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  • 1 Department of Vegetable and Mushroom Growing, Faculty of Horticultural Science, Szent István University,, Hungary
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Abstract

Grafting is a connection of two plant tissues, which are forced to develop vascular connection and grow as a single plant. Vegetable grafting has been used in Solanaceae family and Cucurbitaceae family for several reasons e.g. increasing tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses, improving plant growth and yield. Fruit quality and appearance of vegetables may be influenced by grafting methods. Researchers have found contradictory results of fruit quality and appearance even in eggplant grafting due to different production environments, types of rootstock/scion combinations. In current review, we summarise available information on the effects of grafting and different rootstocks on eggplant fruit quality.

Abstract

Grafting is a connection of two plant tissues, which are forced to develop vascular connection and grow as a single plant. Vegetable grafting has been used in Solanaceae family and Cucurbitaceae family for several reasons e.g. increasing tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses, improving plant growth and yield. Fruit quality and appearance of vegetables may be influenced by grafting methods. Researchers have found contradictory results of fruit quality and appearance even in eggplant grafting due to different production environments, types of rootstock/scion combinations. In current review, we summarise available information on the effects of grafting and different rootstocks on eggplant fruit quality.

Introduction

Fruit quality presents a different point of view for breeder, grower, food industry and consumers. Based on the FAO and WHO, the quality standard of fresh vegetables mostly considers external quality attributes (size, shape, colour and freshness) whereas internal quality attributes (texture, flavour and health promoting compound) are not considered. The eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the top ten vegetables that originated from Southeast Asia; it has a high antioxidant capability and nutrient value. According to UNECE Standard FFV-05 (edition 2017), the quality of eggplant fruit is defined as intact, fresh in appearance, firm, free from pests, sufficiently developed without the flesh being fibrous or woody; without overdevelopment of the seeds and provided with a calyx and peduncle which may be slightly damaged.

Vegetable grafting is an asexual plant propagation technique by connecting two plant parts to grow together and form a new plant. This environmentally friendly technique induces resistance against soilborne disease, low and high temperatures, reduces uptake of persistent organic pollutants from agricultural soils, raises salt and flooding tolerance, and limits the negative effect of boron and copper toxicity (Mozafarian and Kappel, 2019, 2020). Despite all the advantages some problems of grafting still exist; for instance, labour and technique are essential for grafting process (Kumar and Sanket, 2017), the price of grafted seedling and automated grafting machine are too high (Tsaballa et al., 2013).

Grafting has been used in Solanaceae family i.e. tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), eggplant (S. melongena L.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Cucurbitaceae family i.e. watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)), melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) (Bie et al., 2017). This method can increase the yield and productivity in pepper (9.2%), eggplant (27.7%) and tomato (5.4–80.3%) and can improve the quality of fruit (Fernández-García et al., 2004; Kyriacou et al., 2017; Martínez-Ballesta et al., 2010).

Grafting eggplant was practiced in 1950s by using scarlet eggplant (Solanum integrifolium) as rootstock (Edelstein et al., 1999). In Hungary, nearly all greenhouse tomato and 75% of watermelon production are cultivated with grafted seedlings while using grafting method in eggplant is not common. Every rootstock may not be compatible to use for eggplant grafting even though they are resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses Wang et al. (2017). Solanum torvum is the most common rootstock and researchers tried to find alternative compatible rootstocks for eggplant. Most of previously published papers focused on laboratory fruit quality test by different methods and rarely used sensory evaluation. Moreover, information on grafted eggplant fruit quality is conflicting (Table 1). The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature about fruit quality harvested from grafted eggplants and methodology of quality measurement.

Table 1.

