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Sam Elias Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Montclair University, 320 Science Hall, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA

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Stephanie Spivak Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Montclair University, 320 Science Hall, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA

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Alexa Alverez Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Montclair University, 320 Science Hall, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA

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Alejandro Gili Olivares Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Montclair University, 320 Science Hall, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA

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Maria Ferrol Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Montclair University, 320 Science Hall, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA

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Julian Paul Keenan Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, Montclair University, 320 Science Hall, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7592-1491
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Abstract

Introduction

It is not known how self-perception and self-recognition are influenced when one is highly self-focused under the influence of psilocybin. Here we examine self-reports of mirror self-recognition and self-perception during a psilocybin experience.

Methods

Reddit posts were examined in a systematic manner. Posts that were written by individuals that ingested psilocybin and subsequently looked in a mirror were examined. After both automatic and manual filtering, a total of 89 posts with 775 post excerpts were analyzed.

Results

It was found that it was rare to see one's own face as a different entity (e.g., an animal or other person) however people were equally likely to see themselves as they really are or distorted. People were significantly more positive than negative when perceiving their own face.

Discussion

We found wide variation in the perception of the own-face while under the influence of psilocybin. While generally positive, the self-face appears to be an experience that varies dramatically from person to person under the influence of psilocybin.

Abstract

Introduction

It is not known how self-perception and self-recognition are influenced when one is highly self-focused under the influence of psilocybin. Here we examine self-reports of mirror self-recognition and self-perception during a psilocybin experience.

Methods

Reddit posts were examined in a systematic manner. Posts that were written by individuals that ingested psilocybin and subsequently looked in a mirror were examined. After both automatic and manual filtering, a total of 89 posts with 775 post excerpts were analyzed.

Results

It was found that it was rare to see one's own face as a different entity (e.g., an animal or other person) however people were equally likely to see themselves as they really are or distorted. People were significantly more positive than negative when perceiving their own face.

Discussion

We found wide variation in the perception of the own-face while under the influence of psilocybin. While generally positive, the self-face appears to be an experience that varies dramatically from person to person under the influence of psilocybin.

Introduction

It is of scientific interest to discover the influence psilocybin has on an individual's self-awareness. As psilocybin becomes more common as a treatment for mental disorders it is critical that we understand how one's self-perception and self-recognition is affected by such treatment (De Gregorio et al., 2021; Goldberg, Pace, Nicholas, Raison, & Hutson, 2020; Johnson & Griffiths, 2017; Reiff et al., 2020; Sarparast, Thomas, Malcolm, & Stauffer, 2022; Więckiewicz, Stokłosa, Piegza, Gorczyca, & Pudlo, 2021). It is also prevalent as distortions created by psychedelics in the bodily self have been suggested to be critical in their effectiveness (Ho, Preller, & Lenggenhager, 2020).

The role psychedelics play in an individual's consciousness, awareness and perception is by altering states of visual fields which can evoke a change in emotions (Winkelman, 2017). Mirror recognition is one technique involving an individual's visual field that researchers have used to study self-reflection and self-identity (Butler, Mattingley, Cunnington, & Suddendorf, 2012). Psilocybin specifically has been shown to elicit greater self-awareness (Lowe et al., 2021). Comprehending that the image reflected in the mirror is oneself likely requires the ability to understand that the self (oneself) can exist on multiple levels (Feinberg, 1997; Povinelli, Rulf, Landau, & Bierschwale, 1993; Uddin, Iacoboni, Lange, & Keenan, 2007). Distortions of self-awareness can lead to a lack of self-mirror recognition (mirror sign or self-capgras) (Feinberg & Keenan, 2005; Roane, Feinberg, & Liberta, 2019). The mere presence of a mirror increases an individual's self-awareness (Buckle & Christine, 1997). Therefore, one way to measure the role psychedelics play on self-perception and self-recognition is by having one interpret their own image through a mirror.

