Authors:
Sabine Sommer-Lolei Austrian Academy of Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria
Recipient of a DOC-team fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria

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Veronika Mattes University of Graz, Austria

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Katharina Korecky-Kröll Austrian Academy of Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria

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Wolfgang U. Dressler Austrian Academy of Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5165-7665
Open access

Abstract

Cognitive processing strategies can explain general word-formation preferences that influence the structures and their developments. They are based on simplicity, transparency, iconicity, salience, and frequency. We present and discuss evidence from our data on first language acquisition for how these cognitively based general preferences can explain the course of development of word formation and how they interact or compete. The analysis is based on the development of distributions of word formations in longitudinal data and panel data of child speech and their input from high and low socio-economic status families. In order to evaluate the productivity of a word-formation pattern in child speech, we applied the mini-paradigm criterion. Age-of-acquisition effects will be presented according to our own processing studies and to literature.

Abstract

Cognitive processing strategies can explain general word-formation preferences that influence the structures and their developments. They are based on simplicity, transparency, iconicity, salience, and frequency. We present and discuss evidence from our data on first language acquisition for how these cognitively based general preferences can explain the course of development of word formation and how they interact or compete. The analysis is based on the development of distributions of word formations in longitudinal data and panel data of child speech and their input from high and low socio-economic status families. In order to evaluate the productivity of a word-formation pattern in child speech, we applied the mini-paradigm criterion. Age-of-acquisition effects will be presented according to our own processing studies and to literature.

1 Introduction

In this paper we address the question of how to explain the development of morphological structures in terms of cognitive principles of language processing by providing evidence from natural language acquisition data on word formation. Cognitive processing strategies can explain general word-formation preferences that influence the structures and their developments. These preferences should by their nature hold even more for child speech than for adult speech. They are based on simplicity, transparency, iconicity, salience, and frequency as has been discussed widely in the realm of Natural Morphology and usage-based approaches.

The aim of the present paper is to present evidence from our data on first language acquisition for how these cognitively based general preferences can explain the course of development of word formation, but also how they interact or compete, especially in the early phases, in which language specific factors such as productivity and conventionality do not have much influence due to the still minor language experience of children. As the properties of the linguistic input play a central role for children's language development, we pay special attention to child-directed speech (CDS) and relate its features to those of child speech (CS).

Concerning the processing of morphological structure, one major question arises: are morphological constructions accessed holistically or are they decomposed? Several studies with adults have shown that they are processed in both ways – as whole words and via accessing their morphological elements, even if the construction is semantically opaque (Smolka et al. 2014, 2019; Creemers et al. 2020). This duality is claimed to be a central property of all morphological structures, but compound structure is more easily accessible than derivational structure due to its transparent sub-elements. Furthermore, the domain of derivation is much more in transition to the lexicon of simplex words. Citing Libben, Gagné & Dressler (2020, 339), “multimorphemic words exist as morphological superstates, which have the ‘potential’ to assume a variety of actual morphological states, depending on situational and processing demands”.

2 Word formation in acquisition and processing

2.1 First language acquisition of word formation

When we take a usage-based perspective to investigate how children detect and use the system of multimorphemic words, we assume that children treat the first word formations they meet as whole lexical items, and only later do they start to recognize the word constituents and the combinatorial processes and link the roots (or other bases) and affixes to a specific meaning – this can only result from repeated experience with complex words and their bases, such as play, team & workteam play, teamwork, play-er, work-er, team play-er (cf. Clark 2014; Libben 2015; Dressler, Ketrez & Kilani-Schoch 2017; Mattes et al. 2021).

As compounds are the easiest word-formation structures to process (Clark & Hecht 1982; Clark 1993; Swan 2000; Libben, Gagné & Dressler 2020) they are as such expected to be acquired before other word-formation structures (derivation, synthetic compounds, conversion1). Within the domain of compounds, word-based compounds (Ger. Milch-flasche ‘milk bottle’, Welt-reise ‘world tour’) are expected to be mastered before root-based compounds (Ger. Trink-flasche ‘drinking bottle’, from the verbal base trink- ‘to drink’; Sprach-reise ‘language trip’, from the noun Sprache ‘language’ which is again derived from the verbal base sprech- ‘to speak’), and compounds that require an interfix (Ger. Schiff-s-reise ‘boat trip’) after interfixless compounds (Ger. Haus-boot ‘house boat’).

What we know very generally from studies on the development of morphology in several languages is that acquisition of inflection and compounding usually starts before the second birthday and that it is well-developed before school age (Bittner, Dressler & Kilani-Schoch 2003; Stephany & Voeikova 2009; Dressler, Ketrez & Kilani-Schoch 2017). The acquisition of derivation starts rather slowly before or at least after the second birthday (Mattes et al. 2021) and it significantly accelerates during pre-school age (Anglin 1993; Clark & Berman 2004; Mattes 2018), however, a major part of derivatives is still acquired during school age (Anglin 1993; Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1998; Ravid & Avidor 1998; Nippold 2008). The course of development is also influenced by the degree of morphological richness of a morphological subsystem (cf. McWhorter 2005; Sommer-Lolei, Korecky-Kröll et al. 2021; see also Xanthos et al. 2011, for inflection). In German, this would facilitate the acquisition of nominal compounds and particle verb constructions, which are dominant in the word-formation system (see e.g., Korecky-Kröll, Sommer-Lolei & Dressler 2017; Korecky-Kröll et al. 2022).

2.2 Cognitive processing preferences

Many of the developments in word formation in language acquisition relate to different types of complexity enhancement, demonstrating the important role played by the factors transparency, iconicity, salience and frequency.

For cognitive reasons, simpler constructions are preferred over more complex ones. Complexity can be formal and/or conceptual (Slobin 1973, 1985; Arkadiev & Gardani 2020). Formal complexity is related to allomorphy, morphotactic opacity, combinations of word-formation patterns in one lexeme (i.e., the number of constituents or word-formation patterns applied). Conceptual complexity is a feature of polysemous or morphosemantically opaque word forms or word forms with abstract meanings (Schwanenflugel 1991; Gleitman et al. 2005).

