View More View Less
  • 1 Institute of Geophysics ETH, Zürich, Switzerland
Open access

The heat content of shallow or deep aquifers can be used for space heating. Two innovative systems are described below in detail: a geothermal heat pump system based on a single well in China (= shallow), and a cascading use of tunnel waters (= deep) in Switzerland. The “Single Well System” (HYY SWS) was invented and developed by Beijing Ever Source Science & Technology Development Co., Ltd (HYY) to provide buildings with heating and cooling as well as with domestic hot water. The powerful system operates at about 500 kWth capacity. Unlike traditional groundwater heat pump systems, in which two wells are used (one for pumping groundwater out and the other to dispose of cooled water), the HYY SWS uses only one, specially designed well for production and reinjection. A borehole with a depth of about 70–80 m and a diameter of 0.5 m is drilled for HYY Single Well Systems. The necessary local geologic site condition is to have a shallow aquifer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10−3 m/sec or higher. Many such systems operate now in China, several of which, for instance, serve the 2008 Summer Olympic Facilities in Beijing. Switzerland has, in its mountainous parts, hundreds of deep tunnels. Tunnels drain the rock overburden and, depending on its thickness, water temperatures up to 50 °C can be encountered and utilized. The most straightforward and cheapest form of tunnel heat usage is to collect and transport inflowing waters via ducts to the portals, with as little temperature drop as possible. The thermal power depends on flow rate and temperature. At or near the portals the heat content of the waters can be used for various applications. When the temperature level of the tunnel water outflows is too low for direct applications (e.g. for district heating), heat pumps are employed. From Switzerland a whole suite of uses can be reported: space heating, greenhouses, balneology and wellness, fish farming. At the northern portal of the 35 km long Loetschberg base tunnel at Frutigen, the tunnel water is used subsequently (“cascading”) for space heating, greenhouse, and fish farming (incl. caviar production).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adam, D., A Oberhauser 2008: Kosten und Nutzen der Geothermie für die Verkehrsinfrastruktur. — Eisenbahn Ingenieur, 3, pp. 612.

  • Graf, F., L. Rybach, T. Kohl, T. Mégel, R. Sutterlütti, R. Fuchs 2002: Hydraulic-Geothermal Modelling of Koralm Base Tunnel. — Felsbau, 6, pp. 2532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rybach, L. 1995: Thermal waters in deep Alpine tunnels. — Geothermices, 24, pp. 631637.

  • Rybach, L. 2005: The advance of geothermal heat pumps world-wide. — IEA Heat Pump Center Newsletter, 23/4, pp. 1318.

  • Rybach, L. 2010: Geothermal use of warm tunnel waters — principles and examples from Switzerland. — Transactions Geothermal Resources Council, 34, pp. 949952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rybach, L., Xu, Sheng-heng 2008: How to advance geothermal heat pumps? The examples of Switzerland and the HYY Single Well System in China. — In: Proc. United Nations University Workshop for Decision Makers on direct heating use of geothermal resources in Asia, Tianjin, China, pp. 372382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rybach, L., J. Wilhelm, H. Gorhan 2003: Geothermal use of tunnel waters — a Swiss Specialty. — In: Proc. International Geothermal Conference, Reykjavík, pp. 1723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VDI-Richtlinie 4640 2010: Thermische Nutzung des Untergrunds, Blatt 1: Grundlagen, Genehmigungen, Umweltaspekte. — Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Düsseldorf, 4 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilhelm, J., L. Rybach 2003: The geothermal potential of Swiss Alpine tunnels. — Geothermics, 32/4–6, pp. 557568.

  • Xu, Sheng-heng, L. Rybach 2003: Utilization of shallow resources of direct use systems in Beijing. — Transactions Geothermal Resources Council, 27, pp. 115118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu Sheng-heng , L. Rybach 2004: An innovative, renewable energy system for space heating and cooling — using ubiquitous shallow geothermal resources. — In: Proc. World Renewable Energy Congress, 6 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Sheng-heng, L. Rybach 2006: Operational experience with a new, powerful groundwater heat pump system for space heating and cooling. — In: Proc. Renewable Energy Congress, pp. 15081511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Sheng-heng, L. Rybach 2010: Innovative groundwater heat pump system for space heating and cooling in USA and China. — In: Proc. World Geothermal Congress, 5 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Sheng-heng, H. Ma, D. Lu 2006: Single Well System technology used in Mongolia. — Transactions Geothermal Resources Council, 30, pp. 110113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Sheng-heng, R. Ling, Y. He, D. Lu 2008: HYY Ground Energy Heat Pump System Used in Waterscape of National Center for the Performing Arts — No-icing on the Waterscape Pool Water Surface in Winter. — Transactions Geothermal Resources Council, 32, pp. 325331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
May 2020 0 5 3
Jun 2020 0 2 1
Jul 2020 0 4 0
Aug 2020 0 4 5
Sep 2020 0 3 2
Oct 2020 0 3 0
Nov 2020 0 0 0