Psilocybin is a psychedelic substance that has been shown to have profound effects on consciousness, perception, and self-awareness: psilocybin has been able to reduce activity in brain regions associated with self-referential processing, suggesting that psilocybin may alter self-perception and self-awareness (Carhart-Harris et al., 2012). The effect of psilocybin on the self goes beyond that, as it is suggested that psilocybin-assisted therapy may promote positive self-perception. Individuals were more engaged in the therapeutic process, more willing to confront anxiety, and less fearful of self-confrontation, which is reflective of their self-perception (Haijen et al., 2018; Richards, Rhead, Dileo, Yensen, & Kurland, 1977). The administration of psilocybin to healthy individuals produces a temporary state of introspection, which is characterized by dream-like imagery with eyes closed, remembrance of personal memories, and heightened emotional experiences which also ties to self-perception (Riba, 2001; Sampedro, 2017).

The following study bridges the gap in psychedelic research by considering the potential impacts psilocybin has on an individual's self-perception (how one views themself specifically using the qualia, characteristics, and affect associated to provide insight with the reflexive process) and self-recognition (the ability or inability to correctly identify oneself). Understanding the effect a psychoactive substance has on self-perception and recognition can be used to assess an individual's tolerance and define multiple parameters (Andreae et al., 2016). Discovering these limitations will also warrant strict administration and monitoring (Yan, Costello, & Allen, 2021). While the study's data is limited, our research can further propel other researchers to explore the alterations psychedelics have on self-perception and self-recognition and gather more information. Further psychedelic research is needed in the clinical field, but this current study can be used as a foundation for future explorations.

Psilocybin clinical trials are ongoing in several countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Germany, and Denmark (Plotnik, Gibbs, & Graham, 2022). Besides the clinical trials, cultural acceptance of psilocybin for human health has increased over time, leading to amendments to policies that allow research exploration and even decriminalization of psilocybin-based therapies in some countries (Inserra, 2019). Although the growing acceptance demonstrated by decriminalization of psilocybin in places across the United States, psilocybin research remains limited and challenging to access in academic settings (Marks, 2023). This is largely due to the Controlled Substance Act proposed in 1970. With psilocybin being classified as Schedule I under this act, it is deemed to be of high hazard ratio and with no medicinal value (Johnson, Griffiths, Hendricks, & Henningfield, 2018). With this unfortunate reality in mind, we turned to self-reported user data from the online community Reddit to delve deeper into this topic. This innovative approach has enabled us to explore the connection between psilocybin and the self, and allowed us to add qualitative understanding of how psychedelic users perceive and recognize themselves.

Considering this, the goal of this study was to find relevant posts on Reddit relating back to our research question. Specifically, the aim was to use Reddit as a tool to discover the relationship between the effects of psilocybin, on both self-perception and self-recognition.

Materials and methods

Data source and collection

The posts utilized were all derived from various subreddits across the website Reddit.com. Reddit has been available since 2005, and has been a space where users can post about common interests. Reddit users have the ability to post, share, and comment about essentially anything they choose. These characteristics make the website a fruitful platform for unsolicited discussion of psychedelic experiences. Reddit posts can be searched for by keyword in order to find posts that contain similar information to the search terms. Two search terms that were used in order to find posts relevant to the research topic. The terms used were: (1) “psilocybin mirror” and (2) “shroom mirror”. These search terms were developed in order to yield a maximum amount of relevant posts that would fit the inclusion criteria discussed in the following paragraph. Both terms included “mirror” since the study is interested in what occurs when one views themself in the mirror on psilocybin. Additionally, the term “shroom” is a common term when referring to mushrooms containing psilocybin. “Psilocybin” was included as a search term as it is the specific molecule that is found in mushrooms that produces psychoactive effects upon intake. These search terms dovetailed nicely with our inclusion parameters in order to yield posts that could be analyzed for the study.

All of the search results using these particular terms were manually screened to see if they fit the inclusion parameters. The inclusion parameters were as follows: (1) the original poster had to explicitly state that they ingested mushrooms containing psilocybin; (2) there was the exclusive consumption of said compound and no other mind-altering substance before, during, or after; (3) the poster had to provide a description of what it was like, or the phenomenal characteristics of, looking in the mirror while on psilocybin; and (4) it was a novel post, meaning repeated posts could not be used twice even if they were in different subreddits. Comments that appeared in our initial search or under a post that fit our criteria were also analyzed.

Categorization and content analysis

Posts that fit the inclusion criteria were candidates for categorization. The categories were developed with self-perception and self-recognition in mind; these will be explored in more detail in the next section. The operating definitions used in this study for self-perception and self-recognition go as follows. Self-perception is how one views themself specifically using the qualia, characteristics, and affect associated with the reflexive process. Self-recognition simply is the ability or inability to correctly identify oneself.

