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  • 1 Department of Philosophy, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA
  • | 2 Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA
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Abstract

Mystical experiences frequently precede decreases in human suffering or increased functioning. Therapies that include the ingestion of psychoactive substances in supportive environments often lead to improvements that correlate with the magnitude of the mystical experiences generated. A close look at these phenomena from a philosophy of science perspective might put empiricists in a quandary. Arguments with critics of the import of these mystical experiences, prohibitionists, or others who are apprehensive about psychedelic-assisted treatments, might prove awkward or difficult given the tacit assertion that the mystical genuinely exists. The assumption might even dampen theorizing in ways that remain outside of theorists' awareness. The predicament might lack the epistemic humility ideal for good science as well. Nevertheless, abandoning the construct of mystical experiences would require ignoring compelling, replicated empirical work. We argue that a version of philosophical fictionalism that draws on research in logic and linguistics can help investigators engage in this discourse without implying a belief in the mystical. Comparable approaches have proven helpful in mathematics and empiricism more broadly. Mystical fictionalism could help theorists view reports of mystical experiences as true even if the mystical fails to be veridical. The approach creates an expressive advantage that could assist researchers and theorists eager to refine our understanding of mystical experiences and improve psychedelic-assisted treatments. Mystical fictionalism might also inspire novel looks at correlates of mystical experiences that might serve as mediators of their effects, potentially generating models with comparable explanatory power that sidestep the need for a fictionalist approach.

Abstract

Mystical experiences frequently precede decreases in human suffering or increased functioning. Therapies that include the ingestion of psychoactive substances in supportive environments often lead to improvements that correlate with the magnitude of the mystical experiences generated. A close look at these phenomena from a philosophy of science perspective might put empiricists in a quandary. Arguments with critics of the import of these mystical experiences, prohibitionists, or others who are apprehensive about psychedelic-assisted treatments, might prove awkward or difficult given the tacit assertion that the mystical genuinely exists. The assumption might even dampen theorizing in ways that remain outside of theorists' awareness. The predicament might lack the epistemic humility ideal for good science as well. Nevertheless, abandoning the construct of mystical experiences would require ignoring compelling, replicated empirical work. We argue that a version of philosophical fictionalism that draws on research in logic and linguistics can help investigators engage in this discourse without implying a belief in the mystical. Comparable approaches have proven helpful in mathematics and empiricism more broadly. Mystical fictionalism could help theorists view reports of mystical experiences as true even if the mystical fails to be veridical. The approach creates an expressive advantage that could assist researchers and theorists eager to refine our understanding of mystical experiences and improve psychedelic-assisted treatments. Mystical fictionalism might also inspire novel looks at correlates of mystical experiences that might serve as mediators of their effects, potentially generating models with comparable explanatory power that sidestep the need for a fictionalist approach.

Those who ingest a classic psychedelic under supportive circumstances report subsequent benefits, especially if their acute reaction inspires them to report a sense of awe, a feeling of unity with others or the universe, a transcendence of time and space, and a sense that the experience defies easy description. (We will address these as mystical experiences and related discussion as “mystical talk”.) Dance, prayer, meditation, hypnosis, moments in nature or near death, and other psychoactive substances create comparable reactions (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992; Earleywine, Ueno, Mian, & Altman, 2021; James, 1902; Ludwig, 1985; Maslow, 1959; Noyes, 1980; Snell & Simmonds, 2015). These mystical experiences are not always joyous or pleasant (Carbonaro et al., 2016; Farmer et al., 2019; Smith, 1964), but generally appear meaningful. They consistently precede positive changes (See Johnson et al., 2019; Luoma, Chwyl, Bathje, Davis, & Lancelotta, 2020). Nevertheless, assertions related to the existence of the mystical can prove cumbersome from a philosophy of science perspective. They can create awkward predicaments during arguments related to debates on their utility for improving psychopathology or optimal functioning (Elsey, 2017). New calls for “high levels of epistemic humility” (Yaden et al., 2021) encourage careful discussions of any links between subjective experience, consciousness, brain function, and human behavior. Mystical talk might benefit from an alternative framing of this discourse.

Few observers can confirm or deny another person's mystical reaction to a psychoactive substance, which raises important questions about their validity. Mystical experiences are difficult to study in controlled empirical research (Barrett & Griffiths, 2017). Raters often confuse those participants who have ingested a psychedelic with those who have received a placebo, and vice versa, depending upon the setting (e.g. Uthaug et al., 2021). Data on the reliability of these reactions are also less than ideal when compared to measures of other drug-induced states (e.g., reactions to alcohol and amphetamine; Earleywine, 1995; Murray, Weafer, & de Wit, 2020; Schuckit, Smith, & Tipp, 1997). Although similar questionnaire items (or detailed measures) tend to covary during assessments of mystical experiences, test-retest data can fall short of psychometric standards. A controlled dose that induces mystical reactions at one time is unlikely to create an identical reaction a second time (see MacLean, Leoutsakos, Johnson, & Griffiths, 2012). This variation in responses has inspired centuries of theorizing about set and setting, for example (Hartogsohn, 2017).