When we look at one of the components of simplicity, namely transparency, we must distinguish between morphotactic transparency, i.e., easy formal decomposition of derivatives and compounds, and morphosemantic transparency, i.e., easy recoverability of the meaning of constituents of derivations and compounds from the holistic meaning of the whole complex word (cf. Dressler & Kilani-Schoch 2016). This predicts a preference for concatenative morphology over (root vowel) modification or conversion and a preference for morphosemantically transparent over opaque word formations. Morphosemantic transparency “has been shown to influence processing in both comprehension and production tasks” (Libben, Gagné & Dressler 2020, 341), as in opaque word formations we have to cope with a conflict between whole-word and constituent meanings, see also Baayen's (1993) dual processing race model.

The principles of iconicity and avoidance of ambiguity are best fulfilled in a one-to-one correspondence (“biuniqueness”) of formal morphemes and their functions, or in head-non-head relations, when the formal head of a derivative and compound is also its semantic head. For example, this holds for endocentric vs. exocentric compounds, such as the agents jewel-thief vs. pick-pocket, derivatives such as teach-er, where the suffix is overtly responsible for the whole word being an agent vs. agent cook (Ungerer 1999; Dressler & Kilani-Schoch to appear). This predicts for example a preference for compounds and overt derivations over conversions. But another type of iconicity intervenes: the meaning of the lexical base is semantically and prosodically stronger than an affix.

Salience, in the framework of Natural Morphology, very generally refers to the relative prominence of a morpheme in a morphologically complex word (see Giraudo & Dal Maso 2016). Segmentation usually proceeds from the periphery to the center of a word, and positional salience facilitates word-final and word-initial elements (“bathtub effect” Aitchison 1994, 134). Due to the recency effect, suffixation should be preferred over prefixation in young children (e.g., Peters 1997), who have a limited working memory capacity (e.g., Verhagen & Leseman 2016; Sumner et al. 2019), whereas prefixation should be preferred by adults due to the primacy effect (e.g., Gupta et al. 2005).

Prosodic salience predicts a preference for stressed over unstressed morphemes (e.g., weg#gehen ‘to go away’ with primary stress on the particle weg vs. ent-gehen ‘to escape’ with an unstressed prefix ent-). As affixes are often prosodically non-salient, this can lead to a preference for compounding over affixation in word formation and, within affixation, a preference for stressed over unstressed affixes (e.g., nomin-ee vs. nominat-or). However, this universal preference is contradicted by what Wurzel (1984) has called “language-specific system adequacy” or “normalcy”, i.e., that in many languages affixes are normally unaccented.

Finally, frequency of a morphological structure in the language plays an essential role in language processing and use in general, and, especially in acquisition (Ambridge et al. 2015; Libben 2015). Whereas high token frequency of word forms enhances entrenchment and activation, high type or lemma frequency of word-formation patterns promotes their productivity. This leads to the prediction that words and constructions with a high frequency in the child's input will, all else being equal, be acquired earlier than words and constructions with a low input frequency (Behrens 2006; Gülzow & Gagarina 2007; Ambridge et al. 2015). Consequently, this causes age-of-acquisition effects in adult processing (cf. Bonin et al. 2004; Juhasz 2005; Veríssimo et al. 2018), which means that earlier acquired words, constructions and structures are more robust than later acquired ones.

2.3 Interaction of preferences and other factors

In early language acquisition, principles such as simplicity might interact with other preferences, such as transparency and iconicity, which may explain Clark's (1993) finding that converted verbs emerge before affixed verbs in English and German. Conversion is the simplest option, but it is a non-iconic operation since there is no formal change corresponding to a change in meaning, i.e., preferences of simplicity come into conflict with those of iconicity and transparency.

Productivity (in the language) refers to the affix category size as ‘realized productivity’ (Baayen 2009), i.e., with regard to derivation, lemma frequency reflects the relative success with which the affix produces new derivatives over time (Smolka, Libben & Dressler 2019). For German word formation this can be easiest tested by checking whether recent English loan words are used in German word formation: this occurs every day in compounding and inflection. Derivational examples are the diminutives Computer-chen / Computer-l ‘little computer’, or the particle verbs ein#scann(en) ‘to scan in’ or rüber#mail(en) ‘to mail across’. Further evidence can be provided by compounding and derivation from abbreviations such as ÖVP-ler ‘member of the Austrian people's party Ö(sterreichische) V(olks)p(artei)’ (Dressler 2007). However, productivity is overruled by lemma frequency and transparency in early language acquisition, cf. sections 3.4 & 3.5 below (see also Mattes et al. 2021).

A further factor is that the morphological type of the language to be acquired determines the amount of morphological richness. High richness of a word-formation subsystem (e.g., of diminutives) facilitates processing and acquisition (McWhorter 2005; Dressler, Merlini Barbaresi et al. 2019; Sommer-Lolei, Korecky-Kröll et al. 2021). Additionally, morphological richness can also vary in the children's input, depending on the socio-economic status (SES) of their families, which is most often related to parents' educational levels, professions and family income (e.g., Hoff 2006). SES has been reported to influence children's speed of language development, as has been extensively demonstrated for the acquisition of vocabulary (e.g., Hart & Risley 1995; Arriaga et al. 1998), but it also holds for the acquisition of morphology: lower SES parents are less likely to provide their children with morphologically rich input and, as a consequence, their children lag behind their higher SES peers (e.g., Ravid & Zimmerman 2017; Levie, Ben-Zvi & Ravid 2017; Korecky-Kröll et al. 2022; Sommer-Lolei 2022).

