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Olivia M. Uhley Vireo Health LLC, 207 S 9th St, Minneapolis, MN 55402, USA

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C. Miyabe Shields Real Isolates LLC, 48 Dunham Rd, Suite 5750, Beverly, MA 01915, USA

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Marné Garretson Vireo Health LLC, 207 S 9th St, Minneapolis, MN 55402, USA

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Stephen Dahmer Vireo Health LLC, 207 S 9th St, Minneapolis, MN 55402, USA
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Open access

Abstract

Background

Entheogen use is becoming increasingly popular and a potential option for treatment or adjuvant treatment for various medical conditions. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy, safety, and possible role of these traditional medicines in the context of modern society and the Western medicine paradigm. The willingness of patients to participate in such studies is currently unknown.

Materials and Methods

In September 2021 we implemented an anonymous, observational pilot survey to determine the general public's willingness to participate in future entheogen research. All participants were English-speaking adults and had participated in therapy or a retreat utilizing entheogens in a naturalistic setting in the last five (5) years. Participants were recruited through community outreach via email.

Results

The response rate for this data set was estimated to be 48.3% (n = 84/174). Nearly all (95.5%) participants believed this research should be done and 86.9% said they would participate in entheogen research that lasted longer than one year. A greater proportion of participants were willing to participate in remote interviews (73.5%) rather than in-person surveys (64.7%). A majority of participants (78%) also noted the importance of financial compensation for their time influencing the willingness to participate in future entheogen studies.

Conclusions

The willingness to participate in research involving traditional entheogens is not the limiting factor in facilitating further studies. Participants held overwhelmingly positive perceptions indicating that they believed this research should be done. Future longitudinal clinical studies with financial compensation and controlled set and settings will be necessary to expand the evidence base for naturalistic entheogen use.

Abstract

Background

Entheogen use is becoming increasingly popular and a potential option for treatment or adjuvant treatment for various medical conditions. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy, safety, and possible role of these traditional medicines in the context of modern society and the Western medicine paradigm. The willingness of patients to participate in such studies is currently unknown.

Materials and Methods

In September 2021 we implemented an anonymous, observational pilot survey to determine the general public's willingness to participate in future entheogen research. All participants were English-speaking adults and had participated in therapy or a retreat utilizing entheogens in a naturalistic setting in the last five (5) years. Participants were recruited through community outreach via email.

Results

The response rate for this data set was estimated to be 48.3% (n = 84/174). Nearly all (95.5%) participants believed this research should be done and 86.9% said they would participate in entheogen research that lasted longer than one year. A greater proportion of participants were willing to participate in remote interviews (73.5%) rather than in-person surveys (64.7%). A majority of participants (78%) also noted the importance of financial compensation for their time influencing the willingness to participate in future entheogen studies.

Conclusions

The willingness to participate in research involving traditional entheogens is not the limiting factor in facilitating further studies. Participants held overwhelmingly positive perceptions indicating that they believed this research should be done. Future longitudinal clinical studies with financial compensation and controlled set and settings will be necessary to expand the evidence base for naturalistic entheogen use.

Introduction

Research in neuroscience and pharmaceutical sciences continues to divulge the unique and expansive nature of traditionally used entheogens as replacements or adjuvants for Western medical practices (Dong, 2013; Zhang & Li, 2011). An entheogen is a psychoactive compound, typically from natural sources such as plants or fungi, that can be used to alter consciousness for spiritual purposes (Johnstad, 2018). Thousands of years of knowledge from traditional medicine practices outlined the dose, efficacy, and preparation of many natural medicines and have demonstrated that entheogens are a powerful tool for healing various conditions (Yuan, Ma, Ye, & Piao, 2016). There is early evidence that these substances can provide unique interventions for patients with mental health conditions that do not respond well to standard psychopharmaceuticals (Agin-Liebes et al., 2021; Bogenschutz et al., 2022).

Entheogens are most often complex biological organisms with diverse bioactive compounds. It has been argued that, if used responsibly and legally, entheogens have incredible potential to assuage human suffering and constructively contribute to the quality of life on our planet (Richards, 2015).

