Author: Ben Sessa 1
View More View Less
  • 1 Imperial College London, England, UK
Restricted access

Treating people with alcohol use disorder has been an important target area for psychedelic research – both in the first studies of the 1950s and during the Psychedelic Renaissance of the last 10 years. To date, most studies have looked at the classical psychedelic drugs as adjuncts to psychotherapy; with attention paid to the psychospiritual aspect of the experience as a central therapeutic process in effecting abstinence from drinking. Psychotherapy assisted with 3,4,-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has never been explored for treating alcohol use disorder. However, MDMA has some unique pharmacological characteristics – particularly its capacity for reducing the fear response and facilitating engagement in therapy around past psychological trauma – that could make it a useful candidate for tackling the core features of alcohol use disorder. This paper briefly describes the burden of alcohol use disorders and the history of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in the field of addictions. It gives the theoretical and experimental justification for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treating people with alcohol use disorder and introduces a forthcoming study from Bristol and London, UK, exploring the role for MDMA in treating a person with this challenging condition.

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anton, R. F., Moak, D. H., & Latham, P. (1995). The obsessive compulsive drinking scale: A self-rated instrument for the quantification of thoughts about alcohol and drinking behavior. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 19(1), 9299. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1995.tb01475.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anton, R. F., O’Malley, S. S., Ciraulo, D. A., Cisler, R. A., Couper, D., Donovan, D. M., Gastfriend, D. R., Hosking, J. D, Johnson, B. A., LoCastro, J. S., Longabaugh, R., Mason, B. J., Mattson, M. E., Miller, W. R., Pettinati, H. M., Randall, C. L., Swift, R., Weiss, R. D., Williams, L. D., Zweben, A., & COMBINE Study Research Group. (2006). Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence: The COMBINE study: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295(17), 20032017. doi:10.1001/jama.295.17.2003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Back-Madruga, C., Boone, K. B., Chang, L., Grob, C. S., Lee, A., Nations, H., & Poland, R. E. (2003). Neuropsychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in recreational users. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17(4), 446459. doi:10.1076/clin.17.4.446.27939

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhattachary, S., & Powell, J. H. (2001). Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or “ecstasy”: Evidence for cognitive impairment. Psychological Medicine, 31(4), 647658. doi:10.1017/S0033291701003828

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogenschutz, M. P., Forcehimes, A. A., Pommy, J. A., Wilcox, C. E., Barbosa, P. C., & Strassman, R. J. (2015). Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(3), 289299. doi:10.1177/0269881114565144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogenschutz, M. P., & Pommy, J. A. (2012). Re-examining the therapeutic potential of classical hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions. Drug Testing and Analysis, 4, 543555.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brady, K. T., Back, S. E., & Coffey, S. F. (2004). Substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(5), 206209. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00309.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822848. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193213. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Murphy, K., Leech, R., Erritzoe, D., Wall, M. B., Ferguson, B., Williams, L. T., Roseman, L., Brugger, S., De Meer, I., Tanner, M., Tyacke, R., Wolff, K., Sethi, A., Bloomfield, M. A., Williams, T. M., Bolstridge, M., Stewart, L., Morgan, C., Newbould, R. D., Feilding, A., Curran, H. V., & Nutt, D. J. (2015). The effects of acutely administered 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spontaneous brain function in healthy volunteers measured with arterial spin labeling and blood oxygen level-dependent resting state functional connectivity. Biological Psychiatry, 78(8), 554562. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.12.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chwelos, N., Blewett, D. B., Smith, C. M., & Hoffer, A. (1959). Use of d-lysergic acid diethylamide in the treatment of alcoholism. Quarterly Journal of Studies of Alcohol, 20, 577590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Degenhardt, L., Bruno, R., & Topp, L. (2010). Is ecstasy a drug of dependence? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 107(1), 110. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.09.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dittrich, A. (1998). The standardized psychometric assessment of altered states of consciousness (ASCS) in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31, 8084. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979351