Posts were gone through manually in order to derive qualitative data. Excerpts from the post relating back to the descriptive experience upon looking into the mirror while under a dose of psilocybin were identified. These excerpts were isolated from the entire post in order to do qualitative analysis on them. The identified excerpts were analyzed and placed within a category. It was possible that a single excerpt could have been placed under more than one category. The same methodology was done for comments. IPA qualitative analysis was conducted in this study.

Categories

Categories were developed after an initial search using the first search term, “shroom mirror”. Common keywords, phrases, and themes were identified in these initial accounts, and categories of qualia or description were established based on them. This mixed method derivation of the categories helped derive the qualitative and quantitative approach to post analysis.

A total of 15 categories were determined to aid in categorization and content analysis. These categories were: (1) visual change; (2) cognitive change; (3) surreal; (4) positive affect; (5) negative affect; (6) neutral affect; (7) self perception; (8) real self perception; (9) positive self image; (10) aging; (11) unreal self; (12) animal/entity; (13) other face; (14) geometry/patterns; and (15) primal/ancestry. Table 1 provides the definitions for these categories.

Table 1.

Categories used for analysis and corresponding definitions

Categories and their corresponding definitions
CategoryDefinition
Visual changeChanges in the visual field outside of the usual; environment, self, face, etc.
Cognitive changeChanges in thoughts, beliefs, especially surreal, untrue, irrational, thought loops, etc. Notable and different. Includes thoughts about the self
SurrealThoughts or feelings not veridical in nature, characterized by strangeness or lack of validity
Positive affectCharacterized by language or tone that denotes thoughts or feelings of happiness, humor, and an overall well-being
Negative affectCharacterized by language or tone that denotes thoughts or feelings of pain, uneasiness, and an overall lack of well-being
Neutral affectCharacterized by an overall experience that does not describe positive or negative affect; can simply be an explanation of what occurs
SelfDiscusses the self in some way without classifying the self as real, unreal, or positive self
Real selfDescribing experience as seeing the self with no unrecognizable changes
Positive self imageSee themselves as beautiful/attractive, suddenly have confidence, enjoying what they see, and making general positive comments on their self
AgingSeeing oneself as younger or older specifically with visual changes
Unreal selfNot recognizing oneself; seeing oneself as an entity other than human being; seeing oneself as someone else
Animal/entityThe viewer sees themself as an animal or some kind of non-human entity
Other faceHow the face of someone else changed in the event that the face of someone else was viewed
Geometry/patternsGeometric patterns that were physically seen on the face
Primal/ancestryFeelings or visual changes that evoke a sense or visual experience of the past or previous evolutionary self

Self-recognition

In order to assess the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror, the categories of unreal (the inability to correctly recognize oneself) and real (the ability to correctly recognize oneself) were used. The broad category of “self perception” was left out of this comparison since it encompassed both of the aforementioned categorical descriptions; instead it was used when calculating the percentages of the mentions of these two experiences. The total number of mentions within the posts between “unreal” and “real” were added up in order to derive the percentage of posts including the two categories that either were unable or able to positively recognize oneself.

Self-perception

Analysis was also done to assess the emotional quality of self-perception. In order to analyze how one might perceive oneself while under a dose of psilocybin, the categories “neutral affect”, “positive affect”, and “negative affect” were derived. Similarly to self-recognition, the sum of the number of mentions of these three categories was used in order to derive percentages and comparison between the neutral, positive, and negative affect.

Results

A total of 486 posts across Reddit were derived from our search terms. Upon manual screening there were 89 posts (18.31%) that fit our inclusion criteria. The 89 posts that were able to be utilized contained a total of 775 mentions or excerpts within the posts that fell under our identified categories (Table 2).

Table 2.