3 Empirical study on the development of word formation in first language acquisition of German

3.1 Hypotheses

Based on the principles presented in section 2.2, we pose the following hypotheses for the acquisition of word formation:

  1. -Word-formation patterns gradually increase in complexity during the course of acquisition.
  2. -The speed of this increase and the degree of complexity reflect the degree of morphological richness in the input.
  3. -Frequencies of word-formation patterns in child speech (CS) reflect frequencies in their input (child-directed speech, CDS) and influence their order of emergence and productivity.
  4. -As compounds are more descriptive and as such morphosemantically more transparent than derivations, compounds are acquired before and preferred over other word-formation patterns.
  5. -Particle verbs are acquired before prefixed verbs because they are prosodically and, due to their variation in positions, positionally more salient.
  6. -Within the domain of derivation, transparent derivations are acquired before opaque ones, concrete before abstract ones and suffixes before prefixes.

3.2 Acquisition data

In this paper we analyze the longitudinally recorded data of three children and their mothers with higher socio-economic status (HSES). Their spontaneous speech was recorded 1 to 4 times per month in their family environment in varying daily situations. In total we analyze 90.9 h of recording and 317,052 transcribed word tokens in child speech (CS) and child-directed speech (CDS), as presented for each child in Table 1.

Table 1.

Longitudinal spontaneous speech data (CS & CDS) (cited from Sommer-Lolei 2022, 61)

CorpusPeriodaNo. utterancesNo. word tokensNo. rec.No. hours of rec.
CSCDSCSCDS
JAN (m/HSES)1;3–4;1119,16640,84947,701187,17811457.3
KAT (f/HSES)1;6–3;03,4176,9176,36625,6603413.6
LEN (f/HSES)1;7–3;06,06411,87712,08738,0604020.0
Total28,64759,64366,154250,89818890.9

In addition, we investigate panel data of 29 children and their main caretakers of the INPUT-project.2 Their spontaneous speech was recorded at 4 data points at mean ages 3;1, 3;4, 4;4 and 4;8 at their homes in Vienna in interaction with their main caretaker in everyday situations. 15 children (8 girls/7 boys) come from families with higher socio-economic background and 14 children (6 girls/8 boys) from families with lower socio-economic status (LSES). Overall, the panel data consist of 58 h of recording and 286,623 word tokens in CS and CDS, as shown in Table 2. For a more extensive presentation of the panel data see Sommer-Lolei (2022, 62–65).

Table 2.

Panel data (CS & CDS)

CorpusData pointsNo. utterancesNo. word tokensNo. hours of rec.
CSCDSCSCDS
HSES3;1 | 3;4 | 4;4 | 4;819,10530,10958,172108,99030.0
LSES3;1 | 3;4 | 4;4 | 4;816,58721,62744,60374,85828.0
Total35,69151,736102,775183,84858.0

All participants of the corpora acquire Standard Austrian German as spoken in Vienna as their native language. All data were transcribed and coded using an adapted German version of CHILDES (cf. MacWhinney 2000).

3.3 Theoretical approach

The theoretical background for the empirical studies that are reported in the present paper is the Usage-based Approach to language acquisition (Clark 1993; Tomasello 2003; Berman 2004) and the framework of Natural Morphology (Dressler et al. 1987; Dressler 2005; Dressler & Kilani-Schoch 2016). Based on these theories, the model of Pre- and Protomorphology had been developed in many publications starting with Dressler & Karpf (1995) up to Mattes et al. (2021) and Korecky-Kröll et al. (2022). In a nutshell, the premorphological phase refers to the phase before the child detects morphological segmentability and composition. Therefore, the child produces only isolated rote-learned word formations without recurrence of either their lexical bases in other words or of their affixes. The proto-morphological phase, which is much more relevant for questions discussed in this paper, is the one in which the child explores the morphological structure of the language and starts to use it productively. This phase begins when a child detects, due to the expanding lexicon and language experience, morphology as a means of decomposing and composing the meaning and form of word formations.

When and how children build up a repertoire of word-formation devices strongly depends on input factors and cognitive processing preferences (cf. section 2.2), but also on language specific properties and typological features of the language.

3.4 Methods

We examined the distributions of word-formation patterns in our longitudinal data and panel data, by counting and comparing lemma and token frequencies in CS and CDS. For the investigation of productivity, or at least “potential productivity” of a pattern in child speech, we applied the mini-paradigm criterion. It was first developed by Dressler, Kilani-Schoch & Klampfer (2003), based on previous studies on the emergence of mini-paradigms (Bittner et al., 2000; Kilani-Schoch & Dressler 2002) and was applied in numerous studies for the acquisition of inflectional morphology (Bittner, Dressler & Kilani-Schoch 2003, xvi; Dressler, Kilani-Schoch & Klampfer 2003; Kilani-Schoch & Dressler 2005). Later the concept of the mini-paradigm criterion was adapted to word formation as a criterion for the acquisition of a pattern (first for compounding in Dressler, Ketrez & Kilani-Schoch 2017, 7, 26–27; Korecky-Kröll, Sommer-Lolei & Dressler 2017; then for derivation in Mattes et al. 2021; Sommer-Lolei, Mattes et al. 2021; Sommer-Lolei 2022), of course before attaining Berman's (2004) full mastery.

The mini-paradigm criterion for derivational morphology is fulfilled, when a child spontaneously produces at least three derivatives, i.e., applies a morphological process (affixation, conversion, stem/root vowel modification) to at least three different bases, with each base occurring in at least three different types (other derivatives, compounds, uninflected or inflected words). As posited by Jackendoff & Audring (2020, 225), a language learner might propose a “tentative schema” as soon as s/he identifies a relationship between two word forms, but this schema can only “be ‘verified’ by a third instance”.

For our analysis, we considered spontaneous speech of the main caretaker and the child, excluding adult- and pet-directed speech, direct spontaneous imitations of the children as well as citations (e.g., literary language, song lyrics). Furthermore, we excluded auxiliary and modal verbs, proper nouns and diminutives.

3.5 Early acquisition of German word formation

German is a compounding rather than a derivational language, but nevertheless, derivational morphology is rich in various types of affixation and makes use of some root modification. Very dominant in verb formation are particle verb constructions. German also uses conversion to derive nouns and verbs, but to a lesser degree than English. Latinate derivational morphology is much less important than in English and plays no role in toddlers' and preschool children's acquisition.