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doblin, R., Greer, G., Holland, J., Jerome, L., Mithoefer, M. C., & Sessa, B. (2014). A reconsideration and response to Parrott, A.C. (2013) “Human psychobiology of MDMA or ‘Ecstasy’: An overview of 25 years of empirical research”. Human Psychopharmacology, 29(2), 105108. doi:10.1002/hup.2389

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dumont, G. J., Sweep, F. C., van der Steen, R., Hermsen, R., Donders, A. R., Touw, D. J., van Gerven, J. M., Buitelaar, J. K., & Verkes, R. J. (2009). Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration. Social Neuroscience, 4, 359366. doi:10.1080/17470910802649470

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dyck, E. (2008). Psychedelic psychiatry: LSD from clinic to campus. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Finney, J., Moos, R., & Timko, C. (1999). The course of treated and untreated substance use disorder: Remission and resolution, relapse and mortality. In B. S. McCrady & E. E. Epstein (Eds.), Addictions. A comprehensive guidebook (pp. 3049). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flannery, B. A., Volpicelli, J. R., & Pettinati, H. M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(8), 12891295. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1999.tb04349.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., Thimm, B., Rezk, M., Hensen, G., & Daumann, J. (2003). Memory impairment suggests hippocampal dysfunction in abstinent ecstasy users. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 27(5), 819827. doi:10.1016/S0278-5846(03)00114-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greer, G. R., & Tolbert, R. (1986). Subjective reports of the effects of MDMA in a clinical setting. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 18(4), 319327. doi:10.1080/02791072.1986.10472364

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gudelsky, G. A., & Yamamoto, B. K. (2008). Actions of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on cerebral dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 90(2), 198207. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2007.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halpern, J. H. (1996). The use of hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction. Addiction Research & Theory, 4, 177189. doi:10.3109/16066359609010756

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halpern, J. H., Sherwood, A. R., Hudson, J. I., Gruber, S., Kozin, D., & Pope, H. G., Jr.(2004). Residual neurocognitive features of long-term ecstasy users with minimal exposure to other drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 75(2), 135147. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.02.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanson, K. L., & Luciana, M. (2010). Neurocognitive impairments in MDMA and other drug users: MDMA alone may not be a cognitive risk factor. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(4), 337349. doi:10.1080/13803390903042361

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, D. S., Baggott, M., Mendelson, J. H., Mendelson, J. E., & Jones, R. T. (2002). Subjective and hormonal effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in humans. Psychopharmacology, 162(4), 396405. doi:10.1007/s00213-002-1131-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartigan, F. (2000). Bill W.: A biography of alcoholics anonymous cofounder Bill Wilson. New York, NY: St. Martins Press.

  • HM Government. (2012). The government’s alcohol strategy (pp. 132). London, UK: Secretary of State for the Home Department, HM Government.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hysek, C. M., Domes, G., & Liechti, M. E. (2012). MDMA enhances “mind reading” of positive emotions and impairs “mind reading” of negative emotions. Psychopharmacology, 222(2), 293302. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2645-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hysek, C. M., Schmid, Y., Simmler, L. D., Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Eisenegger, C., Preller, K. H., Quednow, B. B., & Liechti, M. E. (2013). MDMA enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 16451652. doi:10.1093/scan/nst161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jerome, L., Schuster, S., & Yazar-Klosinski, B. (2013). Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse? Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 6(1), 5462. doi:10.2174/18744737112059990005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, M. W., Garcia-Romeu, A., Cosimano, M. P., & Griffiths, R. R. (2014). Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(11), 983992. doi:10.1177/0269881114548296

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaelen, M., Barrett, F. S., Roseman, L., Lorenz, R., Family, N., Bolstridge, M., Curran, H. V., Feilding, A., Nutt, D. J., & Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2015). LSD enhances the emotional response to music. Psychopharmacology, 232(19), 36073614. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-4014-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiluk, B. D., Dreifuss, J. A., Weiss, R. D., Morgenstern, J., & Carroll, K. M. (2013). The Short Inventory of Problems – Revised (SIP-R): Psychometric properties within a large, diverse sample of substance use disorder treatment seekers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 307314. doi:10.1037/a0028445