Effect of different rootstock of eggplant yield and fruit quality

RootstockScionFruit yieldTextureBrixSkin colourPulp colourSeed numberPhenol contentCalyx pickleReference
Solanum torvumMadonna+000+Mozafarian et al. (2020)
Solanum melongena × Solanum integrifoliumMadonna+00+Mozafarian et al. (2020)
Solanum grandiflorum × Solanum melongenaMadonna+0000+Mozafarian et al. (2020)
Solanum integrifoliumMadonna+0000Mozafarian et al. (2020)
Optifort (Solanum Lycopersicum)Madonna00Mozafarian et al. (2020)
Emperador (Solanum Lycopersicum)Madonna00Mozafarian et al. (2020)
Solanum aethiopicum (accession 1)Scarlatti000Sabatino et al. (2019)
Solanum aethiopicum (accession 2)Scarlatti00++Sabatino et al. (2019)
Solanum melongena × Solanum aethiopicumScarlatti0000Sabatino et al. (2019)
Solanum torvumScarlatti00-0Sabatino et al. (2019)
Solanum macrocarponBlack Beauty0++Gisbert et al. (2011)
Solanum torvumBlack Beauty0000Gisbert et al. (2011)
Emperador (Solanum Lycopersicum)AndraF1+Bogoescu and Doltu (2015)
Emperador (Solanum Lycopersicum)SharapovaF1+Bogoescu and Doltu (2015)
HikyakuHikyaku+Bogoescu and Doltu (2015)
HikyakuAndraF10Bogoescu and Doltu (2015)
Solanum torvumBianca++Sabatino et al. (2016)
Solanum torvumBirgah0+-Moncada et al. (2013)
Solanum torvumBlack Bell0+0Moncada et al. (2013)
Solanum torvumBlack Moon+0Moncada et al. (2013)
Solanum torvumLongo0+0Moncada et al. (2013)
‘Heman’ (Lycopersicon hirsutm)Rima+ (greenhouse)0+Khah (2011)
+ (open-field)
‘Primavera’ (Lycopersicon esculentum)Rima+ (greenhouse)0+Khah (2011)
− (open-field)
‘Heman’ (Lycopersicon hirsutm)Rima++Khah (2005)
‘Primavera’ (Lycopersicon esculentum)Rima0+Khah (2005)
Solanum torvumTsakonikiArvanitoyannis et al. (2005)
Solanum sisymbriifoliumTsakonikiArvanitoyannis et al. (2005)
Beaufort F1 (S. lycopersicum L. × S. habrochaites)Blackbell F1+Kacjan Maršic et al. (2014)
Beaufort F1 (S. lycopersicum L. × S. habrochaites)Epic F1Kacjan Maršic et al. (2014)

‘+’ indicated as increase; ‘−’, a decrease as a ‘0’ no change in fruit characterises.

Fruit shape index (ratio of equatorial and longitudinal diameter) can be affected by grafting in eggplant. For instance, grafting eggplant onto S. torvum caused a longer fruit (Cassaniti et al., 2011). Our finding showed that grafting eggplant cv. Madonna onto tomato rootstocks (cv. Optifort and Emperador) decreased the fruit length relative to control (Mozafarian et al., 2020) (Fig. 1). Similar result was reported by Sabatino et al. (2016); Gisbert et al. (2011) and Passam et al. (2005). Fruits of cv. Blackbell grafted onto cv. Beaufort had the more elongated than self-grafted fruit while the opposite record was observed at fruit of cv. Epic and cv. Galine grafted onto cv. Beaufort (Kacjan Maršic et al., 2014).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effect of different rootstock combinations on fruit length (cm). SR = self-root; SG = self-grafting; ST = S. torvum; A = S. integrifolium; SI = S. melongena × S. integrifolium; SH = S. grandiflorum × S. melongena; O = Optifort; E = Emperador

Citation: Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences Progress 16, S2; 10.1556/446.2020.20017

Calyx pickle as an undesirable trait for handling eggplant can affected by grafting. Kacjan Maršic et al. (2014) reported a significant impact of rootstocks on decreasing calyx pickles. Chromatic characteristics showed that interaction of grafting and cultivar significantly influence calyx colour; the calyx of cv. Birgah fruits from non-grafted plants had higher values of lightness and a more vivid colour in comparison with the grafted ones while the opposite result was found in cv. Black Bell and cv. Black Moon.