The complex pharmacological nature of many chronic conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health disorders that involve multiple body systems requires complex therapeutic options, in which single-agent pharmaceuticals continue to fall short (DePierro, Lepow, Feder, & Yehuda, 2019; King, 2012; Krediet et al., 2020; Letheby, 2016). Altering the signaling of single neurotransmitters with pharmaceutical drugs has limitations and complex conditions may require complex natural products to pharmacologically induce changes such as those that can occur during psychotherapy (DePierro et al., 2019; Krediet et al., 2020).

Humans have used entheogens for thousands of years and their safety profile is well characterized (King, 2012). The substances' molecular complexity present unique challenges to their investigation in randomized clinical trial environments, however, human clinical studies are medically necessary to evaluate treatment patterns and response outcomes across various demographics cohorts.

More real-world data must be collected to design and evaluate these practices in clinical trial settings to help connect traditional and modern medical practices. This is a necessary step in informing United States policymakers, clinicians, and patients to explore the efficacy of entheogens for conditions most often treated with pharmaceutical medications. There has been a growing resurgence of entheogen use for therapeutic and medicinal purposes in the United States that is shifting patient and providers' perceptions in how to address health issues ranging from mental health problems to chronic pain (Agin-Liebes et al., 2021; Carhart-Harris et al., 2018, 2021; Erritzoe et al., 2018; Tupper, Wood, Yensen, & Johnson, 2015). There are estimated to be over 30 million entheogen therapy participants in the United States alone (Krebs & Johansen, 2013). However, significant barriers to access create a skewed demographic of patients who are able to utilize this therapy. Increased access through the decriminalization of substances traditionally used as entheogens at the local and state level is underway, but hindered by the vast misunderstanding and general lack of knowledge of health care practitioners when it comes to the proper usage, dosage, indications, and contraindications for the use of these plants (Winkelman, 2019). Due to the increasing availability and acceptance of these substances, regulators and treatment providers may also be called to explore safe, real-world approaches to the oversight and administration of these powerful substances. As such, it is imperative to build on the progress in leveraging real-world evidence to support the regulatory decision-making process to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, as demonstrated by the passing of the 21st Century Cures Act (Beaulieu-Jones et al., 2020). Naturalistic use of entheogens with control over set and setting can add extrapharmacological factors not available in typical research settings that may improve the efficacy of its therapeutic use. This study describes demographic characteristics of a patient population accessing substances traditionally used as entheogens and their willingness to participate in future research.

Methods

Settings and population

The study was conducted via an anonymous, web-based survey. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Vireo Health. REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) is a secure, web-based software platform that supports data capture for research studies (Harris et al., 2009, 2019).

Eligible respondents were English-speaking adults (over 18 years old) who self-reported participation in therapies or retreats utilizing entheogens in a naturalistic setting in the last five (5) years. We recruited a convenience sample of participants through community outreach via email. We have based our findings for this article on 84 unique and complete survey submissions.

Survey

We implemented an anonymous, observational pilot survey with the intention to examine willingness to participate in future research studies on naturalistic entheogen use among individuals who independently decided to participate in entheogen therapy centers or retreats. We collected additional data on survey respondents' intentions, motivations, experiences, health behaviors, and demographics. We also described a hypothetical observational study followed by a series of questions aimed to gauge interest in participating in future research and gain insights into how respondents would be willing to participate.

To gauge our respondents' willingness to participate in future research, we provided some information pertinent to possible future research on the topic of entheogen therapies. We stated that future research would intend to “better understand how the use of entheogens impacts specific conditions and quality of life”. We explained that “proposed studies would collect information similar to this questionnaire, but more in depth” and that “this research would be completely observational meaning that it would NOT involve any experimental medications or treatments”. We emphasized that all participants interested in future research projects would be aware of the risks and benefits of participating before obtaining their informed consent.

We next asked our respondents, “Based on the description you just read, do you think this type of research should be done?” (answer choices: definitely yes, probably yes, neutral, probably no, and definitely no). To better inform future study design, participants indicating any willingness to participate were asked a series of follow up questions about how our respondents might be willing to participate (Table 1).

Table 1.

