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Johanna Takács Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

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Dóra Járai Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Hungary

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Akos Koller Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Hungary
Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, HUN-REN-SE Cerebrovascular and Neurocognitive Disease Research Group, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
Research Center for Sports Physiology, Hungarian University of Sports Science, Budapest, Hungary
Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA

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Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous negative impact on the psychosomatic status of the general population, and especially of more vulnerable populations, such as older people. The present study aimed to assess changes in psychosomatic status before and after the COVID-19 pandemic among emeritus professors over 70 years of age.

Materials/Methods

A total of 56 emeritus professors aged 77.4 ± 6.1 (74.1% male) participated in the study. The study was conducted between September 2022 and January 2023, after approximately two and a half years of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sociodemographic characteristics, including socioeconomic status, were assessed in the questionnaire, along with active involvement in academic life and healthcare/sports. Physical and mental fatigue were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, and the impact of fatigue on physical and cognitive function was measured using the Fatigue Impact Scale. Participants evaluated their physical/mental fatigue and physical/cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results

Among the participating emeritus professors, 15% reported higher levels of physical fatigue (Z = −1.992, P = 0.046, r = 0.28) and mental fatigue (Z = −2.154, P = 0.031, r = 0.31) following the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant difference was found in physical function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, t(51) = −2.986, P = 0.004, g = 0.22, while cognitive function showed a non-significant difference, t(51) = −1.265, P = 0.212, g = 0.12. After the COVID-19 pandemic, 26.9% of participants reported reduced physical function and 19.2% showed reduced cognitive function. Infection with the COVID-19 virus resulted in increased mental fatigue and reduced cognitive function among the participating emeritus professors.

Conclusion

The COVID-19 pandemic (and the introduction of restrictions on social activities) had a substantial and similar impact on the psychosomatic status of emeritus professors at both medical and sports universities. Furthermore, the reduction in physical and mental/cognitive function was exacerbated in those who were infected by SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, however, the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was smaller in the population of emeritus professors than in the general elderly population. This may be due to the better maintenance of physical and mental activity in the former population, thus emphasising the importance of remaining physically and mentally active in old age, especially in the context of critical life events.

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous negative impact on the psychosomatic status of the general population, and especially of more vulnerable populations, such as older people. The present study aimed to assess changes in psychosomatic status before and after the COVID-19 pandemic among emeritus professors over 70 years of age.

Materials/Methods

A total of 56 emeritus professors aged 77.4 ± 6.1 (74.1% male) participated in the study. The study was conducted between September 2022 and January 2023, after approximately two and a half years of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sociodemographic characteristics, including socioeconomic status, were assessed in the questionnaire, along with active involvement in academic life and healthcare/sports. Physical and mental fatigue were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, and the impact of fatigue on physical and cognitive function was measured using the Fatigue Impact Scale. Participants evaluated their physical/mental fatigue and physical/cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results

Among the participating emeritus professors, 15% reported higher levels of physical fatigue (Z = −1.992, P = 0.046, r = 0.28) and mental fatigue (Z = −2.154, P = 0.031, r = 0.31) following the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant difference was found in physical function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, t(51) = −2.986, P = 0.004, g = 0.22, while cognitive function showed a non-significant difference, t(51) = −1.265, P = 0.212, g = 0.12. After the COVID-19 pandemic, 26.9% of participants reported reduced physical function and 19.2% showed reduced cognitive function. Infection with the COVID-19 virus resulted in increased mental fatigue and reduced cognitive function among the participating emeritus professors.

Conclusion

The COVID-19 pandemic (and the introduction of restrictions on social activities) had a substantial and similar impact on the psychosomatic status of emeritus professors at both medical and sports universities. Furthermore, the reduction in physical and mental/cognitive function was exacerbated in those who were infected by SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, however, the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was smaller in the population of emeritus professors than in the general elderly population. This may be due to the better maintenance of physical and mental activity in the former population, thus emphasising the importance of remaining physically and mentally active in old age, especially in the context of critical life events.

Introduction

It is well known that the COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on the physical and cognitive function of the general population. During and after the COVID-19 pandemic, people reported increased depression, anxiety, loneliness, social inequalities, risks of comorbidities, physical pain, and cognitive and sleep problems. They also reported a decrease in physical fitness and activity, quality and satisfaction of life, healthy lifestyle, social contacts, and access to rehabilitation services [1–4].