The following sections present the course of acquisition of simplex vs. derived nouns and verbs in lemmas and tokens in all corpora up to almost five years of age and show differences in the developmental course of children with higher and lower socio-economic background. The Tables in Section 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 present mean values of the children, whereas the longitudinal recorded spontaneous speech data was additionally normalized for an equal number of recordings per month to take variations of the frequency of recordings into account, whereas the panel data were normalized for equal numbers of children.

For a direct comparison of the course of acquisition of simplex vs. derived verbs and nouns in lemmas and tokens see Sommer-Lolei, Mattes et al. (2021, 125). In a nutshell, we found that “derived verbs tend to emerge earlier and develop faster than derived nouns” and that “derived nouns do not show the same steady development as verbs and have lower frequencies in both lemmas and tokens throughout the course of development” (Sommer-Lolei, Mattes et al. 2021, 125).

A comparison of the distribution of word-formation patterns in CS and CDS up to age 3;0 showed that all children produced significantly fewer derived noun and verb lemmas than their caretakers (whereas we did not find such a consistent difference with regard to verb tokens). (For details see Sommer-Lolei, Mattes et al. 2021, 117–122).

3.5.1 Nominal derivation in child speech

Figures 1 and 2 present mean values of simplex and derived nouns as well as synthetic compounds in lemmas and tokens in child speech in the course of acquisition in the corpora of JAN, KAT and LEN up to age 3;0 and in JAN up to 4;11. Mean values of the three children were calculated after normalizing for equal number of recordings. Simplex nouns are only presented in the longitudinal data to show the development from early on in comparison to derived nouns (including all cases of suffixation, prefixation, circumfixation, morphological and syntactic conversion, root vowel modification)3 and synthetic compounds.

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Course of acquisition (mean values of lemmas) of simplex vs. derived nouns vs. synthetic compounds in the corpora of JAN, KAT and LEN up to age 3;0 and in JAN up to 4;11 (CS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Course of acquisition (mean values of tokens) of simplex vs. derived nouns vs. synthetic compounds in the corpora of JAN, KAT and LEN up to age 3;0 and in JAN up to 4;11 (CS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

The three children show a clear preference for simplex nouns (N SIMP) in lemmas and tokens up to age 4;11 (see Figures 1 and 2). The variety of derived nouns increases with age but does not show the same steady development that we find in derived verbs (see Figures 5 and 6). Low frequencies of synthetic compounds are due to their higher complexity, since they combine compounding and derivation.

Derived nouns (N DERIV) increase in lemma and token frequency from their first emergence, but we find a sharper increase from age 3;5 onwards, in synthetic compounds (synth. COMP) between 3;8 and 4;3 in JAN (see Figure 1 for lemmas, Figure 2 for tokens). This tendency is also visible in the HSES children of the INPUT corpus, whose lemma and token frequencies (N DERIV, synth. COMP) increase from the first to the fourth data point (DP1–DP4), with some variation in between (see Figures 3 and 4). The lemmas and token frequencies of derived nouns and synthetic compounds in the LSES children, however, remain approximately the same in both word-formation patterns, with exception of derived noun tokens that show highest numbers already at data point 1, which shows that the children use the few lemmas more often (see Figure 4).

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Course of acquisition (mean values of lemmas) of derived nouns and synthetic compounds in the INPUT corpus (HSES- and LSES-CS) at four data points up to 4;8

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Course of acquisition (mean values of tokens) of derived nouns and synthetic compounds in the INPUT corpus (HSES- and LSES-CS) at four data points up to 4;8

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

3.5.2 Verbal derivation in child speech

Figures 5 and 6 present mean values of simplex and derived verbs as well as the categories of particle and prefixed verbs in lemmas and tokens in child speech and their developmental course of acquisition in JAN, KAT and LEN up to age 3;0 and in JAN up to 4;11. Mean values of the three children were calculated after normalizing the data for equal number of recordings. Simplex verbs are presented in the longitudinal data only to show the development from the beginning in comparison to particle and prefixed verbs (or derived verbs in general, respectively, which include all prefixed and particle verbs, circumfixations, suffixations, morphological conversions).4

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Course of acquisition (mean values of lemmas) of simplex vs. derived verbs (total) and of particle and prefixed verbs in Lemmas in JAN, KAT and LEN up to age 3;0 and in JAN up to 4;11 (CS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Course of acquisition (mean values of tokens) of simplex vs. derived verbs (total) and of particle and prefixed verbs in Lemmas in JAN, KAT and LEN up to age 3;0 and in JAN up to 4;11 (CS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

As with nouns, we also find a preference for simplex verbs especially in tokens (Figures 5 and 6). All children show a steady increase of particle verbs (PTLV) that starts early (see Table 4) and continues up to age 4;11.

Derived verbs (V DERIV) appear earlier in children's speech production compared to derived nouns (see Table 4). Moreover, derived verbs develop faster than derived nouns, as shown by the steeper increase in lemmas and tokens (see Figures 58). Lemma and token frequencies of derived verbs are directly related to those of particle verbs, since they display a subcategory and account for the vast majority of derived verbs.

Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Course of acquisition (mean values of lemmas) of derived verbs, particle and prefixed verbs in the INPUT-corpus (HSES- and LSES-CS) at four data points up to 4;8

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Course of acquisition (mean values of tokens) of derived verbs, particle and prefixed verbs in the INPUT-corpus (HSES- and LSES-CS) at four data points up to 4;8

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

With respect to the course of development of prefixed verbs (PREFV) we observe that prefixed verbs increase in lemmas in JAN from age 3;4 onwards and in token frequency from age 3;8 onwards (see Figures 5 and 6), which we also find in the HSES children in both, lemmas and tokens (see Figures 7 and 8). In the LSES children the lemma frequency of prefixed verbs increases, while their token frequency remains about the same up to 4;8.

