Authors:
Giovanni Martinotti Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy
Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology, Clinical Science, University of Hertfordshire, Herts, UK

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Eleonora Chillemi SRP “Villa Maria Pia”, Rome, Italy

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Matteo Lupi Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy

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Luisa De Risio Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A.Gemelli”, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy

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Mauro Pettorruso Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy

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Massimo Di Giannantonio Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy

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Introduction

Gambling disorder (GD) is a major public health concern with currently no validated and efficacious treatments approved. In this single case study, we report the short- and long-term effect of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on craving and impulse control in a subject with GD.

Methods

The patient is a 26-year-old Caucasian male with an 8-year history of GD as well as alcohol and cocaine misuse. Treatment consisted of twice-a-day stimulation for 10 days. According to the literature, both the left (to control craving) and the right (to control emotional impulses) DLPFC were stimulated. Patients subsequently received tDCS once a week for 3 months and then once every 2 weeks for another 3 months.

Results

After 10 days of treatment, the subject reported improved psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, and impulsivity), as well as reduced gambling craving symptom severity. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, the clinical picture further improved.

Discussion

This is the first report of tDCS effectiveness in a single case study of GD. Therapeutic effects, both on the addictive behavior and on psychiatric comorbid symptomatology, were lasting and continued over 6 months of tDCS maintenance treatment. Future case–control studies are required to test the efficacy of this tool in patients with GD.

Abstract

Introduction

Gambling disorder (GD) is a major public health concern with currently no validated and efficacious treatments approved. In this single case study, we report the short- and long-term effect of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on craving and impulse control in a subject with GD.

Methods

The patient is a 26-year-old Caucasian male with an 8-year history of GD as well as alcohol and cocaine misuse. Treatment consisted of twice-a-day stimulation for 10 days. According to the literature, both the left (to control craving) and the right (to control emotional impulses) DLPFC were stimulated. Patients subsequently received tDCS once a week for 3 months and then once every 2 weeks for another 3 months.

Results

After 10 days of treatment, the subject reported improved psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, and impulsivity), as well as reduced gambling craving symptom severity. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, the clinical picture further improved.

Discussion

This is the first report of tDCS effectiveness in a single case study of GD. Therapeutic effects, both on the addictive behavior and on psychiatric comorbid symptomatology, were lasting and continued over 6 months of tDCS maintenance treatment. Future case–control studies are required to test the efficacy of this tool in patients with GD.

Introduction

Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior. The latest fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Mental disorders (DSM-5) reconsiders GD as a behavioral addiction (BA), and includes it in the diagnostic category of Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. This follows from recent findings suggesting that pathophysiological models for substance-use disorders (SUDs) may be relevant to GD as well. Indeed, disturbances in brain reward system function provide a common substrate that drives compulsivity in GD and other addictive disorders (Leeman & Potenza, 2012; Pettorruso, Martinotti, et al., 2014). Brain reward circuitry involves the dopaminergic system, including the mesolimbic pathway, which projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, and the mesocortical pathway, which projects from the VTA to the prefrontal cortex (PFC; Koob & Volkow, 2016; Pettorruso, De Risio, et al., 2014). The latter, particularly the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), plays a critical role in the addictive cycle, comprising reinforcement learning, craving, and inhibitory control. Importantly, preclinical and neuroimaging studies have shown that loss of inhibitory control, resulting from damage to the PFC, is crucial in addictive behaviors (Balodis et al., 2012; Moccia et al., 2017).

Although GD is a major public health concern, associated with high relapse rates and significant disability, there are currently no validated and efficacious treatments approved by the Food and Drug Administration (Lupi et al., 2014). Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored in the field of SUDs and BAs (Lupi et al., 2017; Sauvaget et al., 2015). The few studies that have been conducted suggest a possible role in craving reduction, especially following stimulation of the DLPFC (Lupi et al., 2017; Tortella et al., 2015). Specifically, the left DLPFC seems to modulate craving (Hayashi, Ko, Strafella, & Dagher, 2013), whereas the right DLPFC regulates inhibitory control of emotional impulses (Pripfl, Neumann, Köhler, & Lamm, 2013). Therefore, we hypothesized that bilateral DLPFC tDCS would reduce gambling craving and behavior in a subject with GD.