The results of previous studies have shown that a decline in mental and physical function can occur after COVID-19 infection, and that symptoms may persist for a longer time due to post-COVID-19 condition. Post-COVID-19 condition is primarily observed in older adults after a more severe form of COVID-19 infection, although it may also be detected in young people after a mild infection [5–8]. At present, there are specific therapies for this condition, although it is well established that regular physical and mental activity can reduce the onset/progression of various diseases in general, and thus also of post-COVID-19 condition [9–12]. Several studies have shown that physical and mental activity improves the immune system, which provides protection against various diseases, including viral infections [13–15].

Restrictions on movements in daily life were introduced by governments during the COVID-19 pandemic in the hope of reducing the spread of the disease. However, these restrictions also led to a decrease in physical activity, which affected not only people's psychosomatic status but also their immune systems, increasing susceptibility to infections and exacerbating chronic diseases in the older population [16, 17]. The COVID-19 pandemic has also had a significant negative impact on mental health, with older people being more likely to experience reduced quality of life, stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms were exacerbated by infection with the COVID-19 virus [18, 19].

The present study aimed to assess the psychosomatic status of a specific elderly population – namely emeritus professors at medical and sports universities – after the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to before the pandemic. We hypothesised that because this population is physically and mentally active, they would be in better physical and mental condition than the general elderly population.

Materials and methods

A total of 56 emeritus professors of medical and sports sciences participated in the study (74.1% male). The participants were over 70 years of age (M = 77.4, SD = 6.1). Emeritus professors were recruited from the College of Emeritus Professors (medical sciences) and the Masters Club (sports sciences). The survey was conducted during their formal monthly/bimonthly meetings, and the inclusion criterion for voluntary participation in the study was membership of the college/club. There were no exclusion criteria.

Data on COVID-19 infection were obtained from the WHO Case Report Form for Post-COVID condition (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/global-covid-19-clinical-platform-case-report-form-(crf)-for-post-covid-conditions-(post-covid-19-crf-): 1) COVID-19 infection; 2) severity of COVID-19 infection; and 3) COVID-19 vaccination status.

Physical/mental fatigue and physical/cognitive function were evaluated for the situation before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate physical and mental fatigue, a self-report questionnaire was used: How physically/mentally tired do you feel in everyday life? Participants reported their physical and mental fatigue on a scale of 1–10, where 1 = not at all and 10 = completely. We also assessed the impact of fatigue on physical and cognitive function using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) [20, 21]. The FIS evaluates the effect of fatigue on physical and cognitive function in daily life based on 20 items scored on a scale of 0–4, where 0 = no problems and 4 = extreme problems.

Finally, sociodemographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status, were also included in the questionnaire (number of people living in a household, and average or below-/above-average income). In addition, active involvement in academic life (education/research) and healthcare/sports was also assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

The study was conducted between September 2022 and January 2023, after approximately two and a half years of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Semmelweis University [22, 23]. The study was approved by the Regional and Institutional Committee of Scientific and Research Ethics of Semmelweis University (SE RKEB) (No. SE RKEB 118/2022).

Statistical analysis

To describe the data, descriptive analysis and relative frequency distributions were used. Data were reported as mean ± SD or frequency and proportion. To compare the physical and mental fatigue evaluated before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used with the calculation of the r effect size measure (r=Z/N). To compare physical and cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, a paired samples t-test was conducted with the Hedges's g effect size measure. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA with partial eta-squared effect size measurement was used to examine the effect of COVID-19 infection on the difference in physical and cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 (IBM Corp. Released 2017. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).

Results

Characteristics of the sample

A total of 56 emeritus professors of medical and sports sciences, aged above 70 years, participated in the study (74.1% male). Most of them were living with a family member in the same household (86.5%, n = 45) and reported average/above-average income (90.8%, n = 49). They were actively involved in academic life, education, and/or research (76.4%, n = 42) and healthcare/sports (77.4%, n = 41) (Table 1).

Table 1.