The course of acquisition differs for verbs and nouns, when investigating the course of simplex vs. derived verbs and nouns. There is a tendency in our three longitudinal corpora (Table 1) that verb derivation emerges earlier and develops faster than noun derivation, especially in contrast to the increase of simplex nouns. There is a constant increase of simplex and derived verbs, at least in lemmas, whereas lemma and token frequency of derived nouns remains rather low up to the age of 4;11.

3.5.3 Complexity of word formations

As mentioned in section 2.2 we analyze the formal complexity of derivatives in verbs and nouns in children's output and input in the course of acquisition. Therefore, the degree of complexity as presented in Figures 912 is determined by the number of word-formation processes involved. In case of a single word-formation process, e.g., affixation, conversion,5 root vowel modification, compounding, as in fahr(en) ‘drive’ → Fahr-er ‘driver’, stoß(en) ‘to thrust’ → Stoß ‘thrust’, Kamm ‘comb’ → kämm(en) ‘to comb’ it is degree 1. In case of two or more word-formation processes it is degree 2, 3 or 4 respectively. For the assignment of the degrees of complexity with examples see Mattes (2018, 123). All lexemes, including lexicalized and morphosemantically opaque ones, in the JAN and INPUT corpora were categorized. Experimental studies with adults for complex German verbs have shown that opacity has no detrimental effect on their processing (cf. Smolka et al. 2014, 2019).

Figure 9.
Figure 9.

Degrees of complexity of derived noun lemmas in the JAN corpus at yearly intervals up to 4;11 (CS and CDS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 10.
Figure 10.

Degrees of complexity of derived noun lemmas in the INPUT corpus (HSES and LSES) at four data points (DP1–4) up to 4;8 (CS and CDS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 11.
Figure 11.

Degrees of complexity of derived verb lemmas in the JAN-corpus at yearly intervals up to 4;11 (CS and CDS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Figure 12.
Figure 12.

Degrees of complexity of derived verb lemmas in the INPUT-corpus (HSES and LSES) at four data points up to 4;8 (CS and CDS)

Citation: Acta Linguistica Academica 70, 3; 10.1556/2062.2023.00633

Regardless of their opacity, less complex lexemes (degree 1) are easier for a child to pick up and process than more complex ones (e.g., degree 2 jag(en) ‘to hunt’ → Jäg-er ‘hunter’, involving a suffix plus a vowel change, degree 3 Last-wagen-fahr-er ‘truck driver’). This is supported by the findings of Sommer-Lolei & Dressler (in print) for the acquisition of agent and instrument nouns. Therefore, less complex word formations are an important starting point for the development of more complex forms. Thus, morphotactic complexity plays an essential role in language acquisition since the increasing complexity of grammatical structures leads to longer processing times. Synthetic compounds show a special kind of complexity, as they combine derivational with compositional word-formation processes (see Dressler, Sommer-Lolei et al. 2019).

Figures 9 and 10 illustrate the distribution of lemma frequency of derived nouns by degree of complexity in CS and CDS given in yearly intervals (JAN) or per data point (INPUT). The data were normalized for equal numbers of children (N = 15, INPUT) or equal numbers of recordings per year (JAN).

In general, we find a strong correlation throughout the entire period investigated between input and output frequencies in all degrees of complexity in all corpora for derived verbs and nouns (see Figures 9 and 10 for nouns; Figures 11 and 12 for verbs), and a clear preference for less complex derivations up to age 4;11 in both word classes. Less complex derivatives occur always before more complex ones in nouns and verbs, with derived verbs emerging first in CS, e.g., in JAN: Schleck-er ‘lollipop’ from schleck(en) ‘to lick’ (at 1;8, degree 1) before Stieg-e ‘staircase’ from steig(en) ‘to step’ (at 1;8, degree 2) and An#fäng-er ‘beginner’ from an#fang(en) ‘to begin’ (at 2;8, degree 3); an#halt(en) ‘to stop’ from halt(en) ‘to hold’ (at 1;6, degree 1) before drauf#setz(en) ‘sit on’ from sitz(en) ‘to sit’ (at 1;9, degree 2) and hin-ein#leg(en) ‘belong in’ (at 2;5, degree 3). The majority of derived verb lemmas with degree 1 in CS and CDS are particle verbs.

In the child Jan (1;3–4;11, displayed in yearly intervals) we find a constant increase of derived noun and verb lemmas in all degrees of complexity in the course of acquisition, with exception of the most complex degree 4 in nouns (see Figure 9) and degree 3 in verbs (see Figure 11) that we also find in his CDS. The INPUT children, whose recordings start at mean age 3;1, use nominal derivatives up to degree 3 in all recordings (see Figures 10 and 12). All children show notable increases especially in derived verbs from data point 3 to 4. Moreover, we find a strong increase of different noun lemmas (degree 2) between data point 2 & 4 (from mean age 3;3 to 4;8) in the HSES children that is not visible in the LSES children.

There is a gap between the HSES and the LSES children, showing that HSES children produce more different derived noun lemmas especially in degrees 1 & 2. They also show an increase of derived noun and verb lemmas from data point 3 to 4 in comparison to their LSES peers.

This finds a parallel also in their input frequencies, where we find an even greater difference between lemma frequencies of HSES and LSES main caretakers, with LSES CDS producing fewer word formations.

HSES children tend to have an advantage because of higher input lemma frequencies from early on in derived nouns and verbs, which not only leads to higher productive usage that results in a more diverse lexicon and vocabulary growth, but moreover to a greater ability in word formation later in life (see the study of Sommer-Lolei 2022, with the same children at age 8;0).

3.5.4 Frequencies and order of emergence

Table 3 presents age and order of emergence of all simplex and derived nouns and verbs in CS in relation to the percentages of lemmas and tokens in CDS of the corpus of the boy Jan. High frequencies in lemmas and tokens of simplex words correspond with their early emergence. This also holds for the high input lemma frequency of particle verbs resulting in their very early emergence in CS at 1;6 and for the emergence of compounds at 1;8 that also corresponds with input lemma frequency. But for verb conversion, e.g., Fisch ‘fish’ → fisch(en) ‘to fish’ which emerges simultaneously with particle verbs there is no correspondence to input frequency (3.1% lem./0.6% tok.).