Follow-up survey questions

QuestionResponse set
If given the opportunity to participate in a more comprehensive study about entheogen use, in which of the following types of involvement would you be willing to participate? (Select ALL that apply.)
  • ○ in-person interviews

  • ○ remote interviews

  • ○ online or app-based surveys

  • ○ allowing the research staff access to medical or pharmacy records

  • ○ laboratory tests (blood tests, urine samples, etc.)

  • ○ other

  • ○ none of the above

If you joined the study, what would be the maximum amount of time that you would be willing to participate for:
  • ○ 5 years

  • ○ 2 years

  • ○ 1 year

  • ○ 6 months

  • ○ 3 months

  • ○ 1 month

  • ○ Other

  • ○ I would not join the study

In deciding whether or not to participate, how important would it be for you to be financially compensated for your time? For example, $50 for research appointments and $5 per brief online survey.
  • ○ very important

  • ○ somewhat important

  • ○ not very important

  • ○ not important at all

  • ○ I would not accept compensation for participation in research

We drew inspiration for this set of questions from similar studies focusing on research participation interest and attitudes toward study design (Bachhuber, Arnsten, Starrels, & Cunningham, 2018).

Additionally, to gain a better understanding of potential reasons why (or why not) participants would (or would not) be willing to participate in future research, we presented a list of these potential reasons and requested that our respondents select all that apply.

We collected additional information regarding respondent's sociodemographic characteristics, previous physical and mental health diagnoses, medication use, and past recreational substance use. Sociodemographic characteristics included age, race/ethnicity (White, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Indian (Native American), Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, Other Asian, Some Other Rate), gender (male, female, transgender, other), health insurance status, employment status, educational attainment, and average yearly household income.

Statistical analysis & missing data

A mixed-methods approach leveraging structured and unstructured survey questions generated quantitative and qualitative data examining the naturalistic use of entheogens and other substances among 100 adult volunteers within the past five years. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarize participants' responses to structured survey questions examining their initial intentions, motivations, experiences, and willingness to participate in future entheogen research. Basic demographic data were summarized as total numbers and percentages for categorical variables. Differences in categorical variables were assessed using chi-square or Fisher exact tests, where necessary. Statistical significance was achieved at the 0.05 level. Data generated from unstructured survey questions were examined by thematic analysis. Missing data were not included in the analysis. With missing data excluded, the response rate for this data set was estimated to be 48.3% (n = 84/174). All analyses were performed by SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). This research was approved by the Allendale Investigational Review Board (Protocol #2021-61137).

Results

The age range of respondents was 24–73 years old, with a mean age of 45 years old. When asked to identify their “racial or ethnic background” and “gender”, 84% of our sample identified as White and 66% identified as female, respectively. Fifty-four percent of participants reported receiving “insurance from my employer or through a private company,” and 58% reported “full-time employment”. 71.6% reported educational attainment of a “4-year degree” or higher. Regarding the “average yearly household income before taxes” 52% reported $60,000 or higher with 38.3% reporting $80,000 or higher. Before proceeding, we would like to highlight that our survey population does not closely reflect the socioeconomic breakdown of the current US population, which will be addressed further in the discussion section.

The sociodemographic characteristics of the population surveyed are summarized in Table 2. The majority of participants were white (84%), female (66%), and had a 4-year degree or more education.

Table 2.

Demographic characteristics of study participants

Age Range24–73
Mean Age45
% White84
% Female66
% Insured54
% Full-Time Employed58
% 4-Year Degree (or Above)71.6
% Most recent experience within the last 30 days~50
% Reporting most recent entheogen experience was not their first experience86.2

The majority of respondents answered that they definitely (70/84, 83.3%) or probably (10/84, 11.9%) thought this research should be done, Table 1. Most respondents were willing to participate in research that lasted longer than one year (73/84, 86.9%): 55.9% in studies lasting up to 5 years (47/84), 14.3% of respondents were willing to participate for a maximum of 2 years, and 16.1% of people willing to participate up to 1 year.

Being financially compensated for participating in the research was noted to be important for a significant portion of respondents (39%): very important for 6% (5/84); somewhat important for 33% (28/84), not very important for 33% (28/84), not important at all for 21.4% (18/84), and 6% (5/84) said would not take financial compensation for partaking in research.