Characteristics of the sample

Characteristics%(n)/M(SD)
Male, %(n)74.1 (40)
Age, M(SD)77.4 (6.1)
Number of members in the same household, %(n)
living alone13.5 (7)
living with one family member53.8 (28)
living with more than one family member32.7 (17)
Income, %(n)
below average9.3 (5)
average59.3 (32)
above average31.5 (17)
Active involvement in*
academic life (education)71.7 (38)
academic life (research)59.3 (32)
healthcare#69.6 (16)
sports life##70.0 (21)

*before the COVID-19 pandemic, # among emeritus professors of medical sciences, ## among emeritus professors of sports sciences.

After the COVID-19 pandemic, active involvement in academic life (68.5%, n = 37) and healthcare/sports life (62.7%, n = 32) did not change significantly. The proportion of participants who were involved in academic life both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic was 85.7% (n = 36), while 76.9% (n = 30) took part in healthcare/sports both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Severity of COVID-19 infection and vaccination status

Among the participants, 49.1% (n = 26) contracted SARS-CoV-2, in most cases (79.2%, n = 19) once; in two cases twice; and in one case three times. In most cases, the severity of acute illness with COVID-19, based on the WHO criteria, was mild (no hypoxia or pneumonia, did not receive oxygen). In one case, the severity was moderate (clinical signs of non-severe pneumonia and SpO2 ≥ 90% on room air, did not receive oxygen). All participants received a COVID-19 vaccine, in most cases three (43.6%, n = 24) or four (45.5%, n = 25) doses.

Physical and mental fatigue before and after the COVID-19 pandemic

The emeritus professors reported significantly higher physical fatigue (Z = −1.992, P = 0.046, r = 0.28) and mental fatigue (Z = −2.154, P = 0.031, r = 0.31) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Most participants reported no difference in the level of physical fatigue (76.9%, n = 40) and mental fatigue (83.7%, n = 41) assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Only 15.4% (n = 8) reported higher physical fatigue and 14.3% (n = 7) reported higher mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Self-reported physical fatigue and mental fatigue before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Notes. Red dots indicate higher physical/mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic. Green dots indicate lower physical/mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic. Grey dots indicate that physical/mental fatigue was the same before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Frequency (n) is reported in the dots

Citation: Developments in Health Sciences 2024; 10.1556/2066.2024.00060

Physical and mental fatigue before and after COVID-19 infection

Physical fatigue evaluated before and after the COVID-19 pandemic showed a non-significant difference among the emeritus professors, regardless of whether they were infected by SARS-CoV-2 (Z = −0.966, P = 0.334, r = 0.20) or not infected by SARS-CoV-2 (Z = −1.382, P = 0.167, r = 0.28).

In contrast, a significant difference was found among infected participants in terms of the level of mental fatigue assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. They reported higher mental fatigue (Z = −2.060, P = 0.039, r = 0.42).

Although 79.2% (n = 19) of participants evaluated mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic the same as before the COVID-19 pandemic, 20.8% (n = 5) reported higher mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic. Among those who were not infected by SARS-CoV-2, there was a non-significant difference in mental fatigue assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic (Z = −0.816, P = 0.414, r = 0.17). Only 9% (n = 2) of those not infected reported higher mental fatigue (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Physical fatigue and mental fatigue before and after the COVID-19 pandemic among emeritus professors who were and were not infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Notes. Red dots indicate higher physical/mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic. Green dots indicate lower physical/mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic. Grey dots indicate that physical/mental fatigue was the same before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Frequency (n) is reported in the dots

Citation: Developments in Health Sciences 2024; 10.1556/2066.2024.00060

Impact of fatigue on physical and cognitive function

There was a significant difference in physical function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, t(51) = −2.986, P = 0.004, g = 0.22. Participants showed reduced physical function after the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a non-significant difference in cognitive function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, t(51) = −1.265, P = 0.212, g = 0.12. At the same time, 26.9% of the emeritus professors showed reduced physical function and 19.2% showed reduced cognitive function after the COVID-19 pandemic. Table 2 shows the most frequently reported problems in terms of physical and cognitive function.

Table 2.