Table 3.

Age and order of emergence of all simplex and derived nouns and verbs in relation to the percentages of lemmas and tokens in CDS in the JAN corpus (modified cited from Sommer-Lolei et al. 2021, 131)

CHILDAge of emergenceDerivation patternCDS % LemmasCDS % Tokens
JAN1;3simplex nouns41.369.8
1;4simplex verbs22.880.1
1;6particle verbs63.815.5
1;6conversion (verbs)3.10.6
1;6diminutive suffixes (nouns)3.81.7
1;8compounds (nouns)43.321.3
1;8-er (nouns)2.41.4
1;8conversion (nouns)2.72.0
1;8prefixed verbs6.52.2
1;8root vowel modification (verbs)1.80.6
1;9-e (nouns)2.21.6
1;9suffixed verbs1.70.9
2;0-ung (nouns)1.00.6

Given the comparably higher percentage of prefixed verbs in lemmas in CDS with 6.5% it would be expected that this pattern emerged earlier than conversion, but, in fact, they emerge two months after the first verb conversions. This might be due to the low prosodic and semantic salience of verb prefixes and to the lower complexity and therefore greater simplicity of conversions. Furthermore, other derivational patterns that emerge up to 2;0 in Jan are related to low input lemma and token frequencies (see Table 3).

Therefore it seems that emergence of a morphological category just depends on a critical mass of it in CDS (Van der Schuit et al. 2011; Serra i Raventós 2014), and that high lemma (or token) frequencies are not reliable predictors either for age or for the order of emergence in CS.

3.5.5 Emergences and productivity of derivations

In all children we find that the patterns that emerge first are also the first ones to become productive, as shown by particle verbs and -er-derived agent and instrument nouns.

Conversion of nouns emerges in one child (JAN) simultaneously with -er-suffixation and conversion of verbs in two children (JAN & KAT) at the same time with particle verbs (see Table 4).

Table 4.

Emergences (Em.) and age of fulfilment of the mini-paradigm criterion (MC) of the most relevant noun and verb derivation patterns in CS up to 3;0 (modified cited from Sommer-Lolei, Mattes et al. 2021, 127–128)

ChildJANKATLENExample
DerivationEm.MCEm.MCEm.MC
-er (agent nouns)1;81;101;112;101;92;3Reit-er ‘(horseback) rider’
-er (instr. nouns)1;81;102;32;101;92;3Flitz-er ‘speedster’

Last-er ‘truck’
Conversion1;81;102;83;02;4Sitz ‘seat’, Fall ‘fall’
-e1;92;02;62;62;5Rutsch-e ‘slide’
Particle verb1;6 (an)1;92;3 (ein)2;61;8 (auf)2;1auf-heb(en) ‘pick up’
Conversion1;62;12;33;02;2stempel(n) ‘stamp’
Prefix verb1;8 (ver-)2;62;6 (ge-)2;6 (ge-)ver-steck(en) ‘hide’
1;11 (ge-)2;92;9 (be-)2;7 (ver-)be-komm(en) ‘get’
2;10 (be-)3;02;10 (ver-)2;8 (be-)ge-fall(en) ‘like’

The criterion for children's potential productivity of verbal conversion and nominal -e-suffixation is fulfilled only shortly after the much more frequent and productive -er-suffix and particle verb formation respectively. -e-suffixation is frequent and transparent in German, but not (very) productive in adult speech (in the sense that they are not used synchronically to derive new lexemes) but it is productive in early CS.

All children fulfil the mini-paradigm criterion for particle verbs before any other verb derivations. For noun-to-verb conversions (e.g., schaukel(n) ‘swing’ JAN 1;6) only Jan (2;1) and Kathi (3;0) meet the necessary requirements up to 3;0. Again, although prefixed verbs are more frequent in CDS in lemmas and tokens (see Table 3), the criterion is only met by Jan at 2;6.

For noun derivation, the three children fulfil the criterion for -er at 1;10 (Jan), at 2;3 (Lena) and at 2;10 (Kathi). The first noun derivation pattern that fulfils the criterion in Kathi's data (at 2;6) is the suffix -e. Productivity of conversion greatly varies among the children: Jan fulfils the criterion at 1;10, Kathi at 3;0 and Lena not at all within her data corpus.

3.6 Discussion of the cognitive preferences

3.6.1 Complexity

The finding that simplex words always emerge before derivational patterns within each category (nouns in 1;3 vs. 1;7, verbs in 1;4 vs. 2;0) supports our view that early emergence of a derivative is not simply due to chance or to lemma frequency in CDS: each child produces a higher percentage of simplex words than their mothers, as well as more simplex than derived verbs and nouns. These findings on the rise of complexity in derivation are parallel to those in other, also typologically different languages (cf. Mattes et al. 2021) and they are also parallel to those on compounding (Dressler, Ketrez & Kilani-Schoch 2017; Dressler, Sommer-Lolei et al. 2019). In German, interfixless compounds are processed more easily and acquired earlier than interfixed compounds (Korecky-Kröll, Sommer-Lolei & Dressler 2017; Libben et al. 2020, 2021). Viennese children have been even observed to develop so-called weak blind alley developments (Dressler, Christofidou et al. 2019; Dressler et al. in print) in producing for a certain time ungrammatical interfixes in -e- and ungrammatical compounds to whose first constituents ending in e no -n-interfix is added, as in Bank-e-sache instead of neologistic Bank-sache ‘bank thing' and Lippe-stift instead of Lippe-n-stift ‘lipstick’ (Dressler, Christofidou et al. 2019). Such forms have no base in children's inputs and children do not slowly approach the CDS targets but develop temporarily away from them. This represents young children's most independent course of acquisition in word formation.

The analysis of the panel data that allows a comparison between CS and CDS of different socio-economic status reveals a major gap in the domain of the complexity of word-formation patterns. Children with a HSES background hear many more derivations with higher degrees of complexity in their input than children with a LSES background. This influences the amount and increase of complexity in their own productions (see Figures 912).

