, J. , Cardoner, N. , & Pujol, J. (2008). Personality dimensions in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Relation to clinical variables. Psychiatry Research, 157, 159168. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.06.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bejerot, S. , Schlette, P. , Ekselius, L. , Adolfsson, R. , & von Knorring, L. (1998). Personality disorders and relationship to personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98, 243249. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb10075.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benatti, B. , Dell’Osso, B. , Arici, C. , Hollander, E. , & Altamura, A. C. (2014). Characterizing impulsivity profile in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 18, 156160. doi:10.3109/13651501.2013.855792

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boisseau, C. L. , Thompson-Brenner, H. , Caldwell-Harris, C. , Pratt, E. , Farchione, T. , & Barlow, D. H. (2012). Behavioral and cognitive impulsivity in obsessive–compulsive disorder and eating disorders. Psychiatry Research, 200, 10621066. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.06.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daruna, J. H. , & Barnes, P. A. (1993). The impulsive client: Theory, research and treatment. In W. G. McCown, J. L. Johnson, & M. B. Shure (Eds.), A neurodevelopmental view of impulsivity. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ettelt, S. , Ruhrmann, S. , Barnow, S. , Buthz, F. , Hochrein, A. , Meyer, K. , Kraft, S. , Reck, C. , Pukrop, R. , Klosterkötter, J. , Falkai, P. , Maier, W. , Wagner, M. , Freyberger, H. J. , & Grabe, H. J. (2007). Impulsiveness in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Results from a family study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115, 4147. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00835.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fineberg, N. A. , Potenza, M. N. , Chamberlain, S. R. , Berlin, H. A. , Menzies, L. , Bechara, A. , Sahakian, B. J. , Robbins, T. W. , Bullmore, E. T. , & Hollander, E. (2010). Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: A narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 591604. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.185

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fullana, M. A. , Mataix-Cols, D. , Caseras, X. , Alonso, P. , Manuel, M. J. , Vallejo, J. , & Torrubia, R. (2004). High sensitivity to punishment and low impulsivity in obsessive–compulsive patients with hoarding symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 129, 2127. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.02.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grassi, G. , Pallanti, S. , Righi, L. , Figee, M. , Mantione, M. , Denys, D. , Piccagliani, D. , Rossi, A. , & Stratta, P. (2015). Think twice: Impulsivity and decision making in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 263272. doi:10.1556/2006.4.2015.039

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holden, C. (2001). ‘Behavioral’ addictions: Do they exist? Science, 294, 980982. doi:10.1126/science.294.5544.980

  • Hollander, E. (1993). Obsessive–compulsive related disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

  • Hollander, E. (2005). Obsessive–compulsive disorder and spectrum across the life span. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 9, 7986. doi:10.1080/13651500510018347

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollander, E. , Braun, A. , & Simeon, D. (2008). Should OCD leave the anxiety disorders in DSM-V? The case for obsessive–compulsive related disorders. Depression & Anxiety, 25, 317329. doi:10.1002/da.20500

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyoo, K. , Gunderson, J. G. , & Phillips, K. A. (1998). Personality dimensions associated with depressive personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 4655. doi:10.1521/pedi.1998.12.1.46

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richter, M. A. , Summerfeldt, L. J. , Joffe, R. T. , & Swinson, R. P. (1996). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 65, 185188. doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(96)02944-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shoval, G. , Zalsman, G. , Sher, L. , Apter, A. , & Weizman, A. (2006). Clinical characteristics of inpatient adolescents with severe obsessive–compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 6270. doi:10.1002/da.20135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, D. J. , Hollander, E. , Simeon, D. , & Cohen, L. (1994). Impulsivity scores in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 240241. doi:10.1097/00005053-199404000-00009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Summerfeldt, L. J. , Hood, K. , Antony, M. M. , Richter, M. A. , & Swinson, R. P. (2004). Impulsivity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Comparisons with other anxiety disorders and within tic-related subgroups. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 539553. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00113-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tavares, H. , & Gentil, V. (2007). Pathological gambling and obsessive–compulsive disorder: Towards a spectrum of disorders of volition. Revista Brasileira Psiquiatria, 29, 107117. doi:10.1590/S1516-44462007000200005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, K. D. , Clark, L. A. , & Watson, D. (2006). Relations between obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality: Beyond axis I–axis II comorbidity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 695717. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.11.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
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E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5713
Journal Impact Factor 7.8
Rank by Impact Factor

Psychiatry (SCIE) 18/155
Psychiatry (SSCI) 13/144

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7.2
5 Year
Impact Factor
8.9
Journal Citation Indicator 1.42
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 35/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
69
Scimago
Journal Rank
1.918
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology Q1
Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11.1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 10/292 (96th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 30/531 (94th PCTL)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 25/309 (92th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.966

 

 
2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 990 EUR/article for articles submitted after 30 April 2023 (850 EUR for articles submitted prior to this date)
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%.
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Stephanie ANTONS (Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Ruth J. van HOLST (Amsterdam UMC, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Gyöngyi KÖKÖNYEI (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)

Editorial Board

  • Sophia ACHAB (Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (St Andrews University, United Kingdom)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Maria BELLRINGER (Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Damien BREVERS (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Julius BURKAUSKAS (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Silvia CASALE (University of Florence, Florence, Italy)
  • Luke CLARK (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Geert DOM (University of Antwerp, Belgium)
  • Nicki DOWLING (Deakin University, Geelong, Australia)
  • Hamed EKHTIARI (University of Minnesota, United States)
  • Jon ELHAI (University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA)
  • Ana ESTEVEZ (University of Deusto, Spain)
  • Fernando FERNANDEZ-ARANDA (Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Sally GAINSBURY (The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia)
  • Belle GAVRIEL-FRIED (The Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Israel)
  • Biljana GJONESKA (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Republic of North Macedonia)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Joshua GRUBBS (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Zsolt HORVÁTH (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Susana JIMÉNEZ-MURCIA (Clinical Psychology Unit, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Chih-Hung KO (Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan)
  • Shane KRAUS (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Bernadette KUN (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Katerina LUKAVSKA (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Gemma MESTRE-BACH (Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, La Rioja, Spain)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Ståle PALLESEN (University of Bergen, Norway)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Michael SCHAUB (University of Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Hermano TAVARES (Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)
  • Anise WU (University of Macau, Macao, China)

 

Monthly Content Usage

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Dec 2023 0 101 50
Jan 2024 0 122 46
Feb 2024 0 84 43
Mar 2024 0 108 63
Apr 2024 0 92 57
May 2024 0 74 42
Jun 2024 0 0 0