Clinical Case Management

The patient is a 26-year-old Caucasian male with an 8-year history of GD as well as alcohol and cocaine misuse. His gambling activities initially involved sports betting, with long-term/delayed reward. He then turned to online gaming (mainly online poker), with a daily activity of more than 4 hr and daily expenses up to 1,000 Euros. He lived with his partner and his 2-year-old child. His relationship failed as a result of considerable debts related to his gambling activities.

The patient was assessed by a trained psychiatrist (GM, first author), to evaluate comorbid DSM-5 diagnoses. From a clinical viewpoint, he exhibited cyclothymic, anxious, and borderline personality traits, with mild, rapid mood swings (subthreshold for a diagnosis of a mood disorder), exacerbated by alcohol and cocaine use. He displayed high levels of impulsivity and aggressiveness. No psychotic features were present. He reported frequent insomnia, worsened during periods of intense gambling and cocaine abuse. He had previously undergone both psychopharmacological (300 mg/die bupropion, 60 mg/die duloxetine, 1,000 mg/die valproate, and 300 mg/die quetiapine) and psychotherapeutic treatments, with limited success and frequent gambling relapses. Medication had been prescribed following current guidelines or literature data when guidelines were absent/insufficient (Dell’Osso et al., 2012; Di Nicola et al., 2014; Elias & Kleber, 2017).

The patient received tDCS after down-titration of psychotropic medication, which was discontinued due to poor response. The patient gave written informed consent for the procedure and subsequent case publication.

Stimulation Procedure and Psychometric Assessment

tDCS modulates cortical activity using a continuous weak electric current induced by electrodes placed on the scalp, causing focal, prolonged, and reversible shifts in cortical excitability.

The stimulation procedure that we followed has been previously used for SUDs and emotional dyscontrol (Lupi et al., 2017). Safety guidelines were also followed (Nitsche et al., 2005). tDCS was delivered by a battery-driven constant current stimulation with a maximum output of 5 mA (HDCStim class IIa; Model: HDCelEN-05, Newronika s.r.l., Milano, Italy). The current was transmitted by two 25-cm2 rectangular sponge electrodes placed on the head and kept in place with rubber straps. Treatment consisted of twice-a-day stimulation (1.5 mA) for 10 consecutive days at 1-hr intervals. The first stimulation was applied over the left DLPFC to control craving, whereas the second stimulation was applied over the right DLPFC to control emotional impulses. Both stimulations lasted 20 min each. Positions F3 and F4 of the International 10/20 EEG system were used to localize the left and right DLPFC, according to the Beam F3-System (Beam, Borckardt, Reeves, & George, 2009; Herwig, Satrapi, & Schönfeldt-Lecuona, 2003). During left DLPFC anodal stimulation, the anodal electrode was placed over F3 and the cathodal electrode over F4. During right DLPFC anodal stimulation, the anodal electrode was placed over F4 and the cathodal electrode over F3.

After 10 days of treatment, the patient subsequently received tDCS once a week for 3 months and then once every 2 weeks for another 3 months, following the same procedure (two consecutive stimulations at 1.5 Hz, over the left and right DLPC, respectively).

Patient assessment was performed upon admission, after 10, 100, and 190 days of tDCS.

The following psychometric scales were used:

  1. South Oaks Gambling Screen, to screen for gambling behavior;
  2. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, to assess overall psychopathological burden;
  3. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, to assess depressive symptoms;
  4. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, to assess anxiety symptoms;
  5. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to assess trait impulsivity;
  6. Visual Analogue Scale for Craving – Global Score: 1–10, to assess severity of gambling craving;
  7. Pathological gambling Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, to assess obsessive–compulsive symptoms related to gambling behavior;
  8. Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, to assess gambling symptom severity.

Ethics

The study procedures were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The institutional review board of the University of Chieti approved the study. The subject was informed about the study and provided informed consent.