Evaluation of fruit quality as regards marketability and nutritive value is very important (Moncada et al., 2013). Colour, gloss and appearance attract the consumers. Colour can be measured by pigment extraction, spectrophotometry and instrumental methods. Colour (L*, a* and b* parameters – CIELab) can be measured on calyx and fruit skin by a tristimulus Minolta Chroma meter CR-400. Chroma (C*) and Hue angle (H°) can also be calculated.

Skin or flesh colour of fruit can be influenced by grafting and different rootstocks. Moncada et al. (2013) indicated that grafting eggplant onto S. torvum resulted in a darker and less vivid colour to the fruit harvested from control. Mozafarian et al. 2020Mozafarian and Kappel, 2019 reported that skin colour cv. Madonna was influenced by different rootstock while CIRG index was similar between grafted and non-grafted plants. Stripped fruit skin colour was observed in self-grafted plants and cv. Langada (Krommydas et al., 2018).

In case of eggplant, late browning in pulp is important. The whitening index of eggplant pulp and skin colour can be measured according to the standards of CIE. Colour space may be divided into a three-dimensional (L*, a* and b*) such that L* (lightness; 0 black and 100 white); a* (red to green) and b* (blue to yellow). The CIE L*a*b* values of the pulp can be determined and the whiteness index (WI) is calculated by the following Eq. (1) (Amanatidou et al., 2000):
WI=100((100L)2+(a2+b2))0.5
Also, the colour differences (CDs) of eggplant pulp can be measured by CIE L*a*b* values at time 0 and 30 or 60 min (2).
CD=[(L30L0)+(a30a0)+(b30b0)]
Moreover, the oxidation potential (browning index) was measured by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*a*b* values using the following Eq. (3):
ΔL30=(L0L30)andΔL60=(L0L60)

Kacjan Maršic et al. (2014), Moncada et al. (2013) and Mozafarian et al. (2020) found that the lightness of fruit pulp was similar in grafted and non-grafted plants. However, Kacjan Maršic et al. (2014) reported that browning index after 10 min was influenced by grafting (ΔL10 = 2.8) relative to self-grafting plant (ΔL10= 4.8) and after 30 min no significant differences were observed. Similar result was obtained by Mozafarian et al. (2020) who reported that grafting eggplant cv. Madonna decreased browning index of pulp. Opposite result was reported by Moncada et al. (2013) who found the same browning level in grafted and non-grafted fruit.

Difference in post cutting browning can be due to level of phenolic compound or the activity of polyphenol oxidase enzyme. Kacjan Maršic et al. (2014) found the reduction of the phenolic concentration by grafting which can be the reason of lowest browning in fruit. Greater phenolic compound in fruit harvested from grafted plant in comparison with non-grafted and self-grafted plants was observed by several researchers (Gisbert et al., 2011; Sabantino et al., 2016).

After visual appearance, the texture of fruit is the most important factor for consumers and grafting can influence the firmness of fruit. It can be measured by destructive or non-destructive methods. Fruit firmness can be evaluated easily by hand operated or electric penetrometer through universal testing equipped with a plunger. Another equipment is the texture analyser; flat plate is a technique very similar to puncture and it can be carried out both in a destructive and non-destructive way.

The acoustic and impact response, ultrasonic methods are non-destructive methods. In the acoustic method, vibrational responses in the frequency range from 20 to 10,000 Hz are used. Moreover, an electromagnetic property (nuclear magnetic resonance) or a chemical property (electronic nose) can be used for fruit texture evaluation (Jiménez et al., 2012).

As shown in Table 1 grafting eggplant caused a reduction in fruit firmness (Cassaniti et al., 2011). Recently, we found that grafting cv. Madonna decreased the fruit firmness (Mozafarian et al., 2020).

