Csaba Kálmán
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János Gordon Győri
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László Horváth
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The idea to organize the international online conference “International diversity in teacher and higher education research in the 21st century” hosted by the “Teacher education and higher education studies (EDiTE)” program of the Doctoral School of Education of ELTE University was born in the spring of 2020, during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic when we had to face the reality that the opportunities of our doctoral students to attend international academic events had been dramatically narrowed. The intention of the initiators was to create an event which would make it possible for doctoral students to share the results of their research in a stimulating international environment in spite of the travel restrictions.

After the idea was born, we contacted our colleagues and friends – especially heads of doctoral schools of education in various European countries and partners in collaborative programs – and we asked whether they would be interested to work with us in preparing the online conference. We received enthusiastic reactions from almost all of them. The representatives of twelve doctoral schools or programs of education from eleven European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Portugal, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia and Slovenia) started working together to design the program and define the goals of the planned online academic event.

Many of those who are involved in doctoral education in educational sciences feel that there is not enough collaboration between doctoral schools. The possibilities for PhD students to meet each other, to share their experiences, their dilemmas and research outcomes, to collaborate on common projects or create networks are limited. This conference was a unique opportunity for them to get connected to each other. But it was also an opportunity for their teachers and supervisors to meet and share experiences.

The title of the conference (International diversity in teacher and higher education research in the 21st century) made our main thematic focus clear. We encouraged, first of all, those doctoral students who are interested in higher education studies and teacher education or teacher research, to submit proposals but we did not want the narrow our focus too much. We also welcomed proposals that were loosely or indirectly connected to the main focus. This made it possible to create a good diversity of communication platforms that allowed academic dialogue in fourteen different problem areas:

  1. Autonomy

  2. Clinical and Physical Education

  3. Digital Technologies

  4. Disadvantages in Education

  5. English Academic Writing

  6. Individual Differences

  7. Internationalization in Higher Education

  8. Motivation

  9. Quality Management in Higher Education

  10. Teacher Training and Development

  11. Teachers' Beliefs

  12. Teachers' Emotions

  13. Teaching Methodology

  14. Transformation in Higher Education

After the conference, a call for papers was announced, and based on the 29 abstracts submitted, the Scientific Committee of the conference selected eight manuscripts which make up this special ELTE EDiTE conference issue of the Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation. The selected papers underwent a double-blind peer-review process involving the scholars of the international doctoral schools participating in the conference. The resulting issue covers a wide array of empirical research conducted in the fields of global competence development, second language (L2) and third language (L3) motivation, English for academic purposes instruction, self-regulation, teachers' techno-pedagogical skills, the integration of higher education and workplace learning, and teacher educators' performance appraisal in diverse contexts.

The first three articles of the special issue focus on pre-service English teachers' competence development, motivational dispositions, and perceptions of academic writing instructions. The issue continues with two papers on English majors' perceptions of autonomy and self-regulation, followed by an article on international students' L2 and L3 motivational disposition. The focus of the next article is profiling Hungarian K12 teachers based on their techno-pedagogical skills, and the closing article of the special conference issue deals with developing teacher educators' performance appraisal.

The issue starts with Divéki's article on global competence development (GCD) in English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher training. The aim of this interview study with university tutors was to enquire what topics they dealt with for GCD, what attitudes they had towards dealing with these topics, and how they decided on the content in their first-year language development courses. Maung, Győri, and Kálmán's paper investigated Myanmar EFL pre-service teachers' motivational disposition in English writing with a quantitative study. The questionnaire developed by the authors measured which out of the investigated 12 dimensions of English writing contributed most to the motivated learning behavior of the participants. In the third article focusing on pre-service English teachers, Saed examined teacher trainees' perceptions of the efficiency of university EAP instruction with the help of semi-structured interviews in a case study conducted in Hungary. The purpose of Saed's work was twofold: on the one hand, he wanted to explore the strengths, weaknesses, and difficulties that EFL teacher trainees (TT) experienced during their studies; on the other hand, he aimed to investigate the perceived usefulness of EAP instruction in preparing EFL TTs for their future careers.