Results

Table 1 presents scores on psychometric scales at baseline and follow-up visits. After 10 days of treatment, psychiatric symptomatology significantly improved, as did gambling severity and craving levels. Both the patient and his family members reported that gambling behaviors ceased. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, we observed a further improvement on overall psychopathological symptoms as well as continued absence of craving. The patient remained completely abstinent from cocaine and alcohol for the entire study period. Mood swings decreased in frequency and intensity, as measured by the appropriate psychometric scales. No adverse reaction or side effect was observed during the entire study period. The patient reported a positive state of mind right after the tDCS stimulation procedures, characterized by a feeling of relaxation and well-being. He also described a therapeutic effect on sleep, with shortening of sleep onset latency on the days of tDCS stimulation.

Table 1.

Psychometric evaluations at baseline and after 10, 100, and 190 days of tDCS treatment

T1 T2 T3 Δ change (%)
T0 10 days 100 days 190 days (T3–T0)/T0
No. of tDCS applications 20 44 68
SOGS 14
BPRS 45 28 26 26 −42.2
HAM-D 14 11 5 5 −64.3
HAM-A 23 10 8 8 −65.2
BIS-11 72 57 51 55 −23.6
VASc 8 0 0 0 −100.0
PG-YBOCS 16 8 6 6 −62.5
G-SAS 26 10 8 8 −69.2

Note. Δ changes between baseline (T0) and end of treatment (T3) are reported in percentage. SOGS: South Oaks Gambling Screen; BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; HAM-D: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-A: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; BIS-11: Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; VASc: Visual Analogue Scale for Craving – Global Score: 1–10; PG-YBOCS: Pathological gambling Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; G-SAS: Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale.

Discussion

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tDCS effectiveness in GD. We observed a significant impact on gambling craving and behavior after 10 days of right and left DLPFC tDCS. Preclinical and clinical studies have provided strong evidence that compulsivity, impaired self-control, and behavioral inflexibility reflect underlying PFC dysregulation. We hypothesize that bilateral DLPFC modulation prompts a shift back to a precompulsive status, in which higher order executive functions (i.e., decision-making) temper compulsive behavior (Greenwood, Blumberg, & Scheldrup, 2018).

Although two previous studies found that tDCS did not affect gambling task performance or risk propensity in healthy subjects (Boggio et al., 2010; Minati, Campanhã, Critchley, & Boggio, 2012), tDCS is plausibly more effective in GD patients in whom loss of control over the addictive behavior reflects underlying prefrontal dysregulation that sustains dysfunctions in cognitive control, compared to healthy subjects in whom risk propensity may be mediated by different neurobiological substrates (Moccia et al., 2017).

In light of the distinct functions of the right and left DLPFC, we hypothesize that our findings are possibly a result of a synergistic effect exerted by the bilateral stimulation. As observed for other addictive behaviors, a concurrent modulation of craving phenomena (i.e., left DLPFC) and inhibitory control of emotional impulses (i.e., right DLPFC) possibly allowed the drastic cessation of gambling behavior (Hayashi et al., 2013; Lupi, Sepede, Cinosi, Martinotti, & Di Giannantonio, 2018; Pripfl et al., 2013).

Given the overall clinical improvement we observed, it is also possible that tDCS improved comorbid mood and anxiety symptoms, indirectly contributing to cessation of compulsive gambling. Indeed, it is important to consider that tDCS has been increasingly tested for the treatment of other psychiatric disorders, showing particularly promising results for major depression (Fregni et al., 2015; National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015; Nitsche & Paulus, 2011).

The results from the present case suggest that DLPFC tDCS is a safe and promising treatment option for GD worthy of further exploration in large, randomized controlled trials. tDCS shows potential as its probes affected brain circuits in GD, and has the unique therapeutic advantage of directly targeting and remodeling impaired circuits. Future studies should also focus on determining the optimal stimulation target, montage, frequency, magnitude, and address long-term tDCS effects in the clinical setting.