Categories and total mentions in a given category. Mentions listed from most amount of mentions to least amount of mentions. Total mentions per category derived from quantitative analysis

Mentions per category (n = 775)
CategoriesMentions (n, %)
Visual121 (15.60%)
Self103 (13.29%)
Cognitive92 (11.87%)
Surreal91 (11.74%)
Positive affect82 (10.58%)
Real self76 (9.81%)
Unreal self68 (8.77%)
Negative affect44 (5.67%)
Neutral affect35 (4.52%)
Positive self image20 (2.58%)
Temporal shift14 (1.81%)
Animal/entity11 (1.42%)
Geometry/patterns10 (1.29%)
Primal/ancestry7 (0.90%)
Other face1 (0.13%)

Excerpts that fell under real self or unreal self were included in the self-recognition analysis. The 144 mentions of self-recognition included 76 (52.78%) mentions of real self and 68 (47.22%) mentions of unreal self (see Fig. 1A). Comparing real self to unreal self, it was found that there was a significant difference (X2(1) = 0.44, p = 0.50), which indicated that real mentions were not significantly more likely than unreal mentions. Pertaining to self-perception, there were a total of 161 mentions. 82 (50.93%) of the mentions were of positive affect, 44 (27.33%) were of negative affect, and 35 (21.74%) were of neutral affect (see Fig. 1B). It was found that there was an overall significant difference in affective reaction (X2(2) = 23.19, p = 0.0000092). Comparing positive to negative directly, it was found that there were significantly more positive mentions than negative (X2(1) = 11.46, p = 0.00071) (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

All categories and their corresponding mentions (%)

Citation: Journal of Psychedelic Studies 7, 2; 10.1556/2054.2023.00251

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Self-recognition and self-perception breakdown. (A) self-recognition; (B) self perception

Citation: Journal of Psychedelic Studies 7, 2; 10.1556/2054.2023.00251

Categories such as aging, other face, primal/ancestry, geometry/patterns, and animal/entity made up only 5.55% of the total mentions.

Discussion

Overall looking in the mirror while under a dose of psilocybin will yield unique phenomenological experiences. It is true that the overall characteristics of the experience have the possibility of being the same, but the phenomenological nature of those experiences will be unique to the experiencers. That is to say it is entirely possible that two individuals looking in the mirror while on psilocybin will both experience a categorical experience such as a visual change, and yet the subjective experience and feeling of what each individual sees will vary. When the experience was broken down into its simplest component(s), the opportunity arose to categorize the experiences into a small number of classifications. Putting any two experiences into a category together does not necessarily mean they are identical. There is a likely possibility that the variety in experience may be due to the individual's mindset and setting as they have been proposed factors that mediate the characteristics and tone of a psychedelic experience (Hartogsohn, 2017).

As it pertains to self-recognition, the split between real self and unreal self showed no statistical significance, meaning that the phenomena of not recognizing oneself in the mirror while under the influence of psilocybin is not a guaranteed characteristic of the experience. It was shown, however, that psilocybin has the potential to powerfully alter self-recognition demonstrated by the varieties of experiences and changes that individuals looking in the mirror had. The specific effect of psilocybin on self perception is variable, but there is usually some profound effect, nonetheless.

Our results hold some insights into the probable valence of the experience looked into the mirror while under the influence of psilocybin It is a common conversation in the psychedelic space that one should be wary of looking at oneself in the mirror while under a dose of any psychedelic (Gashi, Sandberg, & Pedersen, 2021). With the results derived from the posts discussing what happened when someone looked in the mirror while on psilocybin, the positive affect to the experience was statistically significant compared to negative affect. This can suggest that the lore of not looking in the mirror while under the influence of psilocybin may not be the entire story. There has yet to be a study assessing the relationship between looking in the mirror on psilocybin to self-perception and self-recognition. Here we lay out what was discovered using self-reported posts via Reddit. It is imperative in the future that there be more controlled studies to assess self-perception and self-recognition while under a dose of psilocybin. Reddit comes with its own limitations and serves as a placeholder for more sophisticated and controlled trials to come.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Erritzoe, D., Williams, T., Stone, J. M., Reed, L. J., Colasanti, A., et al. (2012). Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fmri studies with psilocybin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(6), 21382143. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119598109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Gregorio, D., Aguilar-Valles, A., Preller, K. H., Heifets, B. D., Hibicke, M., Mitchell, J., et al. (2021). Hallucinogens in mental health: Preclinical and clinical studies on LSD, psilocybin, MDMA, and ketamine. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 41(5), 891900. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1659-20.2020.

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  • Feinberg, T. E.. (1997). Some interesting perturbations of the self in neurology. Seminars in Neurology, 17(2), 129135. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1040922.