When study participants were asked what level of involvement they would be willing to participate in for a more comprehensive study about entheogen use 39.8% (66/84) of respondents were willing to participate in in-person interviews, 89.3% (75/84) in remote interviews, 84.5% (71/84) in online or app-based research, 44% (37/84) allowing the research staff access to medical or pharmacy records, 63.1% (53/84) laboratory tests (blood tests, urine samples, etc.), and 9.5% of respondents noted none of the above or other.

Discussion

The study aimed to evaluate the willingness to participate in entheogen research of people who have used entheogens in the past to inform researchers on feasible designs for future studies. The anonymous online survey's results indicated that 97.9% of participants who have recently used entheogens would be willing to participate in a similar entheogen experience in the future and that 95.5% of these survey participants think that this research should be done (Table 1). A fundamental factor in designing successful future research studies is the degree of study participant involvement required for data collection. Respondents preferred participating in online or app-based surveys (69.6%) and participating in surveys that lasted longer than one year (86.9%). A greater proportion of respondents preferred remote interviews (73.5%) rather than in-person interviews (64.7%), however, there are many confounding factors that may play a role in this decision. One factor is the pay or compensation for study participants, in which 72.6% of respondents found some degree of importance to financial compensation for participating in research regarding entheogen use in naturalistic settings.

Compensating study participants for their time and effort in a research study would likely lessen the barrier to entry, as many people might be interested in participating in future research do not fit the demographic profile of the cohort surveyed in this study. The majority of respondents were white (84%), middle-aged (mean age of 45), women (66%) who were educated with at least a 4-year college degree (71.6%), employed full-time (58%), and over 90% (90.8%) of participants were making over $60,000 annually (Table 2). These data are significant because there is a confirmed positive association between income and health (Cui & Chang, 2021); employed individuals have access to various healthcare options, and formally educated individuals will have more resources to explore before experimenting with entheogen use. These demographics also do not accurately represent the United States population as a whole. For example, the national average of people with a four-year degree was almost double in this study at 71.6% of participants compared to the national average of 37.9% (Irwin et al., 2021).

Although participants were overwhelmingly open to future entheogen studies in various iterations, many indicated they were unwilling to participate where 1.) access to medical or pharmacy records and 2.) laboratory tests, including blood and urine samples, would be necessary. A consideration to minimize the potential for exclusion and increase data specificity for future research would be to create a two-item assessment for biological sex at birth and gender-identity at time of data collection.

Entheogen use for psychiatric conditions has significantly different applications and outcomes compared to pharmaceutical medications. Antidepressants and anxiolytics are prescribed and used daily for extended periods, which accumulate significant costs and burdens to the healthcare system and to the individual over time. These medications can take weeks to reach the desired therapeutic effects, and often have significant adverse effects associated with use (Saha, Torous, Kiciman, & De Choudhury, 2021). Traditionally used entheogens offer a new paradigm as they can offer patients both pharmacologically and psychologically focused treatments. If entheogen use is executed correctly for the patients, single doses can have lasting benefits of weeks to months (Dos Santos, Bouso, Rocha, Rossi, & Hallak, 2021). In addition, the use of traditional entheogenic substances should not be limited to treating illnesses, but explored in other ways that might facilitate human health, from lifestyle modification to increased interpersonal and community connection.

One component of using traditional entheogen compounds that results in unique endpoints is experiencing awe and mysticism (Barrett & Griffiths, 2018). This complex emotion can allow the users to experience spiritual growth and facilitate positive effects towards community growth, compassion, and well-being (Van Elk et al., 2022). The desire to meet these unique growth endpoints is consistent with one of the most common reasons that research participants reported willingness to participate in similar entheogen experiences in the future, which was continued spiritual growth (26.3%). The ritual nature of plant medicine in many cultures involves a component of intention associated with the ceremony of ingestion (Lowe et al., 2021; Rondilla et al, 2021). Setting intentions prior to entheogen use may help facilitate making meaning of the altered state and setting goals rather than avoiding impending issues. 68.6% of survey participants reported that with their recent entheogen use they appreciated “the degree to which you feel your intentions were met during and after your experience” noting that conservation of traditional practices and rituals is likely important for users to achieve the maximal benefits of this medicine.