3.6.2 Transparency and iconicity

All derivational affixes that are acquired early by the children (in the sense of documented or potential productivity) are indeed transparent in both senses (-er-nouns, e.g., Fahr-er ‘driver’; -e-nouns, e.g. Rutsch-e ‘playground slide’, particle verbs, e.g., auf#mach(en) ‘open, lit. make open’). For example, the deverbal nominal suffix -e is virtually unproductive in adult speech (lexicalized examples are Wieg-e ‘cradle’, Würz-e ‘seasoning’ etc.), but children use it quite frequently to form neologistic instrument and action or result nouns, e.g., Lutsch-e ‘sth. to lick’ for candy, Eintauch-e ‘a dip’, etc. (Mattes 2018; cf. also Elsen 1999; Rainer 2010). This can be explained by the relatively high input frequency and the morphotactic (and in many cases also morphosemantic) transparency of -e suffixation.

Morphotactically opaque, i.e., less iconic, derivations are acquired after transparent ones, i.e., more iconic. Conversion however, which is a non-iconic operation, since there is no formal change corresponding to a change in meaning, e.g., trommel(n) ‘to drum’, frühstück(en) ‘to breakfast’, is used and acquired earlier than expected, obviously due to its simplicity.

Opaque affixes which are more difficult to identify and interpret, only appear later, mainly after the acquisition of initial reading skills (also Clark 1993). One example is the late emergence and productivity, i.e., not earlier than school age, of the very frequent and most productive deverbal adjectival suffix in German -bar, as in mach-bar ‘feasible’ and hör-bar ‘audible’ (cf. Mattes 2018; Sommer-Lolei, Mattes et al. 2021). As -bar-derived adjectives have a “passive mode” interpretation, as e.g., ess-bar ‘eat-able’ is something that can be eaten, not someone who eats or can eat, and refer to possible and not to observable states, their conceptualization requires advanced cognitive developments.

3.6.3 Salience

Positional and prosodic salient constituents are acquired before less salient ones. In our data we find that suffixes are acquired before prefixes, and the very salient verb particles emerge and become productive in CS before their prefix counterparts (e.g., weg#mach(en) vs. ent-fern(en) ‘remove’, unter#halt(en) ‘to hold under’ vs. unter-halt(en) ‘entertain’). In both cases, of course, their lemma and token frequency in the input plays a fundamental role (see Table 3), but for all patterns and across languages, we find that frequency alone is not a reliable predictor for emergence and productivity in child speech, but that it only takes effect in combination with transparency (see also Mattes 2019; Stephany 2021).

The findings in our German data with respect to the cognitive principles of language processing also hold in other languages, even typologically different ones (cf. studies in Mattes et al. 2021): for example, the preference for compounding over derivation, due to higher semantic transparency and simplicity, has also been confirmed in much less compounding languages than German, for example Turkish, where noun-noun compounding is more productive than nominal derivation in the early stages of acquisition (Ketrez & Aksu-Koç 2021).

Gaps between HSES and LSES children and main caretakers are found in all categories of word formation investigated. However, the salient particle verbs (see also Korecky-Kröll et al. 2022) are also used quite frequently by LSES children (with mean lemma frequencies between 100 and 150 per recording), which shows that high salience may be helpful for this disadvantaged group. In less salient word-formation patterns (e.g., conversion) the data reveal an increase of the gap regarding derived noun lemmas between the HSES and LSES children over the study period (age 3;1–4;8). The LSES children do not catch up over time (up to 4;8), but rather fall behind (see Sommer-Lolei 2022, 99). This difference between the two SES-groups shows that the socio-economic status of a family not only influences the speed of acquisition of word-formation patterns, but moreover that the whole developmental course is affected.

4 Conclusions and outlook

Our data analyses have clearly confirmed that the factor frequency, which is the central factor to usage-based accounts, plays the major role in the acquisition of word formation, but we also see that, much more than for inflection, it competes with other cognitive factors. These factors themselves might either accumulate and enhance acquisition (as in particle verbs) or come in conflict with each other (as in conversion or verb prefixation).

Morphological simplicity, morphotactic and morphosemantic transparency, besides frequency and lexical diversity are the main factors for emergence and productivity in early CS, in which the child does not yet have enough language experience to consider the productivity of a word-formation pattern (Clark 1993; Goldberg 2006). As a consequence, child speech is more transparent and more iconic than adult speech (Mayerthaler 1981; Dressler et al. 1987; Dressler & Kilani-Schoch to appear). Cognitive development and language experience, especially when contextual diversity is high, are a prerequisite for conceptually complex word-formation patterns.

Our analysis is based on data up to age 4;11. The aim for future research is to investigate the further acquisition of word formation in older children and adolescents. With advancing cognitive development and growing language experience, including the acquisition of written language and orthography, competence in word formation is expected to expand and change considerably.

Moreover, it would be valuable to reanalyze other existing German data and especially data from other typologically different languages, in the perspective of our results to control them.

The findings of blind-alley developments (see section 3.6.1) that most impressively point towards a course of acquisition in word formation that does not depend directly on children's input deserve closer attention as they reveal self-organization processes of cognitive structures. This means that we should also look for examples of blind-alley developments in other languages.

Finally, Čamber & Dressler (2022) have found for the first time mutual influences in homophonous inflectional suffixation (in this case: plural formation) which develops partially and temporarily against input distributions in each of the two languages, but we are not aware of similar developments, which represent a new subtype of blind-alley developments, in word formation.

Acknowledgement

The project “Investigating Parental and Other Caretakers’ Utterances to Kindergarten Children (INPUT)” (SSH11–027) was supported by the Vienna Science and Technology Fund (WWTF). Sabine Sommer-Lolei is a recipient of a DOC-team fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

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1

In this analysis the term conversion (zero-derivation) includes the following word-formation patterns: syntactic conversion, i.e., nominalized infinitives e.g., (das) Essen ‘food’ from ess-en ‘eat-inf’; morphological conversion, e.g., verb or adjective stems to nouns: (der) Fall ‘fall’ from fall(en) ‘to fall’, (das) Tief ‘low’ from tief ‘deep’, in verbs: angel(n) ‘to fish’ from Angel ‘fishing rod’, trommel(n) ‘to drum’ from Trommel ‘drum’.