Frequency of reduced physical and cognitive function reported by the emeritus professors after the COVID-19 pandemic

Physical function(%)
increased physical discomfort15.4
trouble maintaining physical effort for long periods15.4
less able to complete tasks that require physical effort15.4
more frequent or longer periods of rest required15.4
less motivated to do anything that requires physical effort15.4
more clumsy and uncoordinated13.5
need to be careful about pacing physical activities13.5
muscles feel much weaker than they should13.5
need to limit physical activities13.5
worried about how I look to other people3.8
Cognitive function(%)
feel less alert13.7
find that I am more forgetful11.5
less able to finish tasks that require thinking9.8
find it difficult to pay attention for long periods7.7
feel unable to think clearly7.7
less motivated to do anything that requires thinking7.7
find it difficult to make decisions7.5
find it hard to concentrate7.5
find it difficult to organise thoughts when doing things at home or work5.7
feel slowed down in my thinking5.7

Physical and cognitive function before and after COVID-19 infection

The main effect of physical function (assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic) was significant, F(1,47) = 8.789, P = 0.005, η2p = 0.16. Physical function was significantly reduced after the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on simple main effects, there was no significant difference in physical function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic among those emeritus professors who were not infected by SARS-CoV-2, F(1,23) = 3.443, P = 0.076, η2p = 0.13. Participants who were infected by SARS-CoV-2 showed a significant difference in physical function, F(1, 24) = 5.478, P = 0.028, η2p = 0.19, revealing reduced physical function (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Physical and cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic among emeritus professors who were and were not infected by SARS-CoV-2

Citation: Developments in Health Sciences 2024; 10.1556/2066.2024.00060

Cognitive function showed a non-significant main effect, F(1,47) = 1.561, P = 0.218, η2p = 0.03, and the interaction was also non-significant, F(1,47) = 4.061, P = 0.050, η2p = 0.08. However, based on simple main effects, cognitive function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic showed a significant difference in those participants who were infected by SARS-CoV-2, F(1,25) = 4.974, P = 0.035, η2p = 0.17. These participants showed significantly reduced cognitive function. Among those who were not infected by SARS-CoV-2, there was a non-significant difference in cognitive function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, F(1,22) = 0.329, P = 0.572, η2p = 0.02 (Fig. 3).

Discussion

The salient findings of the present study are that: 1) 15% of the emeritus professors reported a higher level of physical and mental fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic; 2) 25% of them showed reduced physical and cognitive function after the COVID-19 pandemic; 3) infection had a significant effect on their mental fatigue and cognitive function; 4) one-fifth of the emeritus professors who were infected by SARS-CoV-2 showed higher mental fatigue and reduced cognitive function; and 5) most emeritus professors showed similar physical and mental fatigue and physical and cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection/the COVID-19 pandemic on the general older population

Previous studies among the general older population after mild SARS-CoV-2 infection found a significant decline in physical function (walking speed, balance). Decreased levels of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic also play an important role in this decline [24, 25]. The general older population reported a higher level of depression and anxiety, as well as sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic [26, 27]. These symptoms were more frequent among those who also reported a higher level of loneliness and social isolation [28].

In older adults, reduced physical health after COVID-19 infection is related to fatigue, lower levels of physical activity, higher levels of pain, difficulties in activities of daily living, and cognitive-communication problems [29]. There is a negative relationship between level of physical activity and fatigue, thus maintaining levels of physical activity can play an important role in regulating the severity of fatigue [30].

Physical activity and social contact are currently regarded as important factors in healthy brain ageing [31, 32]. Based on the results of the Hungarian World-Wide-FINGERS SARS CoV-2 Survey, which involved adults aged 60 years and over without a previous diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorder, older adults who showed subjective cognitive complaints were characterised by a lower level of physical activity before the pandemic and spent less time with family during the pandemic [33].

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection/the COVID-19 pandemic among emeritus professors

In the present study, although the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the psychosomatic status of emeritus professors, it did so to a lesser extent than in the average elderly population examined in previous studies [24–27, 2933]. Community activities and social interactions may play an important role in managing the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in improved quality of life in older populations [19, 33].

In the present study, the lower increase in physical/mental fatigue and the smaller reduction in physical/cognitive function among emeritus professors may relate to the maintenance of significant physical and/or mental activity.

Importantly, the findings of the present study and previous studies also suggest that future studies should focus on how to ensure that elderly people become more physically and mentally active, paying greater attention to those who have disease conditions and/or disabilities and incorporating regular physical and mental activities in their lifestyles for prevention and rehabilitation. This can probably be done only by means of professional public health strategies and programmes incorporating significant social aspects, such as social engagement, participation, integration, and network developments among elderly people to maximise the positive effects of physical and mental activity for this population.