Further research is needed to evaluate the traditional ceremony use involving entheogens as an acceptable practice in western societies, likely informing these practices' legality, stigmatization, and accessibility. Our data suggest that willingness to participate in research involving traditionally used entheogens is not the limiting factor for expanding the evidence base for naturalistic use. Participants in this study demonstrated an overwhelming willingness to participate in this research, belief in its importance and necessity, and that they should be compensated to participate in future studies. Further exploratory studies are needed to examine a larger and demographically diverse patient population.

Conclusion

We found that participants who have previously experienced entheogens are willing to participate in future entheogenic research, and find research involving entheogen use necessary for expanding clinical data and encouraging policy reform. Participants were willing to participate in future longitudinal studies, and felt they should be financially compensated for their involvement in the research. Future studies should be designed to include more diverse and inclusive cohorts of study participants to generate a generalizable patient population. While access to entheogens and experts in entheogenic practices are still limited, future studies investigating the efficacy of these formulations will help inform policy reform and accessibility to these traditional medicines.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the study participants who volunteered their time to respond to our survey. We would also like to thank Davi de Paula, founder of Flor da Jurema Church in Acre, Brazil, who provided thoughtful input and invaluable insight into the potential experiences of our survey respondents.

We strive to recognize and honor the rich cultural histories of communities who have used entheogens in their healing practices for centuries. As researchers, we see the immense value of traditional medicines and hope we can contribute to their increased acceptance and accessibility within the context of Western medical practice in the United States. We acknowledge the risk of cultural appropriation that accompanies the adoption of traditional practices in this context and welcome feedback from our readers on this topic. Finally, we feel it is important to address that while our survey respondents predominantly identified as White, we recognize that this is not representative of communities of color who have traditionally used these medicines. We believe the sociodemographics of our respondents reflect those who currently have access to entheogen therapies and are willing to respond to research questionnaires.

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  • Carhart-Harris, R., Bolstridge, M., Day, C., Rucker, J., Watts, R., Erritzoe, D., et al. (2018). Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: Six-month follow-up. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 235(2), 399-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4771-x.

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  • Carhart-Harris, R., Giribaldi, B., Watts, R., Baker-Jones, M., Murphy-Beiner, A., Murphy, R., et al. (2021). Trial of psilocybin versus escitalopram for depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 384(15), 14021411. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2032994.

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  • Cui, X., & Chang, C. (2021). How income influences health: Decomposition based on absolute income and relative income effects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(20), 10738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010738.

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  • DePierro, J., Lepow, L., Feder, A., & Yehuda, R. (2019). Translating molecular and neuroendocrine findings in posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience to novel therapies. Biological Psychiatry, 86(6), 454463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.07.009.

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  • Erritzoe, D., Roseman, L., Nour, M., MacLean, K., Kaelen, M., NuttD., et al. (2018). Effects of psilocybin therapy on personality structure. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 138(5), 368378. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.

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  • Harris, P., Taylor, R., Minor, B., Elliott, V., Fernandez, M., O’Neal, L., et al. (2019). REDCap Consortium, the REDCap consortium: Building an international community of software partners. Journal of Biomedical Information, 95, 103208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103208.

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Book Review Guidelines are available from HERE.

 

Editor-in-Chief:

Attila Szabo - University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Managing Editor:

Zsófia Földvári, Oslo University Hospital

 

Associate Editors:

  • Alan K. Davis - The Ohio State University & Johns Hopkins University, USA
  • Zsolt Demetrovics - Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Ede Frecska, founding Editor-in-Chief - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • David Luke - University of Greenwich, London, UK
  • Dennis J. McKenna- Heffter Research Institute, St. Paul, USA
  • Jeremy Narby - Swiss NGO Nouvelle Planète, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Stephen Szára - Retired from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, USA
  • Enzo Tagliazucchi - Latin American Brain Health Institute, Santiago, Chile, and University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA 

Book Reviews Editor:

Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

Editorial Board

  • Gábor Andrássy - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Paulo Barbosa - State University of Santa Cruz, Bahia, Brazil
  • Michael Bogenschutz - New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  • Petra Bokor - University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • Jose Bouso - Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • Zoltán Brys - Multidisciplinary Soc. for the Research of Psychedelics, Budapest, Hungary
  • Susana Bustos - California Institute of Integral Studies San Francisco, USA
  • Robin Carhart-Harris - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Per Carlbring - Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Valerie Curran - University College London, London, UK
  • Alicia Danforth - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA
  • Rick Doblin - Boston, USA
  • Rafael G. dos Santos - University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Genis Ona Esteve - Rovira i Virgili University, Spain
  • Silvia Fernandez-Campos
  • Zsófia Földvári - Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  • Andrew Gallimore - University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Neal Goldsmith - private practice, New York, NY, USA
  • Charles Grob - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Stanislav Grof - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Karen Grue - private practice, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Jiri Horacek - Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Lajos Horváth - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Robert Jesse - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Matthew Johnson - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Eli Kolp - Kolp Institute New, Port Richey, FL, USA
  • Stanley Krippner - Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA
  • Evgeny Krupitsky - St. Petersburg State Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Rafael Lancelotta - Innate Path, Lakewood, CO, USA
  • Anja Loizaga-Velder - National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Luis Luna - Wasiwaska Research Center, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Katherine MacClean - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Deborah Mash - University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
  • Friedericke Meckel - private practice, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Ralph Metzner - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Michael Mithoefer - private practice, Charleston, SC, USA
  • Levente Móró - University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • David Nichols - Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • David Nutt - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Torsten Passie - Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
  • Janis Phelps - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • József Rácz - Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Christian Rätsch - University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Sidarta Ribeiro - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
  • William Richards - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Stephen Ross - New York University, New York, NY, USA
  • Brian Rush - University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • Eduardo Schenberg - Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Ben Sessa - Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
  • Lowan H. Stewart - Santa Fe Ketamine Clinic, NM, USA (Medical Director)
  • Rebecca Stone - Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Rick Strassman - University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  • Csaba Szummer - Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church, Budapest, Hungary
  • Manuel Torres - Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
  • Luís Fernando Tófoli - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil State
  • Malin Uthaug - Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Julian Vayne - Norwich, UK
  • Nikki Wyrd - Norwich, UK

Attila Szabo
University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science ESCI
  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • APA PsycInfo
  • DOAJ
  • Scopus
  • CABELLS Journalytics

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
226
Journal Impact Factor 4.5
Rank by Impact Factor

n/a

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4.1
5 Year
Impact Factor
n/a
Journal Citation Indicator 0.97
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Pharmacology & Pharmacy 91/362
Psychiatry 69/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.416
Scimago Quartile Score

Anthropology Q1
Biological Psychiatry Q4
Clinical Psychology Q3
Health (social science) Q3
Pharmacology Q3
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q3
Social Psychology Q3

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
4.2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Anthropology 31/468 (93rd PCTL)
Health (social science) 78/344 (77th PCTL)
Social Psychology 96/292 (70th PCTL)
Clinical Psychology 96/292 (67th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 219/531 (58th PCTL)
Pharmacology (medical) 115/260 (55th PCTL)
Biological Psychiatry 30/47 (37th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.627

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
2
Scimago
Journal Rank
not yet available
Scimago Quartile Score Anthropology (Q3)
Biological Psychiatry (Q4)
Clinical Psychology (Q4)
Health (social science) (Q4)
Pharmacology (medical) (Q4)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q4)
Social Psychology (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0,9
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Anthropology 186/443 (Q2)
Health (social science) 234/323 (Q3)
Clinical Psychology 213/292 (Q3)
Pharmacology (medical) 190/255 (Q3)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 419/529 (Q4)
Social Psychology 243/296 (Q4)
Biological Psychiatry 38/43 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,381

2020  
CrossRef Documents 8
WoS Cites 37
WoS H-index 4
Days from submission to acceptance 95
Days from acceptance to publication 75
Acceptance Rate 41%

2019  
WoS
Cites
11
CrossRef
Documents
35
Acceptance
Rate
77%

 

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge €990
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%. 
   

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2016
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Debreceni Egyetem
Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1.
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
H-1091 Budapest, Hungary Kálvin tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2559-9283 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Nov 2023 0 136 100
Dec 2023 0 251 135
Jan 2024 0 250 142
Feb 2024 0 280 257
Mar 2024 0 365 323
Apr 2024 0 152 32
May 2024 0 0 0