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  • Feinberg, T. E., & Keenan, J. P. (Eds.) (2005). The lost self: Pathologies of the brain and identity (pp. xi, 275). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173413.001.0001.

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  • Gashi, L., Sandberg, S., & Pedersen, W. (2021). Making “bad trips” good: How users of psychedelics narratively transform challenging trips into valuable experiences. International Journal of Drug Policy, 87, 102997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102997.

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  • Goldberg, S. B., Pace, B. T., Nicholas, C. R., Raison, C. L., & Hutson, P. R. (2020). The experimental effects of psilocybin on symptoms of anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 284, 112749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112749.

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  • Haijen, E. C., Kaelen, M., Roseman, L., Timmermann, C., Kettner, H., Russ, S., et al. (2018). Predicting responses to psychedelics: A prospective study. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00897.

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  • Hartogsohn, I. (2017). Constructing drug effects: A history of set and setting. Drug Science, Policy and Law, 3, 2050324516683325. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050324516683325.

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  • Ho, J. T., Preller, K. H., & Lenggenhager, B. (2020). Neuropharmacological modulation of the aberrant bodily self through psychedelics. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 108, 526541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.12.006.

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  • Inserra A. (2019). Current status of psychedelic therapy in Australia and New Zealand: Are we falling behind? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(3), 190192. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867418824018.

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  • Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2017). Potential therapeutic effects of psilocybin. Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 14(3), 734740. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-017-0542-y.

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  • Johnson, M. W., Griffiths, R. R., Hendricks, P. S., & Henningfield, J. E. (2018). The abuse potential of medical psilocybin according to the 8 factors of the Controlled Substances Act. Neuropharmacology, 142, 143166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.05.012.

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  • Lowe, H., Toyang, N., Steele, B., Valentine, H., Grant, J., Ali, A., et al. (2021). The therapeutic potential of psilocybin. Molecules, 26(10), Article 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102948.

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  • Marks, M. (2023). The varieties of psychedelic law. Neuropharmacology, 226, 109399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2022.109399.

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  • Reiff, C. M., Richman, E. E., Nemeroff, C. B., Carpenter, L. L., Widge, A. S., Rodriguez, C. I., et al. (2020). Psychedelics and psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(5), 391410. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19010035.

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  • Riba, J., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Urbano, G., Morte, A., Antonijoan, R., Montero, M., et al. (2001). Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 154(1), 8595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000606.

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  • Roane, D. M., Feinberg, T. E., & Liberta, T. A. (2019). Delusional misidentification of the mirror image. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 19(8), 55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0972-5.

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  • Sampedro, F., de la Fuente Revenga, M., Valle, M., Roberto, N., Domínguez-Clavé, E., Elices, M., et al. (2017). Assessing the psychedelic “after-glow” in ayahuasca users: Post-acute neurometabolic and functional connectivity changes are associated with enhanced mindfulness capacities. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 20(9), 698711. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyx036.

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  • Sarparast, A., Thomas, K., Malcolm, B., & Stauffer, C. S. (2022). Drug-drug interactions between psychiatric medications and MDMA or psilocybin: A systematic review. Psychopharmacology, 239(6), 19451976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-022-06083-y.

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
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Editor-in-Chief:

Attila Szabo - University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Associate Editors:

  • Alan K. Davis - The Ohio State University & Johns Hopkins University, USA
  • Zsolt Demetrovics - Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Ede Frecska, founding Editor-in-Chief - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • David Luke - University of Greenwich, London, UK
  • Dennis J. McKenna- Heffter Research Institute, St. Paul, USA
  • Jeremy Narby - Swiss NGO Nouvelle Planète, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Stephen Szára - Retired from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, USA
  • Enzo Tagliazucchi - Latin American Brain Health Institute, Santiago, Chile, and University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA 

Book Reviews Editor:

Michael Winkelman - Retired from Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