Limitations

The present study has considerable limitations. There is a possible selection bias as well as a recall bias, since the study was conducted after approximately two and a half years of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is cross-sectional and used self-report questionnaires and there was no control group from the general elderly population. At the same time, it would be difficult to select an age-matched control group without comorbidities that would affect the results. Notably, there are several confounding factors, such as pre-existing medical conditions or general health status, which were not included in the present study and which perhaps affected the interpretation of our findings. Despite these limitations, and although the sample size was small, we examined a specific, relatively homogeneous elderly population with a higher level of physical and/or mental activity compared to the general elderly population.

Conclusion

The COVID-19 pandemic (and the introduction of restrictions on social activities) had a substantial and similar impact on the psychosomatic status of the emeritus professors at both medical and sports universities.

In addition, physical and mental/cognitive dysfunctions were exacerbated in those infected by SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, however, the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was smaller in the emeritus population than in the general elderly population, which may be due to the better maintenance of physical and mental activity in the former population, thus emphasising the importance of maintaining physical and mental activity in old age, especially in the context of critical life events.

Authors' contribution

Study concept and design: JT, AK. Data collection: DJ. Analysis and interpretation of data: JT, DJ, AK. Drafting of the manuscript: JT, DJ. Critical revision of the manuscript: AK. Statistical analysis and visualization: JT.

Ethical approval

We have been granted a Regional, Institutional Scientific and Research Ethics Committee Semmelweis University (SE RKEB) ethical approval (No. SE RKEB 118/2022).

Conflicts of interest/Funding

The authors declare no conflict of interest. Support by Ministry for Innovation and Technology Hungary, National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, TKP2020-NKA-17, TKP2021-EGA-37, OTKA K 132596 (AK); Hungarian Academy of Sciences Post-Covid 2021–34 (AK and JT); National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, ÚNKP-22-4-II-SE-4, New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology from the source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (JT).

JT and AK are members of the Editorial Board of the journal.

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank the emeritus professors for participating in the present study.

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    Harris PA, Taylor R, Thielke R, Payne J, Gonzalez N, Conde JG. Research electronic data capture (REDCap)--a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomed Inform 2009;42:37781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2008.08.010.

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    Beauchamp MR, Hulteen RM, Ruissen GR, et al. Online-delivered group and personal exercise programs to support low active older adults' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2021;23:e30709. https://doi.org/10.2196/30709.

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    Zalewska A, Gałczyk M. Fatigue and physical activity in people after COVID-19 in Poland. J Person Med 2023;13:1369. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13091369.

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    Tan ZS, Spartano NL, Beiser AS, et al. Physical activity, brain volume, and dementia risk: the Framingham study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2017;72:78995. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw130.

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    Sharifian N, Kraal AZ, Zaheed AB, Sol K, Zahodne LB. Longitudinal associations between contact frequency with friends and with family, activity engagement, and cognitive functioning. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2020;26:81524. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617720000259.

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    Zsuffa JA, Katz S, Koszovacz V, et al. Lifestyle and behavioural changes in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with subjective cognitive complaints. Sci Rep 2024;14:2502. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-52856-0.

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    Harris PA, Taylor R, Minor BL, et al. The REDCap consortium: building an international community of software platform partners. J Biomed Inform 2019;95:103208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103208.

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    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Said CM, Batchelor F, Duque G. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, function, and quality of life. Clin Geriatr Med 2022;38(3):519531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2022.04.003.

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    • Export Citation
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    Beauchamp MR, Hulteen RM, Ruissen GR, et al. Online-delivered group and personal exercise programs to support low active older adults' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2021;23:e30709. https://doi.org/10.2196/30709.

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    • Export Citation
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    Fujita K, Inoue A, Kuzuya M, et al. Mental health status of the older adults in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021;22:2201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.11.023.

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    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Wong SYS, Zhang D, Sit RWS, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on loneliness, mental health, and health service utilisation: a prospective cohort study of older adults with multimorbidity in primary care. Br J Gen Pract 2020;70:e817e24. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp20X713021.

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    • Export Citation
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    Robb CE, de Jager CA, Ahmadi-Abhari S, et al. Associations of social isolation with anxiety and depression during the early COVID-19 pandemic: a survey of older adults in London, UK. Front Psychiatry 2020;11:591120. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.591120.