The next two articles examine English majors' perceptions of learner autonomy and the teacher's role in affecting higher education students' self-regulation. Win investigated first- and second-year English majors' perceptions of autonomy in language learning activities inside and outside the classroom by conducting a questionnaire study in the Myanmar context. Apart from autonomous behaviors, Win also examined the relationships between the variables of perceived ability, motivated learning behavior and perceptions of autonomy. Castillo's interview study in the Hungarian context focused on English majors' perceptions of self-regulation (SR) in language learning. The purpose of her paper was to obtain an overview of higher education students' self-regulation, to find out what cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioral strategies the students used in order to self-regulate and to explore their views on how the teacher's professional preparedness and personality influenced their SR process.

Stamenkovska, Kálmán, and Győri's questionnaire study measured the motivational disposition of international students learning English and/or Hungarian in Hungary. Besides the participants' ideal L2 self and ought-to L2 self, the scales of the questionnaire measured other influential learning and environmental impacts that exert their influence on the L2 learning experience. Apart from profiling the motivational disposition of the participants, the authors also established relationships between the scales with the help of correlation and regression analyses.

Fekete profiled Hungarian K12 (primary and secondary) teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic on the basis of their techno-pedagogical skills by measuring how they rated the components of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. The observed mean values of his investigation gave grounds for clustering Hungarian K12 teachers based on their existing techno-pedagogical skills as well as proposing possible directions for development.

Myint's article on teacher educators' performance appraisal closes the special conference issue. Myint aimed to reveal the influencing circumstances in developing teacher educators' performance appraisal, including purposes, setting standards, evaluation instruments and implementation. Additionally, she explored teacher educators' perceptions of the role of staff involvement in designing a performance appraisal system in her interview study conducted in Myanmar.

Neither the organization of the conference, nor the publication of this special issue would have been possible without the active collaboration of many enthusiastic people: academics and doctoral students representing several countries and also the technical staff of Eötvös University (ELTE). On behalf of the organizers, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to all of them. We are also extremely indebted to the participants of the conference for their contributions to this special issue, and the international reviewers for their work.

Funding information

This special issue was funded by the Scientific Foundations of Education Research Programme of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

MTA-ELTE Foreign Language Teaching Research Group

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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Helga DORNER

Associate Editors 

  • Csíkos, Csaba (Eötvös Lorand University, Hungary)
  • Csizér, Kata (Eötvös Lorand University, Hungary)
  • Dorner, Helga (Central European University, Hungary)


Editorial Board

  • Basseches, Michael (Suffolk University, USA)
  • Billett, Stephen (Griffith University, Australia)
  • Cakmakci, Gültekin (Hacettepe University, Turkey)
  • Damsa, Crina (University of Oslo,Norway)
  • Dörnyei, Zoltán (Nottingham University, UK)
  • Endedijk, Maaike (University of Twente, The Netherlands)
  • Fejes, Andreas (Linköping University, Sweden)
  • Guimaraes, Paula (University of Lisbon, Portugal)
  • Halász, Gábor (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Hansman, Catherine A. (Cleveland State University, USA)
  • Kroeber, Edith (Stuttgart University, Germany)
  • Kumar, Swapna (University of Florida, USA)
  • MacDonald, Ronald (University of Prince Edward Island, Canada)
  • Marsick, Victoria J. (Columbia University, USA)
  • Martensson, Katarina (Lund University, Sweden)
  • Matei, Liviu (Central European University, Hungary)
  • Matyja, Malgorzata (Wroclaw University of Economics, Poland)
  • Mercer, Sarah (University of Graz, Austria)
  • Nichols, Gill (University of Surrey, UK)
  • Nokkala, Terhi (University of Jyvaskyla, Finland)
  • Ostrouch-Kaminska (Uniwersytet Warminsko-Mazurski, Poland)
  • Pusztai, Gabriella (University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Ramesal, Ana (Barcelona University, Spain)
  • Reischmann, Jost (Bamberg University, Germany)
  • Rösken-Winter, Bettina (Humboldt, Germany)
  • Ryan, Stephen (Waseda University, Japan)
  • Török, Erika (Pallasz Athéné University, Hungary)
  • Wach-Kakolewicz, Anna (Poznan University of Economics and Business, Poland)
  • Watkins, Karen E. (University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia)




Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
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Eötvös Loránd University
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Address: 1075 Budapest, Kazinczy u. 23-27. HUNGARY


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Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
Publication Model Gold Open Access
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Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
Language English
Size A4
Year of
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Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2631-1348 (Online)

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