Editorial Board

  • Gábor Andrássy - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Paulo Barbosa - State University of Santa Cruz, Bahia, Brazil
  • Michael Bogenschutz - New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  • Petra Bokor - University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • Jose Bouso - Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • Zoltán Brys - Multidisciplinary Soc. for the Research of Psychedelics, Budapest, Hungary
  • Susana Bustos - California Institute of Integral Studies San Francisco, USA
  • Robin Carhart-Harris - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Per Carlbring - Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Valerie Curran - University College London, London, UK
  • Alicia Danforth - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA
  • Rick Doblin - Boston, USA
  • Rafael G. dos Santos - University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Genis Ona Esteve - Rovira i Virgili University, Spain
  • Silvia Fernandez-Campos
  • Zsófia Földvári - Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  • Andrew Gallimore - University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Neal Goldsmith - private practice, New York, NY, USA
  • Charles Grob - Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Stanislav Grof - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Karen Grue - private practice, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Jiri Horacek - Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Lajos Horváth - University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Robert Jesse - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Matthew Johnson - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Eli Kolp - Kolp Institute New, Port Richey, FL, USA
  • Stanley Krippner - Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA
  • Evgeny Krupitsky - St. Petersburg State Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Rafael Lancelotta - Innate Path, Lakewood, CO, USA
  • Anja Loizaga-Velder - National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Luis Luna - Wasiwaska Research Center, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Katherine MacClean - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Deborah Mash - University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
  • Friedericke Meckel - private practice, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Ralph Metzner - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Michael Mithoefer - private practice, Charleston, SC, USA
  • Levente Móró - University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • David Nichols - Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • David Nutt - Imperial College, London, UK
  • Torsten Passie - Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
  • Janis Phelps - California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • József Rácz - Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Christian Rätsch - University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Sidarta Ribeiro - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
  • William Richards - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • Stephen Ross - New York University, New York, NY, USA
  • Brian Rush - University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • Eduardo Schenberg - Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Ben Sessa - Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
  • Lowan H. Stewart - Santa Fe Ketamine Clinic, NM, USA (Medical Director)
  • Rebecca Stone - Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Rick Strassman - University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  • Csaba Szummer - Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church, Budapest, Hungary
  • Manuel Torres - Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
  • Luís Fernando Tófoli - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil State
  • Malin Uthaug - Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • Julian Vayne - Norwich, UK
  • Nikki Wyrd - Norwich, UK

Attila Szabo
University of Oslo

E-mail address: attilasci@gmail.com

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science ESCI
  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • APA PsycInfo
  • DOAJ
  • Scopus
  • CABELLS Journalytics

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
226
Journal Impact Factor 4.5
Rank by Impact Factor

n/a

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
4.1
5 Year
Impact Factor
n/a
Journal Citation Indicator 0.97
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Pharmacology & Pharmacy 91/362
Psychiatry 69/264

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.416
Scimago Quartile Score

Anthropology Q1
Biological Psychiatry Q4
Clinical Psychology Q3
Health (social science) Q3
Pharmacology Q3
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q3
Social Psychology Q3

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
4.2
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Anthropology 31/468 (93rd PCTL)
Health (social science) 78/344 (77th PCTL)
Social Psychology 96/292 (70th PCTL)
Clinical Psychology 96/292 (67th PCTL)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 219/531 (58th PCTL)
Pharmacology (medical) 115/260 (55th PCTL)
Biological Psychiatry 30/47 (37th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.627

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
2
Scimago
Journal Rank
not yet available
Scimago Quartile Score Anthropology (Q3)
Biological Psychiatry (Q4)
Clinical Psychology (Q4)
Health (social science) (Q4)
Pharmacology (medical) (Q4)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q4)
Social Psychology (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0,9
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Anthropology 186/443 (Q2)
Health (social science) 234/323 (Q3)
Clinical Psychology 213/292 (Q3)
Pharmacology (medical) 190/255 (Q3)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 419/529 (Q4)
Social Psychology 243/296 (Q4)
Biological Psychiatry 38/43 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,381

2020  
CrossRef Documents 8
WoS Cites 37
WoS H-index 4
Days from submission to acceptance 95
Days from acceptance to publication 75
Acceptance Rate 41%

2019  
WoS
Cites
11
CrossRef
Documents
35
Acceptance
Rate
77%

 

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge €990
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%. 
   

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2016
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Debreceni Egyetem
Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary Egyetem tér 1.
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
H-1091 Budapest, Hungary Kálvin tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2559-9283 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Oct 2023 0 383 213
Nov 2023 0 526 317
Dec 2023 0 1118 664
Jan 2024 0 2455 1038
Feb 2024 0 1242 836
Mar 2024 0 739 532
Apr 2024 0 220 184