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirkpatrick, M. G., Francis, S. M., Lee, R., de Wit, H., & Jacob, S. (2014). Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 46, 2331. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.04.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krampe, H., Stawicki, S., Wagner, T., Bartels, C., Aust, C., Ruther, E., Poser, W., & Ehrenreich, H. (2006). Follow-up of 180 alcoholic patients for up to 7 years after outpatient treatment: Impact of alcohol deterrents on outcome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(1), 8695. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00013.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krebs, T. S., & Johansen, P. O. (2012). Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(7), 9941002. doi:10.1177/0269881112439253

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krupitsky, E. M., & Grinenko, A. Y. (1997). Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): A review of the results of ten years of research. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 29(2), 165183. doi:10.1080/02791072.1997.10400185

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuypers, K. P., & Ramaekers, J. G. (2007). Acute dose of MDMA (75 mg) impairs spatial memory for location but leaves contextual processing of visuospatial information unaffected. Psychopharmacology, 189(4), 557563. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0321-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavelle, A., Honner, V., & Docherty, J. R. (1999). Investigation of the prejunctional α2-adrenoceptor medicated actions of MDAM in rat atrium and vas deferens. British Journal of Pharmacology, 128(5), 975980. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702875

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, T., & Metzner, R. (1968). Use of psychedelic drugs in prisoner rehabilitation. British Journal of Social Psychiatry, 2, 2751.

  • Liechti, M. E., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2001). Which neuroreceptors mediate the subjective effects of MDMA in humans? A summary of mechanistic studies. Human Psychopharmacology, 16(8), 589598. doi:10.1002/hup.348

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lingford-Hughes, A. R., Welch, S., Peters, L., & Nutt, D. J. (2012). British association of psychopharmacology updated guidelines: Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: Recommendations from BAP. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(7), 899952. doi:10.1177/0269881112444324

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lotsof, H. S. (1995). Ibogaine in the treatment of chemical dependence disorders: Clinical perspectives. MAPS Bulletin, 5(3),1926.

  • Ludwig, A. M., Levine, J., & Stark, L. H. (1970). LSD and alcoholism: A clinical study of treatment efficacy. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacLean, K. A., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 14531461. doi:10.1177/0269881111420188

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, K., Hermann, D., & Heinz, A. (2000). One hundred years of alcoholism: The twentieth century. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 35(1), 1015. doi:10.1093/alcalc/35.1.10

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MAPS. (2016). MDMA Investigators Brochure. Retrieved from https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/mapscontent/research-archive/mdma/MDMA_IB_FINAL_30Mar2016_Linked.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marcus, M. T., & Zgierska, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based therapies for substance use disorders: Part 1 (Editorial). Substance Abuse: Official Publication of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse, 30(4), 263265. doi:10.1080/08897070903250027

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mas, M., Farre, M., de la Torre, R., Roset, P. N., Ortuño, J., Segura, J., & Camí, J. (1999). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine effects and pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 290, 136145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Murphy, J. G., Monahan, C. M., Flood, A. M., & Weathers, F. W. (2010). Unique patterns of substance misuse associated with PTSD, depression, and social phobia. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 6, 94110. doi:10.1080/15504261003701445

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, W. R., Walters, S. T., & Bennett, M. E. (2001). How effective is alcoholism treatment in the United States? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 62(2), 211220. doi:10.15288/jsa.2001.62.211

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, W. R., & Wilbourne, P. L. (2002). Mesa Grande: A methodological analysis of clinical trials of treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction, 97(3), 265277. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00019.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mithoefer, M. C., Wagner, M. T., Mithoefer, A. T., Jerome, L., & Doblin, R. (2011). The safety and efficacy of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: The first randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(4), 439452. doi:10.1177/0269881110378371