Authors’ contribution

GM directly evaluated the patient, followed him up during all the study period, and wrote the manuscript. EC tested the patient with the psychometric instruments and performed the stimulation procedure. ML developed the tDCS experimental procedure. LDR collaborated in both the evaluation and the writing procedures. MP prepared the literature review and tried to define the rationale of the study. MDG coordinated the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no potential conflict of interest directly relevant to the contents of the manuscript.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beam, W. , Borckardt, J. J. , Reeves, S. T. , & George, M. S. (2009). An efficient and accurate new method for locating the F3 position for prefrontal TMS applications. Brain Stimulation, 2(1), 5054. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2008.09.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boggio, P. S. , Campanhã, C. , Valasek, C. A. , Fecteau, S. , Pascual-Leone, A. , & Fregni, F. (2010). Modulation of decision-making in a gambling task in older adults with transcranial direct current stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 31(3), 593597. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07080.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dell’Osso, B. , Camuri, G. , Dobrea, C. , Buoli, M. , Serati, M. , & Altamura, A. C. (2012). Duloxetine in affective disorders: A naturalistic study on psychiatric and medical comorbidity, use in association and tolerability across different age groups. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 8, 120125. doi:10.2174/1745017901208010120

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Di Nicola, M. , De Risio, L. , Pettorruso, M. , Caselli, G. , De Crescenzo, F. , Swierkosz-Lenart, K. , Martinotti, G. , Camardese, G. , Di Giannantonio, M. , & Janiri, L. (2014). Bipolar disorder and gambling disorder comorbidity: Current evidence and implications for pharmacological treatment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 167, 285298. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.023

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elias, D. , & Kleber, H. D. (2017). Minding the brain: The role of pharmacotherapy in substance-use disorder treatment. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 19, 289297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fregni, F. , Nitsche, M. A. , Loo, C. K. , Brunoni, A. R. , Marangolo, P. , Leite, J. , Carvalho, S. , Bolognini, N. , Caumo, W. , Paik, N. J. , Simis, M. , Ueda, K. , Ekhitari, H. , Luu, P. , Tucker, D. M. , Tyler, W. J. , Brunelin, J. , Datta, A. , Juan, C. H. , Venkatasubramanian, G. , Boggio, P. S. , & Bikson, M. (2015). Regulatory considerations for the clinical and research use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Review and recommendations from an expert panel. Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, 32(1), 2235. doi:10.3109/10601333.2015.980944

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenwood, P. M. , Blumberg, E. J. , & Scheldrup, M. R. (2018). Hypothesis for cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: Externally- and internally-directed cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 86, 226238. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.11.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayashi, T. , Ko, J. H. , Strafella, A. P. , & Dagher, A. (2013). Dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex interactions during self-control of cigarette craving. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(11), 44224427. doi:10.1073/pnas.1212185110

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herwig, U. , Satrapi, P. , & Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C. (2003). Using the international 10-20 EEG system for positioning of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain Topography, 16(2), 9599. doi:10.1023/B:BRAT.0000006333.93597.9d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koob, G. F. , & Volkow, N. D. (2016). Neurobiology of addiction: A neurocircuitry analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(8), 760773. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00104-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leeman, R. F. , & Potenza, M. N. (2012). Similarities and differences between pathological gambling and substance use disorders: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 219(2), 469490. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2550-7

    • PubMed
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  • Lupi, M. , Martinotti, G. , Acciavatti, T. , Pettorruso, M. , Brunetti, M. , Santacroce, R. , Cinosi, E. , Di Lorio, G. , Di Nicola, M. , & Di Giannantonio, M. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in gambling disorder: A qualitative review. Biomed Research International, 2014, 17. doi:10.1155/2014/537306

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  • Lupi, M. , Martinotti, G. , Santacroce, R. , Cinosi, E. , Carlucci, M. , Marini, S. , Acciavatti, T. , & di Giannantonio, M. (2017). Transcranial direct current stimulation in substance use disorders: A systematic review of scientific literature. The Journal of ECT, 33(3), 203209. doi:10.1097/YCT.0000000000000401

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  • Lupi, M. , Sepede, G. , Cinosi, E. , Martinotti, G. , & Di Giannantonio, M. (2018). The efficacy of transcranical direct current stimulation in pregabalin abuse: A case report. The Journal of ECT, 34, e14e15. doi:10.1097/YCT.0000000000000475

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  • Minati, L. , Campanhã, C. , Critchley, H. D. , & Boggio, P. S. (2012). Effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a mixed-gambling risky decision-making task. Cognitive Neuroscience, 3(2), 8088. doi:10.1080/17588928.2011.628382