2

INPUT = “Investigating Parental and Other Caretakers' Utterances to Kindergarten Children” (SSH11-027) financed by the Vienna Science and Technology Fund (WWTF), headed by Wolfgang U. Dressler at the University of Vienna. For further information see URL: https://comparative-psycholinguistics.univie.ac.at/projects/input [16.10.2022].

3

E.g., Fahr-er ‘driver’, Heiz-ung ‘heating’ (suffixation), Un-tier ‘beast’ (prefixation), Ge-flech-t ‘mesh’, Fall ‘(the) fall’ (morphological conversion), Lesen ‘(the) reading’ (syntactic conversion), Fund ‘discovery’ (root vowel modification), see also Table 4.

4

E.g., be-such(en) ‘to visit, ver-steh(en) ‘to understand’ (inseparable prefixation), ab#steh(en) ‘to stick out’ (particle verb formation), ent-schuld-ig(en) ‘to apologize’ (circumfixation), prob-ier(en) ‘to try’, streich-el(n) (suffixation), angeln ‘to fish’ (morphological conversion), see also Table 4.

5

We grade conversions as more complex than Simplicia due to non-iconicity and therefore assign it degree 1.

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  • Libben, Gary, Jordan Gallant and Wolfgang U. Dressler. 2021. Textual effects in compound processing: A window on words in the world. Frontiers in Communication 6. 646454. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.646454.

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  • Smolka, Eva, Gary Libben and Wolfgang U. Dressler. 2019. When morphological structure overrides meaning: Evidence from German prefix and particle verbs. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 34(5). 599614. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2018.1552006.

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Editors

Editor-in-Chief: András Cser

Editor: György Rákosi

Review Editor: Tamás Halm

Editorial Board

  • Anne Abeillé / Université Paris Diderot
  • Željko Bošković / University of Connecticut
  • Marcel den Dikken / Eötvös Loránd University; Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Hans-Martin Gärtner / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Elly van Gelderen / Arizona State University
  • Anders Holmberg / Newcastle University
  • Katarzyna Jaszczolt / University of Cambridge
  • Dániel Z. Kádár / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • István Kenesei / University of Szeged; Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Anikó Lipták / Leiden University
  • Katalin Mády / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Gereon Müller / Leipzig University
  • Csaba Pléh / Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Central European University
  • Giampaolo Salvi / Eötvös Loránd University
  • Irina Sekerina / College of Staten Island CUNY
  • Péter Siptár / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Gregory Stump / University of Kentucky
  • Peter Svenonius / University of Tromsø
  • Anne Tamm / Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church
  • Akira Watanabe / University of Tokyo
  • Jeroen van de Weijer / Shenzhen University

 

Acta Linguistica Academica
Address: Benczúr u. 33. HU–1068 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (+36 1) 351 0413; (+36 1) 321 4830 ext. 154
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Indexing and Abstracting Services:

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  • Bibliographie Linguistique/Linguistic Bibliography
  • International Bibliographies IBZ and IBR
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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
56
Journal Impact Factor 0.5
Rank by Impact Factor

Linguistics (Q4)

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0.4
5 Year
Impact Factor
0.5
Journal Citation Indicator 0.59
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Language and Linguistics (Q2)
Linguistics (Q3)

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
13
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.592
Scimago Quartile Score

Cultural Studies (Q1)
Linguistics and Language (Q1)
Literature and Literary Theory (Q1)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.4
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Literature and Literary Theory 24/982 (97th PCTL)
Cultural Studies 212/1203 (82nd PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.159

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
63
Journal Impact Factor 0,690
Rank by Impact Factor

Linguistics 145/194

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,667
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,286
Journal Citation Indicator 0,67
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Language & Linguistics 141/370

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,341
Scimago Quartile Score Cultural Studies (Q1)
Linguistics and Language (Q1)
Literature and Literary Theory (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,4
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Literature and Literary Theory 22/934 (D1)
Cultural Studies 164/1127 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,070

2020

 

Total Cites

219

WoS

Journal
Impact Factor

0,523

Rank by

Linguistics 150/193 (Q4)

Impact Factor

 

Impact Factor

0,432

without

Journal Self Cites

5 Year

0,500

Impact Factor

Journal 

0,72

Citation Indicator

 

Rank by Journal 

Linguistics 144/259 (Q3)

Citation Indicator 

 

Citable

19

Items

Total

19

Articles

Total

0

Reviews

Scimago

10

H-index

Scimago

0,295

Journal Rank

Scimago

Cultural Studies Q1

Quartile Score

Language and Linguistics Q2

 

Linguistics and Language Q2

 

Literature and Literary Theory Q1

Scopus

72/87=0,8

Scite Score

Scopus

Literature and Literary Theory 42/825 (Q1)

Scite Score Rank

Cultural Studies 247/1037 (Q1)

Scopus

1,022

SNIP

Days from 

58

submission

to acceptance

Days from 

68

acceptance

to publication

Acceptance

51%

Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
155
Impact Factor 0,222
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,156
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,322
Immediacy
Index
0,870
Citable
Items
23
Total
Articles
23
Total
Reviews
0
Cited
Half-Life
11,2
Citing
Half-Life
16,6
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00006
Article Influence
Score
0,056
% Articles
in
Citable Items
100,00
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,00780
Average
IF
Percentile
9,358
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,281
Scopus
Scite Score
53/85=0,6
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cultural Studies 293/1002 (Q2)
Literature and Literary Theory 60/823(Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
0,768
Acceptance
Rate
25%

 

Acta Linguistica Academica
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Acta Linguistica Academica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2017 (1951)
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia   
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2559-8201 (Print)
ISSN 2560-1016 (Online)