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mithoefer, M. C., Wagner, M. T., Mithoefer, A. T., Jerome, L., Martin, S. F., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Michel, Y., Brewerton, T. D., & Doblin, R. (2013). Durability of improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and absence of harmful effects or drug dependency after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy: A prospective long-term follow-up study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(1), 2839. doi:10.1177/0269881112456611

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NICE. (2011). Alcohol-use disorders: Diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. NICE clinical guideline 115. Retrieved from www.nice.org.uk/CG115

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nichols, D. E. (1986). Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic hallucinogens. Identification of a new therapeutic class: Entactogens. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 18(4), 305313. doi:10.1080/02791072.1986.10472362

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oehen, P., Traber, R., Widmer, V., & Schnyder, U. (2013). A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(1), 4052. doi:10.1177/0269881112464827

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pahnke, W. N. (1969). Psychedelic drugs and mystical experience. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 5, 149162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paille, F., & Martini, H. (2014). Nalmefene: A new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 5, 8794. doi:10.2147/SAR.S45666

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parrott, A. C., & Hindmarch, I. (1980). The leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire in psychological investigations: A review. Psychopharmacology, 71(2), 173179. doi:10.1007/BF00434408

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pennebaker, J. W., & Sussman, J. R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and psychosomatic processes. Social Science & Medicine, 26(3), 327332. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(88)90397-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Project MATCH Research Group. (1998). Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH three year drinking outcomes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 13001311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rezvani, A. H., Garges, P. L., Miller, D. B., & Gordon, C. J. (1992). Attenuation of alcohol consumption by MDMA (Ecstasy) in two strains of alcohol-preferring rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 43(1), 103110. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(92)90645-V

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, G., Elston, J., Garside, R., Roome, C, Taylor, R, Younger, P, Zawada, A., & Somerville, M. (2009). The harmful health effects of recreational ecstasy: A systematic review of observational evidence. Health Technology Assessment, 13, 1315. doi:10.3310/hta13050

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rösner, S., Hackl-Herrwerth, A., Leucht , S. , Lehert, P., Vecchi, S., & Soyka, M. (2010). Acamprosate for alcohol dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9, 1220. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004332

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sessa, B. (2016). MDMA and PTSD treatment: “PTSD: From novel pathophysiology to innovative therapeutics”. Neuroscience Letters. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sessa, B., & Johnson, M. (2014). Is there a role for psychedelics in the treatment of drug dependency? British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(1), 13. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.148031

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sessa, B., & Nutt, D. (2015). Making a medicine out of MDMA. British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(1), 46. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.152751

  • Sessa, B., & Nutt, D. J. (2007). MDMA, politics and medical research: Have we thrown the baby out with the bathwater? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 21(8), 787791. doi:10.1177/0269881107084738

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmler, L. D., Rickli, A., Hoener, M. C., & Liechti, M. E. (2014). Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a new series of designer cathinones. Neuropharmacology, 79, 152160. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.11.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sobell, L. C., Agrawal, S., Annis, H. M., Ayala-Velazquez, H., Echeverria, L., Leo, G. I., Rybakowski, J., Sandahl, C., Saunders, B., Thomas, S., & Zióikowski, M. (2001). Cross-cultural evaluation of two drinking related assessment instruments: Alcohol timeline follow back and inventory of drinking situations. Substance Use & Misuse, 36(3), 313331. doi:10.1081/JA-100102628

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soyka, M, & Rösner, S. (2008). Opioid antagonists for pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence: A critical review. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 1, 280291.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stolaroff, M. (2004). The secret chief revealed: Conversations with a pioneer of the underground therapy movement. Sarasota, FL: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sumnall, H. R, Cole, J., & Jerome, L. (2006). The varieties of ecstatic experience: An exploration of the subjective experiences of ecstasy. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(5), 670682. doi:10.1177/0269881106060764

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, G., Lucas, P., Capler, N. R., Tupper, K. W., & Martin, G. (2013). Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: Results from a preliminary observational study in Canada. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 6, 3042.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UKATT Research Team. (2005). Effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems: Findings of the randomised UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT). British Medical Journal, 311, 541544. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7516.544