Building a scientific argument around such a subjective idea seems ill-advised. Generally, formal tests of hypotheses require a phenomenon that is clearly falsifiable (Kuhn, 2021; Popper, 2005), or scientists are left with an “anything goes” predicament (Feyerabend, 1993), leaving their arguments difficult to justify. The specifics of appropriate psychedelic-assisted treatment can prove difficult to detail if they must refer to a phenomenon so difficult to confirm (Pilecki, Luoma, Bathje, Rhea, & Narloch, 2021). The experiences themselves frequently appear ineffable (Barrett & Griffiths, 2017; James, 1902; Leary, 1970; Smith, 1964). Requests for funding for psychedelic research can suffer should investigative teams appear to believe what Strassman has called “The psychedelic religion of mystical consciousness” (Richards, 2015; Strassman, 2018). Skeptics emphasize that the mystical component's link to positive effects might even be spurious (Majić, Schmidt, & Gallinat, 2015). In contrast, others assert that these mystical experiences might be essential for therapeutic effects (Yaden & Griffiths, 2020).

These mystical reactions precede improvements in depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, problematic drug consumption, end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and many other troubles (See Johnson, Hendricks, Barrett, & Griffiths, 2019; Luoma et al., 2020). This mysticomimetic approach has gained considerable popularity (Richards, 2015; Strassman, 2018). Mystical experiences statistically mediate the effects of classic psychedelics on human suffering (e.g., Griffiths, Richards, Johnson, McCann, & Jesse, 2008), but discourse about the experiences themselves might require a commitment to an abstraction (mysticism) that does not coincide with naturalistic explanations of the empirical world. We do not doubt the experiences themselves. The distinction between the epistemological and ontological claims about the experience, however, can leave empiricists with considerable work. Previous research emphasizes that the entities perceived during acute effects of psychedelics might not qualify as transcendent, independent phenomena substantiated by empirical work (See Winkleman, 2018). We would like to extend this argument to all aspects of the mystical. Hypotheses about mystical experiences might require erroneous commitments to their existence that neither data nor logic can justify. We assert that even those who do not want to confirm mysticism might still make good use of the idea of mystical experiences. This alternative model of mystical fictionalism could rest on an assertion related to parallels between a model of mystical experiences and an interpretation of fictional discourse.

This fictionalist approach would not assert that these subjective experiences are literally true. Instead, the approach would claim that countenancing these experiences as if they were real creates theoretical advantages that could improve our understanding of psychoactive substances, psychopathology, the brain, and the mind. The approach might help the field to sidestep awkward efforts to draw fine distinctions among facets of the inexplicable. A mystical fictionalism provides an expressive advantage whereby a person who reports on her mystical experience, and the empiricist who describes her report, can say something true, even if the mystical experience itself fails to be veridical. This approach constitutes a benefit that would not require that anyone construe another's report as false and would not require a commitment to the existence of the mystical.

The appeal of this fictionalist approach becomes more evident during considerations of problems associated with what we say and what we appear to believe. Discourse on mystical experiences and general mystical talk has distinct advantages for explaining potential mechanisms underlying psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy's successes, as well as many narratives related to optimal functioning. Asserting that these mystical experiences exist can put theorists on shaky methodological grounds from a philosophy of science perspective (See Yaden et al., 2021). The idea that literally only one person can confirm or deny the existence of the experience defies key assumptions of empiricism (e.g., Popper, 2005). Issues become problematic when researchers distinguish between breakthrough mystical experiences and less dramatic ones, despite empirical support for how those who have a breakthrough mystical experience show more subsequent improvement (e.g., Griffiths et al., 2018.) Discussions of these experiences have a potential danger related to misinterpretation. Researchers might want to avoid appearing to have claimed that these results create novel insights into religious truths or create meaningful support for some new paradigm, especially if critics interpret the paradigm as religious (Richards, 2015; Strassman, 2018). Comparable predicaments arise from the deployment of mathematical discourse that appears to reify abstract objects like numbers when theorists have good reason to doubt their existence (See Armour-Garb, 2011).

The issue can become particularly salient during arguments with those who are apprehensive about the therapeutic use of drugs that create acute changes in subjective state. Critics of psychedelic treatments might find mystical talk aversive. For example, references to meetings with agentic entities who seem autonomous and intelligent (Lutkajtis, 2020) can haunt health professionals given their parallels to symptoms of psychosis. A more standard medical model for pharmacological treatments appears in discussions of antidepressant medications (Cuijpers, 2017; Earleywine & De Leo, 2020). The medications themselves do not create an acute change in subjective state. Proponents claim that these pharmaceuticals improve opportunities for behaviors to generate positive mood and decrease symptoms of the relevant disorder or complaint. Their absence of acute effects theoretically decreases abuse liability, a declared goal consistent with the Controlled Substance Act (see Johnson et al., 2018.)

In contrast, psychedelic-assisted treatments might rely upon a change in subjective state to alter symptoms (Yaden & Griffiths, 2020). What these treatments provide might include emotional breakthroughs, psychological insights, improved cognitive flexibility, or changes in dysfunctional attitudes, but these clearly covary with mystical experiences (See Davis et al., 2021; Earleywine et al., 2021; Johnson et al., 2019). Thus, mystical talk might prove indispensable in attempts to evaluate and refine psychedelic-assisted treatments. But asserting the existence of the mystical might require philosophical commitments that appear erroneous. Confirming another person's mystical experience would prove very difficult in an inter-rater reliability sense, as we detail. Debates about what is and is not mystical have filled many pages. Authors have highlighted relevant psychological factors for over a century (James, 1902). Empirical progress related to the mystical can prove difficult.

Note that a fictionalist approach can help sidestep these problems. Our view is a form of Revolutionary Fictionalism related to Field's (1980) version of mathematical fictionalism. In essence, participants in psychedelic-assisted treatments reflect on what no one else can confirm. They might circle a large number in response to an item on the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire like “Feeling that you experienced something profoundly sacred and holy” (Barrett, Johnson, & Griffiths, 2015; Griffiths, Richards, McCann, & Jesse, 2006). This statement might be unfalsifiable-- a critical problem should we later claim that the experience is also causal in a scientific investigation (Popper, 2005). Many philosophers of science and critics of theism might assert that the statement is patently false. These critics might assert that experiencing something profoundly sacred and holy is impossible because nothing, in fact, is profoundly sacred or holy.

By contrast, a fictionalist reading suggests otherwise. Statements from those who ingested the psychedelic might best be read as “According to my experience, I felt that something profoundly sacred and holy occurred,” which can be straightforwardly true because ‘According to my experience’ is non-factive. To say it's “non-factive” is to say that ‘According to my experience, p’ can be true without ‘p’ being true. This notion of being factive or non-factive is a term from linguistics. In linguistics, a verb is factive provided it assigns the status of an established fact to its object. For example, linguists and logicians standardly assume that ‘know’ is a factive verb because if ‘Sam knows that p’ is true then ‘p’ must also be true. This expression is true because knowledge implies truth. A verb is said to be non-factive when it is not factive. ‘Believes’ is non-factive. From the fact that ‘Sam believes that she contacted the profound and holy’, it does not follow that Sam did, indeed, contact the profound and holy. Unlike knowledge, belief does not always imply truth.

Within linguistics, an expression like ‘According to F’ (a sentential operator) applies to a whole sentence to form a new, complete sentence. An example of an operator would be the story-prefix operator for the Sherlock Holmes stories, ‘According to the Sherlock Holmes stories.’ When applied to a sentence like ‘Sherlock Holmes is a brilliant detective’, we get the sentence, ‘According to the Sherlock Holmes stories, Sherlock Holmes is a brilliant detective’. This latter sentence is true because the Sherlock Holmes stories describe such a character as brilliant. But ‘According to the Sherlock Holmes stories’ is non-factive because the sentence ‘Sherlock Holmes is a brilliant detective’ is not true because, in fact, there really is no Sherlock Holmes. So, the story-prefix operator, ‘According to the story’ is non-factive.

Lewis (1978) explains how a sentence like ‘Sherlock Holmes is a brilliant detective’ could be true without requiring the existence of a real Sherlock Holmes. The idea, in brief, is that when a speaker sincerely asserts, ‘Sherlock Holmes is a brilliant detective’, what she intends to assert, and what she manages to assert, is that, according to the Sherlock Holmes stories, Sherlock Holmes is a brilliant detective. This sentence is straightforwardly true but does not commit the speaker to the existence of Sherlock Holmes because the story-prefix operator, ‘According to the Sherlock Holmes stories’, is non-factive. In this way, Lewis (1978) was able to explain how speakers can truly report on fictional claims without committing to the existence of any fictional characters.

Field (1980) adopted a version of this view that applies to mathematical statements. Field is a nominalist; he does not believe in the existence of abstract objects. Numerals, when they function as nouns, would refer to abstract objects, assuming that they pick out an object at all. The view that numbers exist outside of space and time as abstract objects is known as Platonism. (Plato purportedly argued for the existence of a realm of abstract objects beyond the realm of the physical within which we all reside.) Nominalists, including Field, reject Platonism. But mathematical discourse is indispensable in the sense that we need to involve mathematics to explain many, many phenomena. This predicament creates a conundrum for nominalists, since they reject the existence of numbers but cannot jettison all mathematical discourse. Field (1980) provided a way to resolve this conundrum that might assist our argument for mystical experiences as well.

Given Field's nominalism, he concluded that standard, arithmetical statements like ‘2+3=5’ or ‘3 is a prime number’ are, strictly speaking, false, since the singular terms that they include, namely, ‘2’, ‘3’ and ‘5’, fail to refer to any objects. That is, no ‘2’ exists in reality. But, Field contended, such statements do not have to be false; we can interpret these arithmetical statements differently. His proposal was to adopt and endorse a fictionalist reading of such statements, one that relies on an aspect of Lewis's (1978) view. According to Field, an assertion of ‘2+3+5’ is, strictly speaking, false. The claim ‘According to the story of mathematics, 2+3=5’ is straightforwardly true because, according to the story of mathematics, this arithmetical statement is correct. The same is true of Field's proposed reading of ‘3 is a prime number’, viz., as ‘According to the story of mathematics, 3 is a prime number’, which is likewise true because of what mathematics dictates. But ‘According to the story of mathematics’ is non-factive, just as ‘According to the Sherlock Holmes stories’ is non-factive. As a result, the truth of the above statements does not imply the truth of either ‘2+3=5’ or ‘3 is a prime number’. To clarify further, Field is proposing that we read the latter statements in terms of the former story-prefix. A comparable set of conclusions would apply to mystical experiences.

Unlike Lewis, Field does not contend that when speakers utter arithmetical statements, they necessarily intend to assert those statements under the story-prefix operator, ‘According to the story of mathematics’. Field's view is prescriptive, rather than being descriptive. He's offering a proposal for how the discourse can be construed, not offering an account of how the discourse actually functions. Field's view became a version of what is now called “philosophical fictionalism.” (See Armour-Garb & Kroon, 2020; Armour-Garb & Woodbridge, 2015). Our proposal is to offer a different version of philosophical fictionalism that is along Field's general lines to explain how mystical experiences might play an important role in psychedelics and psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy without committing speakers to a belief in the existence of the mystical. Although the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (or comparable measures) need not begin with the instructions “According to your experience…” any endorsement of something profound and holy happening essentially relies on the non-factive story-prefix operator. (In fact, instructions for the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire do refer to “your feelings, thoughts, and experiences at the time,” potentially acknowledging this fictionalist approach and avoiding a request from participants to claim a commitment to the mystical (Barret et al., 2015; Griffiths et al., 2006)).

This fictionalist approach offers several advantages, some more obvious than others. Critics of the mysticomimetic model need not assume that any researchers have “gotten religion” (Strassman, 2018) or otherwise lost their commitment to the empirical approach. In contrast, fans of the model need not accuse critics of mysticophobia. Investigators might support a fictionalist view of mystical experiences with the non-factive story-prefix operator. The approach also loosens the commitment to measures of the construct and its correlates. Recent calls to examine how essential the experiences are to improvement show some of this admirable flexibility (Yaden & Griffiths, 2020). The dichotomous nature of breakthrough experience might prove easier to re-examine from this perspective. Discriminant validity between mystical experiences and emotional breakthroughs, psychological insights, cognitive flexibility, and dysfunctional attitudes might also generate a certain cognitive flexibility. Discussions of the mystical as if it was contained within the scope of a non-factive story-prefix operator need not imply a commitment to an unfalsifiable construct, while still providing the advantages related to mystical talk.

This approach can prove especially liberating given how it might dovetail with cognitive-behavioral models that underlie the therapies that enhance outcomes for psychedelic-assisted treatments (e.g., Sloshower et al., 2020; Wilkinson, 2017). These interventions encourage clients to view their own cognitions as hypotheses (at most) rather than truths with a capital “T.” Any cognition can become part of a broader fictionalist view with non-factive story-prefix operators until clients can test them or choose to take them less seriously, potentially decreasing the suffering associated with angst, mood, and the numerous problems that appear to diminish in successful trials of psychedelic-assisted therapies (See Sloshower et al., 2020). Comparable changes in thought appear to mediate antidepressant effects of multiple therapies even in the absence of psychoactives (A-Tjak, Morina, Topper, & Emmelkamp, 2021). Discussions with prohibitionists, mysticophobics, or those who are ill at ease about references to periods of acute change in subjective experience can rely on this approach to present the relevant changes as part of a broader change in thinking. The approach might generate fewer apprehensions, skirt problems familiar from philosophy of science, and help researchers and clinicians fine-tune the application of psychedelic-assisted treatments.

Acknowledgement

Our hearty thanks to Joe Satin Levin, Joseph De Leo, Robyn Banks, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful input on this paper.

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Editor-in-Chief:

Attila Szabo - University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Associate Editors:

  • Per Carlbring - Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Alan K. Davis - The Ohio State University & Johns Hopkins University, USA
  • Zsolt Demetrovics - Eötvös Lóránd University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Ede Frecska, founding Editor-in-Chief - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • David Luke - University of Greenwich, London, UK
  • Dennis J. McKenna- Heffter Research Institute, St. Paul, USA
  • Jeremy Narby - Swiss NGO Nouvelle Planète, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Stephen Szára - Retired from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, USA
  • Enzo Tagliazucchi - Latin American Brain Health Institute, Santiago, Chile, and University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA 

Book Reviews Editor:

Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

Editorial Board

  • Gábor Andrássy - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Tiago Arruda-Sanchez - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Paulo Barbosa - State University of Santa Cruz, Bahia, Brazil
  • Michael Bogenschutz - New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  • Petra Bokor - University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • Jose Bouso - Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • Zoltán Brys - Multidisciplinary Soc. for the Research of Psychedelics, Budapest, Hungary
  • Susana Bustos - California Institute of Integral Studies San Francisco, USA
  • Robin Carhart-Harris - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Valerie Curran - University College London, London, UK
  • Alicia Danforth - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA
  • Rick Doblin - Boston, USA
  • Rafael G. dos Santos - University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Genis Ona Esteve - Rovira i Virgili University, Spain
  • Silvia Fernandez-Campos
  • Zsófia Földvári - Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  • Andrew Gallimore - University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Neal Goldsmith - private practice, New York, NY, USA
  • Charles Grob - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Stanislav Grof - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Karen Grue - private practice, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Jiri Horacek - Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Lajos Horváth - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Robert Jesse - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Matthew Johnson - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • István Kelemen - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Eli Kolp - Kolp Institute New, Port Richey, FL, USA
  • Stanley Krippner - Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA
  • Evgeny Krupitsky - St. Petersburg State Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Rafael Lancelotta - Innate Path, Lakewood, CO, USA
  • Anja Loizaga-Velder - National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Luis Luna - Wasiwaska Research Center, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Katherine MacClean - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Deborah Mash - University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
  • Friedericke Meckel - private practice, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Ralph Metzner - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Michael Mithoefer - private practice, Charleston, SC, USA
  • Levente Móró - University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • David Nichols - Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • David Nutt - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Torsten Passie - Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
  • Janis Phelps - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • József Rácz - Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Christian Rätsch - University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Jordi Riba - Sant Pau Institute of Biomedical Research, Barcelona, Spain
  • Sidarta Ribeiro - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
  • William Richards - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Stephen Ross - New York University, New York, NY, USA
  • Brian Rush - University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • Eduardo Schenberg - Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Ben Sessa - Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
  • Lowan H. Stewart - Santa Fe Ketamine Clinic, NM, USA (Medical Director)
  • Rebecca Stone - Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Rick Strassman - University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  • Attila Szabó - University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • Csaba Szummer - Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church, Budapest, Hungary
  • Manuel Torres - Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
  • Luís Fernando Tófoli - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil State
  • Malin Uthaug - Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Julian Vayne - Norwich, UK
  • Nikki Wyrd - Norwich, UK

Attila Szabo
University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

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Scimago Quartile Score Anthropology (Q3)
Biological Psychiatry (Q4)
Clinical Psychology (Q4)
Health (social science) (Q4)
Pharmacology (medical) (Q4)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q4)
Social Psychology (Q4)
Scopus  
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CIte Score Rank
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2020  
CrossRef Documents 8
WoS Cites 37
WoS H-index 4
Days from submission to acceptance 95
Days from acceptance to publication 75
Acceptance Rate 41%

2019  
WoS
Cites
11
CrossRef
Documents
35
Acceptance
Rate
77%

 

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge none
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2016
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Debreceni Egyetem
Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1.
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
H-1091 Budapest, Hungary Kálvin tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2559-9283 (Online)

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