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  • Moccia, L. , Pettorruso, M. , De Crescenzo, F. , De Risio, L. , di Nuzzo, L. , Martinotti, G. , Bifone, A. , Janiri, L. , & Di Nicola, M. (2017). Neural correlates of cognitive control in gambling disorder: A systematic review of fMRI studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 78, 104116. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.025

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  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for depression. London, UK: NICE. Retrieved November 10, 2015, from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg530

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  • Nitsche, M. A. , & Paulus, W. (2011). Transcranial direct current stimulation – Update 2011. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 29, 463492. doi:10.3233/RNN-2011-0618

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  • Nitsche, M. A. , Seeber, A. , Frommann, K. , Klein, C. C. , Rochford, C. , Nitsche, M. S. , Fricke, K. , Liebetanz, D. , Lang, N. , Antal, A. , Paulus, W. , & Tergau, F. (2005). Modulating parameters of excitability during, and after transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex. The Journal of Physiology, 568(1), 291303. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.092429

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  • Pettorruso, M. , De Risio, L. , Di Nicola, M. , Martinotti, G. , Conte, G. , & Janiri, L. (2014). Allostasis as a conceptual framework linking bipolar disorder and addiction. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 173. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00173

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  • Pettorruso, M. , Martinotti, G. , Fasano, A. , Loria, G. , Di Nicola, M. , De Risio, L. , Ricciardi, L. , Conte, G. , Janiri, L. , & Bentivoglio, A. R. (2014). Anhedonia in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without pathological gambling: A case-control study. Psychiatry Research, 215(2), 448452. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.013

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  • Sauvaget, A. , Trojak, B. , Bulteau, S. , Jiménez-Murcia, S. , Fernández-Aranda, F. , Wolz, I. , Menchón, J. M. , Achab, S. , Vanelle, J. M. , & Grall-Bronnec, M. (2015). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9, 349. doi:10.3389/fnins.2015.00349

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  • Tortella, G. , Casati, R. , Aparicio, L. V. , Mantovani, A. , Senço, N. , D’Urso, G. , Brunelin, J. , Guarienti, F. , Selingardi, P. M. L. , Muszkat, D. , Pereira, B. S. , Valiengo, L. , Moffa, A. H. , Simis, M. , Borrione, L. , & Brunoni, A. R. (2015). Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders. World Journal of Psychiatry, 5(1), 88102. doi:10.5498/wjp.v5.i1.88

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681
E-mail: jba@ppk.elte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

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  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
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  • EBSCO
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  • PubMed Central
  • SCOPUS
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  • CABI
  • CABELLS Journalytics

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5713
Journal Impact Factor 7.8
Rank by Impact Factor

Psychiatry (SCIE) 18/155
Psychiatry (SSCI) 13/144

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7.2
5 Year
Impact Factor
8.9
Journal Citation Indicator 1.42
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 35/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
69
Scimago
Journal Rank
1.918
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology Q1
Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11.1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 10/292 (96th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 30/531 (94th PCTL)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 25/309 (92th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.966

 

 
2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
5223
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
7,130
5 Year
Impact Factor
9,026
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
56
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,951
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
11,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
Scopus
SNIP
2,184

2020  
Total Cites 4024
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
6,756
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Items
Total 74
Articles
Total 12
Reviews
Scimago 47
H-index
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
SNIP  
Days from  38
submission  
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 31%
Rate  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4,346
5 Year
Impact Factor
5,758
Immediacy
Index
0,587
Citable
Items
75
Total
Articles
67
Total
Reviews
8
Cited
Half-Life
3,3
Citing
Half-Life
6,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00597
Article Influence
Score
1,447
% Articles
in
Citable Items
89,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,7294
Average
IF
Percentile
87,923
Scimago
H-index
37
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,767
Scopus
Scite Score
2540/376=6,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,441
Acceptance
Rate
32%

 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 990 EUR/article for articles submitted after 30 April 2023 (850 EUR for articles submitted prior to this date)
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%.
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Stephanie ANTONS (Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Ruth J. van HOLST (Amsterdam UMC, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Gyöngyi KÖKÖNYEI (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Astrid MÜLLER  (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Róbert URBÁN  (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN  (Ariel University, Israel)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

 

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