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    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Shanbehzadeh S, Zanjari N, Yassin M, Yassin Z, Tavahomi M. Association between long COVID, functional activity, and health-related quality of life in older adults. BMC Geriatr 2023;23:40. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-023-03757-w.

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    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Zalewska A, Gałczyk M. Fatigue and physical activity in people after COVID-19 in Poland. J Person Med 2023;13:1369. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13091369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Tan ZS, Spartano NL, Beiser AS, et al. Physical activity, brain volume, and dementia risk: the Framingham study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2017;72:78995. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Sharifian N, Kraal AZ, Zaheed AB, Sol K, Zahodne LB. Longitudinal associations between contact frequency with friends and with family, activity engagement, and cognitive functioning. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2020;26:81524. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617720000259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Zsuffa JA, Katz S, Koszovacz V, et al. Lifestyle and behavioural changes in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with subjective cognitive complaints. Sci Rep 2024;14:2502. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-52856-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Senior Editors

Editor-in-Chief: Zoltán Zsolt NAGY
Vice Editors-in-Chief: Gabriella Bednárikné DÖRNYEI, Ákos KOLLER
Managing Editor: Johanna TAKÁCS

Editorial Board

  • Zoltán BALOGH (Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Klára GADÓ (Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István VINGENDER (Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Attila DOROS (Department of Imaging and Medical Instrumentation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Judit Helga FEITH (Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Mónika HORVÁTH (Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Illés KOVÁCS (Department of Clinical Ophthalmology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Ildikó NAGYNÉ BAJI (Department of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tamás PÁNDICS (Department for Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • József RÁCZ (Department of Addictology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Lajos A. RÉTHY (Department of Family Care Methodology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • János RIGÓ (Department of Clinical Studies in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Andrea SZÉKELY (Department of Oxyology and Emergency Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Márta VERESNÉ BÁLINT (Department of Dietetics and Nutritional Sicences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gyula DOMJÁN (Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Péter KRAJCSI (Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • György LÉVAY (Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Csaba NYAKAS (Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Vera POLGÁR (Department of Morphology and Physiology, InFaculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • László SZABÓ (Department of Family Care Methodology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Katalin TÁTRAI-NÉMETH (Department of Dietetics and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Katalin KOVÁCS ZÖLDI (Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gizella ÁNCSÁN (Library, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • András FALUS (Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zoltán UNGVÁRI (Department of Public Health, Faculty of medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Romána ZELKÓ (Faculty of Pharmacy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Mária BARNAI (Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Studies, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • László Péter KANIZSAI (Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary)
  • Bettina FŰZNÉ PIKÓ (Department of Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Imre SEMSEI (Faculty of Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Teija-Kaisa AHOLAAKKO (Laurea Universities of Applied Sciences, Vantaa, Finland)
  • Ornella CORAZZA (University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Oliver FINDL (Department of Ophthalmology, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria)
  • Tamás HACKI (University Hospital Regensburg, Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology, Regensburg, Germany)
  • Xu JIANGUANG (Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China)
  • Paul GM LUITEN (Department of Molecular Neurobiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands)
  • Marie O'TOOLE (Rutgers School of Nursing, Camden, United States)
  • Evridiki PAPASTAVROU (School of Health Sciences, Cyprus University of Technology, Lemesos, Cyprus)
  • Pedro PARREIRA (The Nursing School of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal)
  • Jennifer LEWIS SMITH (Collage of Health and Social Care, University of Derby, Cohehre President, United Kingdom)
  • Yao SUYUAN (Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang, China)
  • Valérie TÓTHOVÁ (Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic)
  • Tibor VALYI-NAGY (Department of Pathology, University of Illonois of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States)
  • Chen ZHEN (Central European TCM Association, European Chamber of Commerce for Traditional Chinese Medicine)
  • Katalin LENTI FÖLDVÁRI-NAGY LÁSZLÓNÉ (Department of Morphology and Physiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • László FÖLDVÁRI-NAGY (Department of Morphology and Physiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Developments in Health Sciences
Publication Model Online only Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge none
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Developments in Health Sciences
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2018
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Semmelweis Egyetem
Founder's
Address
H-1085 Budapest, Hungary Üllői út 26.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2630-9378 (Print)
ISSN 2630-936X (Online)

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