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verheyden, S. L., Henry, J. A., & Curran, H. V. (2003). Acute, sub-acute and long-term subjective consequences of ‘Ecstasy’ (MDMA) consumption in 430 regular users. Human Psychopharmacology, 18(7), 507517. doi:10.1002/hup.529

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watson, L., & Beck, J. (1991). New age seekers: MDMA as an adjunct to spiritual pursuit. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 23(3), 261270. doi:10.1080/02791072.1991.10471587

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, G. (1940) Alcohol and the nation. London, UK: Nicholson and Watson.

Language: English
Founded in 2016
Publication: Online Only
Publication Programme: 2020: Vol. 4.

 

Editor-in-Chief:

Attila Szabo - University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Associate Editors:

  • Alan K. Davis - The Ohio State University & Johns Hopkins University, USA
  • Zsolt Demetrovics - Eötvös Lóránd University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Ede Frecska, founding Editor-in-Chief - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • David Luke - University of Greenwich, London, UK
  • Dennis J. McKenna- Heffter Research Institute, St. Paul, USA
  • Jeremy Narby - Swiss NGO Nouvelle Planète, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Stephen Szára - Retired from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, USA
  • Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA 

Book Reviews Editor:

Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

Editorial Board

  • Gábor Andrássy - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Tiago Arruda-Sanchez - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Paulo Barbosa - State University of Santa Cruz, Bahia, Brazil
  • Michael Bogenschutz - New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  • Petra Bokor - University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • Jose Bouso - Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • Zoltán Brys - Multidisciplinary Soc. for the Research of Psychedelics, Budapest, Hungary
  • Susana Bustos - California Institute of Integral Studies San Francisco, USA
  • Robin Carhart-Harris - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Valerie Curran - University College London, London, UK
  • Alicia Danforth - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA
  • Rick Doblin - Boston, USA
  • Rafael G. dos Santos - University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Genis Ona Esteve - Rovira i Virgili University, Spain
  • Silvia Fernandez-Campos
  • Andrew Gallimore - University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Neal Goldsmith - private practice, New York, NY, USA
  • Charles Grob - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Stanislav Grof - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Karen Grue - private practice, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Kathleen Harrison
  • Jiri Horacek - Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Lajos Horváth - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Robert Jesse - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Matthew Johnson - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Anita Kazai
  • István Kelemen - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Eli Kolp - Kolp Institute New, Port Richey, FL, USA
  • Stanley Krippner - Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA
  • Evgeny Krupitsky - St. Petersburg State Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Rafael Lancelotta - Innate Path, Lakewood, CO, USA
  • Anja Loizaga-Velder - National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • David Lukoff
  • Luis Luna - Wasiwaska Research Center, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Katherine MacClean - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Deborah Mash - University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
  • Friedericke Meckel - private practice, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Ralph Metzner - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Dale Millard
  • Michael Mithoefer - private practice, Charleston, SC, USA
  • Levente Móró - University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • David Nichols - Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • David Nutt - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Torsten Passie - Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
  • Janis Phelps - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • József Rácz - Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Christian Rätsch - University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Jordi Riba - Sant Pau Institute of Biomedical Research, Barcelona, Spain
  • Sidarta Ribeiro - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
  • William Richards - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Stephen Ross - New York University, New York, NY, USA
  • Brian Rush - University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • Eduardo Schenberg - Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Ben Sessa - Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
  • Lowan H. Stewart - Santa Fe Ketamine Clinic, NM, USA (Medical Director)
  • Rebecca Stone - Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Rick Strassman - University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  • Attila Szabó - University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • Csaba Szummer - Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church, Budapest, Hungary
  • Manuel Torres - Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
  • Luís Fernando Tófoli - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil State
  • Malin Uthaug - Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Julian Vayne - Norwich, UK
  • Nikki Wyrd - Norwich, UK

Attila Szabo
University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Book Review Guidelines are available from HERE

 

 

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION