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Ismael Apud Faculty of Psychology, Universidad de la República Montevideo, Uruguay

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Juan Scuro Faculty of Humanities and Educational Sciences, Universidad de la República Montevideo, Uruguay

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Ignacio Carrera Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay

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Andres Oliveri Faculty of Psychology, Universidad de la República Montevideo, Uruguay

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Abstract

Background

Ayahuasca's psychological and subjective effects were compared in rituals of two neoshamanic groups in Uruguay.

Aims

Compare, describe and analyze psychological effects and subjective experiences of ayahuasca ceremonies in two different groups: a psychospiritual holistic center, and a center specialized in substance use disorder's treatment.

Methods

A mixed qualitative-quantitative study was conducted, using the Hallucinogen Rating Scale for measuring psychological effects, and in-depth interviews for the description of ayahuasca subjective experiences. Data from both techniques were compared, analyzing convergences and differences.

Results

When comparing the two neoshamanic groups, significant differences with a medium-size effect were found in the psychological variables Affect (r = 0.47), Cognition (r = 0.36) and Perception (r = 0.36). The qualitative descriptions of ayahuasca experiences in the group with higher scores in those variables showed more frequent and complex experiences of emotional, cognitive, and perceptive content. Dissimilar results were found when comparing Intensity and Somaesthetic domains, with no significant results in the quantitative part, while in the qualitative part intensity was reported as “soft” in one group, and corporal experiences (e.g., purging effects) were especially manifested.

Conclusions

Stronger subjective experiences and higher psychological effects may be related to differences in the dosage and the setting of the centers. Emotional, cognitive, and perceptive psychological effects of ayahuasca rituals measured by the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, seem to be associated with more frequent and complex subjective experiences in the mentioned domains. Qualitative group differences in corporal alterations and the overall intensity of the experience differed from non-significant results of the quantitative part of the study.

Abstract

Background

Ayahuasca's psychological and subjective effects were compared in rituals of two neoshamanic groups in Uruguay.

Aims

Compare, describe and analyze psychological effects and subjective experiences of ayahuasca ceremonies in two different groups: a psychospiritual holistic center, and a center specialized in substance use disorder's treatment.

Methods

A mixed qualitative-quantitative study was conducted, using the Hallucinogen Rating Scale for measuring psychological effects, and in-depth interviews for the description of ayahuasca subjective experiences. Data from both techniques were compared, analyzing convergences and differences.

Results

When comparing the two neoshamanic groups, significant differences with a medium-size effect were found in the psychological variables Affect (r = 0.47), Cognition (r = 0.36) and Perception (r = 0.36). The qualitative descriptions of ayahuasca experiences in the group with higher scores in those variables showed more frequent and complex experiences of emotional, cognitive, and perceptive content. Dissimilar results were found when comparing Intensity and Somaesthetic domains, with no significant results in the quantitative part, while in the qualitative part intensity was reported as “soft” in one group, and corporal experiences (e.g., purging effects) were especially manifested.

Conclusions

Stronger subjective experiences and higher psychological effects may be related to differences in the dosage and the setting of the centers. Emotional, cognitive, and perceptive psychological effects of ayahuasca rituals measured by the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, seem to be associated with more frequent and complex subjective experiences in the mentioned domains. Qualitative group differences in corporal alterations and the overall intensity of the experience differed from non-significant results of the quantitative part of the study.

Introduction

Ayahuasca is an Amazonian mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi (a rope that contains beta-carbolines), and Psychotria viridis (a bush that contains N,N-dimethyltryptamine, or DMT). It is used in traditional shamanic context, syncretic churches, and neo-shamanic groups (Labate and Jungaberle 2011). From a pharmacological point of view, DMT acts on 5-HT2A receptors, producing a variety of changes in consciousness that may depend on the dose and the mode of administration (Strassman & Qualls, 1994). When ingested orally, DMT is degraded by monoaminoxidase in the digestive system, so beta-carbolines are needed as inhibitors of this degradation (McKenna, Towers, & Abbott, 1984). Ayahuasca produces a variety of subjective effects that include somatic modifications, perceptive effects, cognitive alterations, and mood changes (Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, Urbano, et al., 2001).

Like other psychedelic substances, ayahuasca effects cannot be completely understood without considering the mindset (psychological characteristics of the participant) and setting (cultural context where it is consumed). For example, ayahuasca experiences in the Peruvian shamanic vegetalismo tradition evoke the general cosmology of the Amazon rainforest, where nature is animated by spiritual powers who assume theriomorphic and anthropomorphic forms (Beyer, 2009; Dobkin de Rios, 1973; Luna, 1986). Ayahuasca's experiences are a source of creativity for those cosmologies, but also -and in a feedback loop-, the contents of ayahuasca sessions are strongly influenced by local cosmologies and the ritual's setting.

When vegetalismo is transferred to neoshamanic settings, traditional elements are usually altered or redefined according to western spiritual worldviews, New Age ideas, and psychotherapeutic goals (Apud & Romaní, 2017; Scuro, 2018). This new setting affects the form and content of ayahuasca experiences, inciting other kinds of experiences, different from the traditional context. Qualitative descriptions of western participants' experiences include: i. visions, such as geometrical patterns, landscapes, animals; ii. personal experiences, mostly psychological insights and biographic memories; iii. spiritual/transcendental experiences, for example, sense of connection with nature, encounters with spirits, death-and-rebirth experiences; iv. emotional experiences, such as feelings of love, sadness, guilt, and happiness; v. corporal experiences, such as shakings, nausea, and vomiting (Apud 2015, 2019, 2020; Argento, Capler, Thomas, Lucas, & Tupper, 2019; Fericgla, 2000; Fernández & Fábregas, 2014; Kjellgren, Eriksson, & Norlander, 2009; Loizaga-Velder & Loizaga Pazzi, 2014; Loizaga-Velder & Verres, 2014; Shanon, 2014; Trichter, Klimo, & Krippner, 2009; Thomas, Lucas, Capler, Tupper, & Martin, 2013; Wolff, Ruffell, Netzband, & Passie, 2019).

Ayahuasca effects were also studied in the laboratory setting. For example, Jordi Riba and collaborators used the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), together with subjective qualitative reports, and physiological measures (Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, Urbano, et al., 2001, 2002, 2006). Their results showed: i. a dose-dependent intensification of ayahuasca effects for the scales of the HRS (with the exception of Volition); ii. verbal reports of the volunteers that included somatic modifications (e.g. bodily sensations, increased skin sensitivity, physical comfort, burning sensations in the stomach, changes in body temperature sensation and skin sensitivity, mild nausea, paresthesia), perceptive effects (visual and auditory distortions of objects and sounds, elaborate visions with eyes closed, visual and auditory synesthesia), cognitive alterations (altered sense of time, modifications of thoughts), and mood changes (happiness, excitation, anxiety, fear, happiness, awe, sadness, amazement). Similar results with the HRS were reported in later studies (Barbanoj et al., 2008; Dos Santos et al., 2012; dos Santos et al., 2011; Pasquini, Palhano-Fontes, & Araujo, 2020).

Quantitative studies like those of Riba and collaborators are usually conducted in the setting of a laboratory, which assure certain control in potential confounding variables, but with a loss of ecological validity. Besides, the artificial setting of a laboratory excludes the possibility of a comparative study between different naturally occurring ritual settings. Last, subjective experiences reported in these studies are usually analyzed under an anecdotic approach. On the contrary, qualitative studies mentioned earlier give us thorough descriptions of subjective experiences that occurs within the natural social setting of ayahuasca rituals. These studies usually analyze the influence of the cultural setting on the subjective experiences of the participants. But qualitative research does not allow to statistically test this relation. To accomplish this, instruments that measure psychological acute effects of psychedelics are needed.

The current article presents a mixed qualitative-quantitative study that tries to overcome the gaps mentioned for both qualitative and quantitative studies. For this, we compared two groups that use ayahuasca in a vegetalismo neoshamanic naturally occurring setting. We used the HRS to measure psychedelic acute effects, and in-depth interviews to collect qualitative narratives of ayahuasca experiences. The qualitative data was analyzed with a combined concept-driven and data-driven approach, using both HRS constructs and emerging categories. This analysis allowed us to compare qualitative and quantitative data, without subsuming one approach to the other.

Method

The current report presents preliminary results from a major research project titled “Ayahuasca in Uruguay: ethnographic, psychological, and pharmacological characterization of its ritual use.” The main project is an interdisciplinary study conducted in Uruguay that includes: the first chemical analysis of samples of ayahuasca in the country, the qualitative analysis of biographic narratives of participants and their subjective experiences during natural occurring religious rituals, and the quantitative study of ayahuasca psychological acute and long term effects, using psychometric scales. In this article we address the acute effects of the brew, using the HRS and in-depth interviews. This report aims to compare, describe and compare the psychological and subjective effect of ayahuasca ceremonies in two neoshamanic groups from Montevideo, Uruguay, using a mixed qualitative-quantitative design.

Protocol

The data collection of Group 1 was conducted in the years 2011–2012 and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Psychology at the Universidad de la República. Group 2 was studied in 2019–2020, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Faculty of Humanities and Educational Sciences, at the Universidad de la República. The two groups are influenced by the Peruvian vegetalismo tradition mentioned earlier. Ayahuasca ceremonies were performed at night, and both directors followed the general Peruvian design, with some neoshamanic additions (e.g., use of modern songs from Uruguay and Latin America). The ceremonies lasted approximately six hours, and afterward, participants stayed in the same room to sleep. The next morning, an integration activity took place, where participants shared and discussed their experiences. After the integration activity, researchers gave the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS) to the participants, asking them to fill it between 24 and 48 h after the ceremony. A week later, in-depth interviews were administered to the participants.

Sample 1

Group 1 was a psychospiritual holistic center, influenced by vegetalismo tradition. The sample included 25 participants recruited after two different ceremonies: 7 participants from a ceremony held in August 2011, and 18 participants from a ceremony held in October 2011. The same ayahuasca brew was used in both ceremonies. Most of the participants were born in and residing in Uruguay, from a middle to high socio–economic level. When considering sex, 11 participants were males and 14 females, with a mean age of 37.5 (min = 27, max = 58). Two participants did not participate in the qualitative part of the study, so the final sample for in-depth interviews was 23 (12 females/11 males, mean age = 37.7, min = 27, max = 58).

Sample 2

Group 2 was a center specialized in the treatment of substance use disorders, also influenced by Peruvian vegetalismo. The sample included 26 participants recruited in two different ceremonies: 12 subjects in September 2019, and 14 in August 2020. The same ayahuasca brew was used in both ceremonies. Most participants were born in and residing in Uruguay, 16 males and 10 females, with a mean age of 37 (min = 24, max = 53). 6 participants have had a diagnosis of substance use disorder, and the rest were non-clinical population.

Comparison between Sample 1 and 2

Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in age (t (49) = 0.24, P = 0.813), sex (χ 2 (1) = 0.95, P = 0.330), and number of ceremonies before the current one (w = 267, P = 0.381). Both groups are influenced by the Peruvian vegetalismo tradition, redefined in a neoshamanic western style. Group 1 is a center focused on psychospiritual healing, directed by an holistic therapist. Group 2 is psychotherapeutic center specialized in substance use disorders. It is directed by a psychologist who includes ayahuasca sessions as part of the treatment of patients with this and other conditions. Our hypothesis is that, due to the psychotherapeutic focus of Group 2, the participants will show significant higher scores for the psychological effects measured by the HRS, and will report more strong subjective experiences when compared to Group 1.

Quantitative data: the HRS

Comparison of dose and composition of the ayahuasca used by the groups could not be assessed for this instance. Self-rated psychological effects were measured using the Spanish versions of the HRS (Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, & Strassman, 2001). The original instrument was developed to measure the acute psychedelic effects of injected DMT (Strassman, Qualls, Uhlenhuth, & Kellner, 1994). The HRS is composed of six subscales: i. Somaesthesia (measure somatic effects such as interoceptive sensations, nausea, tremors); ii. Affect (measures emotional responses such as anxiety, fear, and awe), iii. Volition (measures control over oneself and the environment), iv. Cognition (measures changes in thought), v. Perception (measures changes in visual, auditory, olfactory, and gustatory sensations), vi. Intensity (comprehends the strength of the whole experience). The scale showed an acceptable reliability for all subscales except Intensity and Volition, and convergent validity when compared to the Addiction Research Center Inventory (Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, & Strassman, 2001). Bouso, Pedrero-Pérez, Gandy, and Alcázar-Córcoles (2016) studied the factorial structure of the HRS, showing high reliability for the six subscales, although factorial structure results were different in some items when compared to the original scale. For statistical analysis of the result, we used R version 4.0.2 (R Core Team, 2020). Normality assumption tests, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, and t-tests were conducted for HRS subscales.

Qualitative data: in-depth interviews

In the qualitative part, we analyzed the experiences during the ceremonies, taking as a reference the HRS constructs Perception, Cognition, Affect, Volition, and Somaesthesia (Intensity was registered through direct and specific responses by most of the participants). First, we conducted a concept-driven codification using the five categories mentioned. Second, we labeled the selected segments with data-driven subcodes (e.g., vomiting, sadness, memories, fractals). Last, we grouped these subcodes into more broad categories, some of them inspired by previous qualitative studies (e.g., purge effects, biographic reviews, simple patterns/images). These were not excluding categories, but on the contrary, they usually overlapped and co-occurred (for example, vomiting while experiencing a strong feeling of sadness was labeled as “Purge Effects” and “Angst/Sadness/Cry”). For qualitative analysis, MAXQDA Analytic Pro 2020 was used (VERBI Software, 2019).

Results

Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess normality in both groups, with significant results for Perception. We performed Levene's test for homogeneity of variance, with no significant scores. Mean scores, standard deviations, two-tailed t-test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, and effect sizes are shown in Table 1. Comparison between groups and ceremonies for the HRS are visualized in Fig. 1.

Table 1.

Means, standard deviations (s.d.), t-tests (t), Wilcoxon Rank Sum (w), P values (P) and size effects (r) for Group 1 and 2

HRS Group 1 (n = 25) Group 2 (n = 26) Hypothesis testing r
Mean s.d. Mean s.d. t/w p
Somaesthesia 1.01 0.65 1.33 0.57 t (49) = −1.85 0.070 0.256
Affect 1.23 0.46 1.82 0.65 t (49) = −3.76 <0.001* 0.473
Perception 1.29 0.79 1.89 0.80 w = 188 0.010* −0.360
Cognition 1.23 0.69 1.75 0.65 t (49) = −2.74 0.008* 0.365
Volition 1.56 0.65 1.31 0.56 t (49) = 1.44 0.156 0.202
Intensity 2.11 0.85 2.34 0.78 t (49) = −1.02 0.312 0.144
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Radar graph Comparing of HRS values in Group 1 and 2, with the two ceremonies highlighted in different colors

Citation: Journal of Psychedelic Studies 6, 2; 10.1556/2054.2022.00202

Group 2's scores were significantly higher with a medium-size effect in the variables Affect, Perception, and Cognition. During the in-depth interviews, more than half of the participants of Group 1 reported the ceremonies as “soft,” while in Group 2, ceremonies were considered between medium and intense by at least the 75% of the participants. Overall, the qualitative analysis showed affective and corporal experiences as the most frequently reported, followed by perceptive, cognitive, and volitive effects. Nevertheless, when analyzing frequency by group, in Group 1, the most frequent coded segments were grouped under Affect, followed by Perception, Somaesthesia, Cognition, and Volition. For participants interviewed in Group 2, the order was Somaesthesia, Affect, Cognition, Perception, and Volition (Table 2).

Table 2.

Frequency of codes and subcodes for groups 1 and 2 (subcode hits were counted only once per case)

Variables with codes Group 1 (n = 23) Group 2 (n = 26) Total (n = 49)
Affect 21 37 58
Pleasure/Happiness/Peace 8 9 17
Angst/Sadness/Cry 5 7 12
Fear 4 5 9
Love 1 6 7
Belongingness/Connection 1 4 5
Guilt/Shame 1 2 3
Gratitude 1 1 2
Empathy/Compassion 0 2 2
Forgiveness 0 1 1
Somaesthesia 14 40 54
Purge effect (vomit/nausea/defecate) 6 15 21
Vibrations 3 5 8
Corporal possession 2 5 7
Changes in body perception 0 6 6
Embodied emotions 1 4 5
Discomfort/Pain 0 4 4
Cold 2 1 3
Perception 16 25 41
Simple Patterns/images 9 11 20
Entities/Spiritual Agents 6 9 15
Complex Visions 1 5 6
Cognition 11 26 37
Psychological insights 7 10 17
Biographic Reviews 1 10 11
Changes in Thought 2 4 6
Alteration in the Sense of Self 1 2 3
Volition 4 6 10
Loss of Control 1 4 5
overwhelming sensations 2 1 3
Loss of sense of location 0 1 1
Confusion 1 0 1
Total 66 134 200

In both groups, participants described affective experiences such as angst, sadness, fear, love, peace, happiness, anger, and pleasure. The experience of fear usually manifests at the beginning of the ceremony, when participants start to notice the effect and react with some resistance. After this initial moment, participants usually report other emotions, from “positive” (love, peace, happiness) to “negative” ones (angst, sadness, shame). The second ones were commonly valued in terms of spiritual or psychological cleansing (“letting go,” “set free,” or as a “cleanse” of the self). Participants in Group 2 reported more frequent emotions of social content: feeling connected to others, sense of belongingness, forgiveness, compassion, gratitude, and empathy.

For both groups, reports on Cognition included changes in the sense of self, alterations in thought processing, biographic reviews, and psychological insights. Participants in Group 2 mentioned the last two more often. Psychological insights and biographic reviews were usually reported as therapeutically beneficial. Somaesthetic effects played a major role in Group 2, especially the purging effects of ayahuasca, being mentioned by more than a half of the participants. Experiences of corporal possession were mentioned in both groups. Some participants reported the sensation that the spirit of ayahuasca (“the plant”) was traveling inside their bodies, healing certain spiritual, psychological, or physical afflictions.

For both groups, qualitative descriptions of changes in Perception included simple patterns and images (e.g., drawings and textures in the walls, dots and colors in the visual field, fractals, kaleidoscopes, spiders, eyes, leaves, sounds, voices, networks), complex visions (metaphoric visions, traveling though places and landscapes), and visions of spirits or entities. When considering the frequency of complex visions, they were mentioned more often in Group 2 than in Group 1. Visions of spirits and entities included contact with dead relatives, creatures, spiritual entities, animals, and “the plant,” which was particularly relevant in corporal experiences, as we already mentioned. Last, changes in Volition were less reported in both groups, perhaps because of the difficulty to identify or express those changes during the interview.

Discussion

Non-significant results for Volition and Cognition may be related to problems with validity and reliability in those subscales (Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, & Strassman, 2001), while Somatoaesthesia was close to significant values (P = 0.070, r = 0.256). Significant results in Affect, Perception, and Cognition could be related to differences in the therapeutic approach of the centers. As we mentioned earlier, Group 2 is focused on substance use disorder's rehabilitation. In this kind of setting, it is common to seek for stronger effects, in order to have strong and meaningful experiences to cope with addictive behavior.

The intensification of the effects may occur through the manipulation of the dosification and the ritual setting (Carhart-Harris & Nutt, 2017; Swanson, 2018, see Fig. 2). Participants and directors of the ayahuasca rituals usually recognize the importance of dosification (e.g. number of cups), and ritual setting (e.g. stimulation using sacred music) to obtain stronger experiences. Scientific studies support these “native” notions. For example, higher doses of ayahuasca are associated to stronger effects (Dos Santos et al., 2012; Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, Urbano, et al., 2001), and music has been considered as the “hidden therapist” of psychedelic therapy (Kaelen et al., 2018).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Substance, set & setting

Citation: Journal of Psychedelic Studies 6, 2; 10.1556/2054.2022.00202

The use of strong mystical experiences for the treatment of substance use disorders and other psychological afflictions is not an exclusive feature of psychedelic rituals. Different authors from psychology (Oman & Thoresen, 2005; Starbuck, 1911), anthropology (Luhrmann, 2013; Vallverdú, 2010), neuroscience (McNamara, 2009; Newberg & Lee, 2006) and other disciplines, have analyzed how conversion experiences are used in religious setting to cope with different mental problems. For the case of psychedelics, the importance of “peak” and “transcendental” experiences in the treatment of substance use disorder has been identified in both clinical setting (Hoffer & Osmond, 1967; Majic et al., 2015; Richards, 2009), and in different religious/spiritual ritual contexts (Apud, Scuro, Carrera, & Oliveri, 2022; Fábregas et al., 2010; Mercante, 2013; Talin & Sanabria, 2017). Nowadays, mystical experiences during the psychedelic acute effects are considered as a main predictor of a positive psychotherapeutic outcome in the clinical setting of randomized controlled trials (Yaden & Griffiths, 2021).

Qualitative results of the present research are similar to those reported in previous studies in neoshamanic settings, where emotional experiences (e.g. happiness, peace, sadness, guilt), corporal changes (body perception, nausea, pain, cold), perceptive alterations (simple and complex visions, seeing entities), cognitive changes (psychological insights, biographic memories), and volitive changes (loss of control, confusion) are usually described (Apud, 2020; Argento et al., 2019; Fernández & Fábregas, 2014; Kjellgren et al., 2009; Loizaga-Velder & Verres, 2014; Riba et al., 2006; Shanon, 2014; Trichter et al., 2009; Thomas et al., 2013; Wolff et al., 2019). These experiences seems to be psychotherapeutically oriented by a neoshamanic setting that is usually composed by salient psychotherapeutic and mystical elements (Apud, 2020).

When comparing qualitative and quantitative results, and considering effects in the emotional, cognitive and perceptual domains, parallel results were found between both parts of the study. In the case of the affective and emotional domain, higher scores with a medium effect for Group 2 in the subscale Affect were qualitatively accompanied by a variety of emotional experiences, some of them of social content (e.g., love, belongingness, empathy), which appeared less in Group 1. The same can be observed in perceptual phenomena, with higher scores in Perception and a more relevant presence of complex visions and spiritual agents for Group 2. In the cognitive domain, Group 2 also showed higher scores and a major presence of experiences of reflection about biographic memories, something that is usually associated with the psychotherapeutic qualities of ayahuasca under the neoshamanic setting.

In the corporal/somaesthetic domain, qualitative and quantitative findings were contradictory. No significant differences were found between groups in Somaesthesia, while qualitative reports showed a higher frequency and relevance of corporal subjective experiences for Group 2. The purgative effect of ayahuasca was especially manifested in this group, something that is usually associated with a stronger effect of the brew. Concerning the intensity of the experience, results were also dissimilar between the quantitative part (with no significant differences), and the qualitative part (where an important part of group 1 reported a “soft” effect in the ceremonies).

As limitations of the study, samples were small, with no possibility to control the dose or the components of ayahuasca used. Besides, the time gap between the collection of data may influence the results, especially considering that the data from Group 2 was collected during the COVID-19 outbreak. Further advances of our project will include the measure of dose per participant. Furthermore, a future step of the project is to compare this neoshamanic setting with a church-like one.

Acknowledgments

We want to thank the directors of both centers for their disposition, and all the participants of the study.

The first part of the study was funded by the Sectorial Commission for Scientific Research (Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica), Universidad de la República, Uruguay. The second part of the study was funded by the Drug National Board of Uruguay Presidency (Junta Nacional de Drogas, Presidencia de la República), and by the Interdisciplinary Faculty (Espacio Interdisciplinario), Universidad de la República.

The current study is part of a project from an interdisciplinary research group of psychedelic studies, Arché (Universidad de la República, website: https://arche.ei.udelar.edu.uy/).

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    • Export Citation
  • Hoffer, A. , & Osmond, H. (1967). The Hallucinogens. Academic Press.

  • Kaelen, M. , Giribaldi, B. , Raine, J. , Evans, L. , Timmerman, C. , Rodriguez, N. , et al. (2018). The hidden therapist: Evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy. Psychopharmacology, 235, 505519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4820-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kjellgren, A. , Eriksson, A. , & Norlander, T. (2009). Experiences of encounters with Ayahuasca—“the vine of the soul. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(4), 309315.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Labate, B. C. , & Jungaberle, H. (Eds.), (2011). The internationalization of ayahuasca. Lit Verlag.

  • Loizaga-Velder, A. , & Loizaga Pazzi, A. (2014). Therapist and patient perspectives on ayahuasca-assisted treatment for substance dependence. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The therapeutic use of ayahuasca (pp. 133152). Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loizaga-Velder, A. , & Verres, R. (2014). Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence. qualitative results. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(1), 6372. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2013.873157.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luhrmann, T. M. (2013). Making God real and making God good: Some mechanisms through which prayer may contribute to healing. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(5), 707725.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luna, L. E. (1986). Vegetalismo: Shamanism among the mestizo population of the Peruvian Amazon. In Studies in comparative religion. Almqvist & Wiksell International.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Majić, T. , Schmidt, T. , & Gallinat, J. (2015). Peak experiences and the afterglow phenomenon: When and how do therapeutic effects of hallucinogens depend on psychedelic experiences? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(3), 241253.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKenna, D. J. , Towers, G. H. N. , & Abbott, F. (1984). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants: Tryptamine and β-carboline constituents of Ayahuasca. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 10(2), 195223. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(84)90003-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNamara, P. (2009). The neuroscience of religious experience. Cambridge University Press.

  • Mercante, M. S. (2013). A ayahuasca e o tratamiento da dependencia. Mana, 19(3), 529558.

  • Newberg, A. B. , & Lee, B. Y. (2006). The relationship between religion and health. In P. McNamara (Ed.), Where God and Science meet. How brain and the evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion (Vol. III, pp. 3566). Praeger.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oman, D. , & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). Do religion and spirituality influence health? In R. F. Paloutzian , & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 435459). The Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pasquini, L. , Palhano-Fontes, F. , & Araujo, D. B. (2020). Subacute effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca on the salience and default mode networks. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 34(6), 623635. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881120909409.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Core Team (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

  • Riba, J. , Anderer, P. , Morte, A. , Urbano, G. , Jané, F. , Saletu, B. , & Barbanoj, M. J. (2002). Topographic pharmaco-EEG mapping of the effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(6), 613628. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01609.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riba, J. , Rodríguez-Fornells, A. , & Strassman, R. J. (2001). Psychometric assessment of the Hallucinogen rating scale. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 62, 215223.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riba, J. , Rodríguez-Fornells, A. , Urbano, G. , Morte, A. , Antonijoan, R. , Montero, M. , et al. (2001). Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 154(1), 8595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000606.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riba, J. , Romero, S. , Grasa, E. , Mena, E. , Carrió, I. , & Barbanoj, M. J. (2006). Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-amazonian inebriant. Psychopharmacology, 186(1), 9398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0358-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, W. A. (2009). The rebirth of research with entheogens: Lessons from the past and hypotheses for the future. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 41(2), 139150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scuro, J. (2018). Interpelations and Challenges in the neoshamanic and ayahuasca fields in Uruguay. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The expanding world of ayahuasca diaspora: Appropriation, integration and legislation (pp. 2239). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shanon, B. (2014). Moments of insight, healing, and transformation: A cognitive phenomenological analysis. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The therapeutic use of ayahuasca. Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starbuck, E. D. (1911). The Psychology of Religion. An empirical study of the growth of religious consciousness. The Walter Scott Publishing Co.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strassman, R. J. , & Qualls, C. R. (1994). Dose-response study of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: I. Neuroendocrine, autonomic, and cardiovascular effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(2), 8597. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950020009001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strassman, R. J. , Qualls, C. R. , Uhlenhuth, E. H. , & Kellner, R. (1994). Dose-Response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating +Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(2), 98108. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950020022002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swanson, L. R. (2018). Unifying theories of psychedelic drug effects. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9(172), 123. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00172.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Talin, P. , & Sanabria, E. (2017). Ayahuasca’s entwined efficacy: An ethnographic study of ritual healing from ‘addiction’. International Journal of Drug Policy, 44, 2330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.02.017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, G. , Lucas, P. , Capler, N. R. , Tupper, K. W. , & Martin, G. (2013). Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: Results from a preliminary observational study in Canada. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 6(1), 3042. https://doi.org/10.2174/15733998113099990003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trichter, S. , Klimo, J. , & Krippner, S. (2009). Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice participants. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(2), 115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vallverdú, J. (2010). Religión y salud (o curarse y convertirse). In M. A. Martorell , J. M. Comelles , & M. Bernal (Eds.), Antropología y enfermería. Publicaciones URV.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VERBI Software (2019). MAXQDA 2020. VERBI Software.

  • Wolff, T. J. , Ruffell, S. , Netzband, N. , & Passie, T. (2019). A phenomenology of subjectively relevant experiences induced by ayahuasca in Upper Amazon vegetalismo tourism. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 3(3), 295307. https://doi.org/10.1556/2054.2019.007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yaden, D. B. , & Griffiths, R. R. (2021). The subjective effects of psychedelics are necessary for their enduring therapeutic effects. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science, 4(2), 568572. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Apud, I. (2015). Ayahuasca from Peru to Uruguay: Ritual design and redesign through a distributed cognition approach. Anthropology of Consciousness, 26(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.1111/anoc.12023.

    • Crossref
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    • Export Citation
  • Apud, I. (2019). Ayahuasca en el tratamiento de adicciones. Estudio de cuatro casos tratados en IDEAA, desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria. Interdisciplinaria. Revista de Psicología y Ciencias Afines, 36(1), 133154.

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    • Export Citation
  • Apud, I. (2020). Ayahuasca: Between cognition and culture. Perspectives from an interdisciplinary and reflexive ethnography. Publicacions URV.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Apud, I. , & Romaní, O. (2017). Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective. The International Journal of Drug Policy, 39, 2836.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Apud, I. , Scuro, J. , Carrera, I. , & Oliveri, A. (2022). Ayahuasca ritual, personality and sociality. Observational research conducted in a substance use disorder rehabilitation center in Uruguay. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, May 4, 110. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2022.2053004.

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  • Argento, E. , Capler, R. , Thomas, G. , Lucas, P. , & Tupper, K. W. (2019). Exploring ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: A qualitative analysis of preliminary findings among an indigenous community in Canada. Drug and Alcohol Review, 38(7), 781789. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12985.

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    • Export Citation
  • Barbanoj, M. J. , Riba, J. , Clos, S. , Giménez, S. , Grasa, E. , & Romero, S. (2008). Daytime Ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 196(2), 315326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0963-0.

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  • Beyer, S. V. (2009). Singing to the plants. A guide to mestizo shamanism in the upper amazon. University of New Mexico Press.

  • Bouso, J. C. , Pedrero-Pérez, E. J. , Gandy, S. , & Alcázar-Córcoles, M. Á. (2016). Measuring the subjective: Revisiting the psychometric properties of three rating scales that assess the acute effects of hallucinogens. Human Psychopharmacology, 31(5), 356372. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2545.

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  • Carhart-Harris, R. L. , & Nutt, D. (2017). Serotonin and brain function: A tale of two receptors. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 31(9), 10911120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881117725915.

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  • Dobkin de Rios, M. (1973). Curing with ayahuasca in an urban slum. In M. Harner (Ed.), Hallucinogens and shamanism (pp. 6785). Oxford University Press.

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  • dos Santos, R. G. , Valle, M. , Bouso, J. C. , Nomdedeu, J. F. , Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. , McIlhenny, E. H. , et al. (2011). Autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immunological effects of ayahuasca. A comparative study with D-amphetamine. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 31(6), 110.

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  • Dos Santos, R. G. , Grasa, E. , Valle, M. , Ballester, M. R. , Bouso, J. C. , Nomdedéu, J. F. , et al. (2012). Pharmacology of ayahuasca administered in two repeated doses. Psychopharmacology, 219(4), 10391053. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2434-x.

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  • Fábregas, J. M. , González, D. , Fondevila, S. , Cutchet, M. , Fernández, X. , Barbosa, P. C. R. , et al. (2010). Assessment of addiction severity among ritual users of ayahuasca. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 111(3), 257261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.024.

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  • Fericgla, J. M. (2000). El chamanismo a Revisión. Editorial Kairós.

  • Fernández, X. , & Fábregas, J. M. (2014). Experience of Treatment with ayahuasca for drug addiction in the Brazilian Amazon. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The therapeutic use of ayahuasca (pp. 161182). Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffer, A. , & Osmond, H. (1967). The Hallucinogens. Academic Press.

  • Kaelen, M. , Giribaldi, B. , Raine, J. , Evans, L. , Timmerman, C. , Rodriguez, N. , et al. (2018). The hidden therapist: Evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy. Psychopharmacology, 235, 505519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4820-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kjellgren, A. , Eriksson, A. , & Norlander, T. (2009). Experiences of encounters with Ayahuasca—“the vine of the soul. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(4), 309315.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Labate, B. C. , & Jungaberle, H. (Eds.), (2011). The internationalization of ayahuasca. Lit Verlag.

  • Loizaga-Velder, A. , & Loizaga Pazzi, A. (2014). Therapist and patient perspectives on ayahuasca-assisted treatment for substance dependence. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The therapeutic use of ayahuasca (pp. 133152). Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loizaga-Velder, A. , & Verres, R. (2014). Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence. qualitative results. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(1), 6372. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2013.873157.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luhrmann, T. M. (2013). Making God real and making God good: Some mechanisms through which prayer may contribute to healing. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(5), 707725.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luna, L. E. (1986). Vegetalismo: Shamanism among the mestizo population of the Peruvian Amazon. In Studies in comparative religion. Almqvist & Wiksell International.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Majić, T. , Schmidt, T. , & Gallinat, J. (2015). Peak experiences and the afterglow phenomenon: When and how do therapeutic effects of hallucinogens depend on psychedelic experiences? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(3), 241253.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKenna, D. J. , Towers, G. H. N. , & Abbott, F. (1984). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants: Tryptamine and β-carboline constituents of Ayahuasca. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 10(2), 195223. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(84)90003-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNamara, P. (2009). The neuroscience of religious experience. Cambridge University Press.

  • Mercante, M. S. (2013). A ayahuasca e o tratamiento da dependencia. Mana, 19(3), 529558.

  • Newberg, A. B. , & Lee, B. Y. (2006). The relationship between religion and health. In P. McNamara (Ed.), Where God and Science meet. How brain and the evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion (Vol. III, pp. 3566). Praeger.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oman, D. , & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). Do religion and spirituality influence health? In R. F. Paloutzian , & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 435459). The Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pasquini, L. , Palhano-Fontes, F. , & Araujo, D. B. (2020). Subacute effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca on the salience and default mode networks. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 34(6), 623635. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881120909409.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Core Team (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

  • Riba, J. , Anderer, P. , Morte, A. , Urbano, G. , Jané, F. , Saletu, B. , & Barbanoj, M. J. (2002). Topographic pharmaco-EEG mapping of the effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(6), 613628. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01609.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riba, J. , Rodríguez-Fornells, A. , & Strassman, R. J. (2001). Psychometric assessment of the Hallucinogen rating scale. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 62, 215223.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riba, J. , Rodríguez-Fornells, A. , Urbano, G. , Morte, A. , Antonijoan, R. , Montero, M. , et al. (2001). Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 154(1), 8595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000606.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riba, J. , Romero, S. , Grasa, E. , Mena, E. , Carrió, I. , & Barbanoj, M. J. (2006). Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-amazonian inebriant. Psychopharmacology, 186(1), 9398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0358-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, W. A. (2009). The rebirth of research with entheogens: Lessons from the past and hypotheses for the future. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 41(2), 139150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scuro, J. (2018). Interpelations and Challenges in the neoshamanic and ayahuasca fields in Uruguay. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The expanding world of ayahuasca diaspora: Appropriation, integration and legislation (pp. 2239). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shanon, B. (2014). Moments of insight, healing, and transformation: A cognitive phenomenological analysis. In B. C. Labate , & C. Cavnar (Eds.), The therapeutic use of ayahuasca. Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starbuck, E. D. (1911). The Psychology of Religion. An empirical study of the growth of religious consciousness. The Walter Scott Publishing Co.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strassman, R. J. , & Qualls, C. R. (1994). Dose-response study of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: I. Neuroendocrine, autonomic, and cardiovascular effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(2), 8597. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950020009001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strassman, R. J. , Qualls, C. R. , Uhlenhuth, E. H. , & Kellner, R. (1994). Dose-Response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating +Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(2), 98108. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950020022002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swanson, L. R. (2018). Unifying theories of psychedelic drug effects. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9(172), 123. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00172.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Talin, P. , & Sanabria, E. (2017). Ayahuasca’s entwined efficacy: An ethnographic study of ritual healing from ‘addiction’. International Journal of Drug Policy, 44, 2330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.02.017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, G. , Lucas, P. , Capler, N. R. , Tupper, K. W. , & Martin, G. (2013). Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: Results from a preliminary observational study in Canada. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 6(1), 3042. https://doi.org/10.2174/15733998113099990003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trichter, S. , Klimo, J. , & Krippner, S. (2009). Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice participants. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(2), 115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vallverdú, J. (2010). Religión y salud (o curarse y convertirse). In M. A. Martorell , J. M. Comelles , & M. Bernal (Eds.), Antropología y enfermería. Publicaciones URV.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VERBI Software (2019). MAXQDA 2020. VERBI Software.

  • Wolff, T. J. , Ruffell, S. , Netzband, N. , & Passie, T. (2019). A phenomenology of subjectively relevant experiences induced by ayahuasca in Upper Amazon vegetalismo tourism. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 3(3), 295307. https://doi.org/10.1556/2054.2019.007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yaden, D. B. , & Griffiths, R. R. (2021). The subjective effects of psychedelics are necessary for their enduring therapeutic effects. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science, 4(2), 568572. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Book Review Guidelines are available from HERE.

 

Editor-in-Chief:

Attila Szabo - University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Associate Editors:

  • Per Carlbring - Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Alan K. Davis - The Ohio State University & Johns Hopkins University, USA
  • Zsolt Demetrovics - Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Ede Frecska, founding Editor-in-Chief - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • David Luke - University of Greenwich, London, UK
  • Dennis J. McKenna- Heffter Research Institute, St. Paul, USA
  • Jeremy Narby - Swiss NGO Nouvelle Planète, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Stephen Szára - Retired from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, USA
  • Enzo Tagliazucchi - Latin American Brain Health Institute, Santiago, Chile, and University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA 

Book Reviews Editor:

Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

Editorial Board

  • Gábor Andrássy - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Tiago Arruda-Sanchez - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Paulo Barbosa - State University of Santa Cruz, Bahia, Brazil
  • Michael Bogenschutz - New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  • Petra Bokor - University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • Jose Bouso - Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • Zoltán Brys - Multidisciplinary Soc. for the Research of Psychedelics, Budapest, Hungary
  • Susana Bustos - California Institute of Integral Studies San Francisco, USA
  • Robin Carhart-Harris - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Valerie Curran - University College London, London, UK
  • Alicia Danforth - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA
  • Rick Doblin - Boston, USA
  • Rafael G. dos Santos - University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Genis Ona Esteve - Rovira i Virgili University, Spain
  • Silvia Fernandez-Campos
  • Zsófia Földvári - Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  • Andrew Gallimore - University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Neal Goldsmith - private practice, New York, NY, USA
  • Charles Grob - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Stanislav Grof - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Karen Grue - private practice, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Jiri Horacek - Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Lajos Horváth - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Robert Jesse - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Matthew Johnson - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • István Kelemen - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Eli Kolp - Kolp Institute New, Port Richey, FL, USA
  • Stanley Krippner - Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA
  • Evgeny Krupitsky - St. Petersburg State Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Rafael Lancelotta - Innate Path, Lakewood, CO, USA
  • Anja Loizaga-Velder - National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Luis Luna - Wasiwaska Research Center, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Katherine MacClean - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Deborah Mash - University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
  • Friedericke Meckel - private practice, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Ralph Metzner - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Michael Mithoefer - private practice, Charleston, SC, USA
  • Levente Móró - University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • David Nichols - Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • David Nutt - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Torsten Passie - Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
  • Janis Phelps - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • József Rácz - Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Christian Rätsch - University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Jordi Riba - Sant Pau Institute of Biomedical Research, Barcelona, Spain
  • Sidarta Ribeiro - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
  • William Richards - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Stephen Ross - New York University, New York, NY, USA
  • Brian Rush - University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • Eduardo Schenberg - Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Ben Sessa - Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
  • Lowan H. Stewart - Santa Fe Ketamine Clinic, NM, USA (Medical Director)
  • Rebecca Stone - Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Rick Strassman - University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  • Attila Szabó - University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • Csaba Szummer - Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church, Budapest, Hungary
  • Manuel Torres - Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
  • Luís Fernando Tófoli - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil State
  • Malin Uthaug - Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Julian Vayne - Norwich, UK
  • Nikki Wyrd - Norwich, UK

Attila Szabo
University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • APA PsycInfo
  • DOAJ
  • Scopus
  • CABELLS

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
2
Scimago
Journal Rank
not yet available
Scimago Quartile Score Anthropology (Q3)
Biological Psychiatry (Q4)
Clinical Psychology (Q4)
Health (social science) (Q4)
Pharmacology (medical) (Q4)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q4)
Social Psychology (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0,9
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Anthropology 186/443 (Q2)
Health (social science) 234/323 (Q3)
Clinical Psychology 213/292 (Q3)
Pharmacology (medical) 190/255 (Q3)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 419/529 (Q4)
Social Psychology 243/296 (Q4)
Biological Psychiatry 38/43 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,381

2020  
CrossRef Documents 8
WoS Cites 37
WoS H-index 4
Days from submission to acceptance 95
Days from acceptance to publication 75
Acceptance Rate 41%

2019  
WoS
Cites
11
CrossRef
Documents
35
Acceptance
Rate
77%

 

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge none
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2016
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Debreceni Egyetem
Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1.
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
H-1091 Budapest, Hungary Kálvin tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2559-9283 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Apr 2022 0 0 0
May 2022 0 0 0
Jun 2022 0 0 0
Jul 2022 0 0 0
Aug 2022 0 0 0
Sep 2022 0 225 153
Oct 2022 0 0 0