Some researchers have described that sugar content is not influenced by grafting (Colla et al., 2008; Turhan et al., 2011; Nicoletto et al., 2013; Lopez-Marin et al., 2013). Lower pH and total soluble solids (TSSs) are observed, when eggplant was grafted onto S. torvum (Khah, 2011). They explained that grafting caused lower plant growth and fruit water content and resulted in higher soluble solids content (SSC) (Ntatsi et al., 2014; Rahmatian et al., 2014). On the other hand, Kumar et al. (2015) and Riga et al. (2016) reported sugar reduction in fruit due to increasing fruit water content. In another study, fruit harvested from cv. Emperador and Optifort rootstocks showed the lowest Brix value in comparison with fruit of control (Mozafarian et al., 2020). Vitamin C and firmness of eggplant fruit were negatively affected by grafting on S. torvum and Solanum sisymbriifolium (Arvanitoyannis et al., 2005).

Fruit taste, aroma and appearance can be evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Also, it can be measured by instrumental methods (pH, Brix). Total soluble solids (TSSs) as Brix and pH are determined by the juice of fruit flesh onto a digital refractometer or pH meter. Arvanitoyannis et al. (2005) evaluated the organoleptic properties of grafted eggplant for 10 days stored at two temperatures. Small pieces of the fruit were boiled and were immediately assessed for sweetness, colour, odour, tartness and non-boiled assessed for appearance. Higher rating of sweetness, acceptance and hardness of fruit were observed at non-grafted plants and no difference was found for overall acceptance between grafted and non-grafted plants (Arvanitoyannis et al., 2005). In another experiment, grafting cv. Madonna onto S. torvum had the stronger sweet taste as compared to control fruits and fruits harvested from S. melongena × Solanum integrifolium showed significantly intensive odour (Mozafarian et al., 2020).

Conclusion

Grafting as one of the possible propagation methods can be used for increasing the quality and quantity of crop production. Whereas there are many reported advantages due to grafting it is widely used in cultivation practice in two vegetable families (Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae) as well. At the same time there are many conflicting results of grafting effect on fruit quality due to different production environments, type of rootstock/scion combination used and harvest date. In the case of eggplants, such publications are even less clear. All results on rootstocks in eggplant grafting indicate conflicting effects, therefore, our aim was to summarise these previous studies and to highlight that also with eggplants the methods of examining the fruit quality of tomatoes and melons due to grafting can also be applied. However, the influence of grafting on postharvest is poorly understood; so additional knowledge is required on fruit shelf-life and consumer evaluation of eggplant fruits.

Acknowledgements

‘This publication is created in number EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00016. The specialized of the SZIE Campus of Szarvas research and training profile with intelligent specialization in the themes of water management, hydroculture, precision mechanical engineering, alternative crop production’.

References

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    • Crossref
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    • Crossref
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    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arvanitoyannis, I.S., Khah, E.M., Christakou, E.C., and Bletsos, F.A. (2005). Effect of grafting and modified atmosphere packaging on eggplant quality parameters during storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40: 311322.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogoescu, M. and Doltu, M. (2015). Effect of grafting eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) on its selected useful characters. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 72(2): 318326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bie, Z., Azher Nawaz, M., Huang, Y., Lee, J.-M. and Colla, G. (2017). Importance and use of vegetable grafting.. In: Vegetable grafting: principles and practices. CRC Press, pp. 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassaniti, C., Giuffrida, F., Scuderi, D., and Leonardi, C. (2011). Effect of rootstock and nutrient solution concentration on eggplant grown in a soilless system. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 9: 252256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Temperini, O., Rea, E., and Salerno A. (2008). Influence of grafting on yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Acta Horticuturea, 782: 359363.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edelstein, M., Cohen, R., Burger, Y., Shriber, S., Pivonia, S., and Shtienberg, D. (1999). Integrated management of sudden wilt in melons, caused by Monosporascus cannonballus, using grafting and reduced rates of methyl bromide. Plant Disease, 83:11421145.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández-García, N., Vicente, M., and Carvajal, M. (2004). Effect of salinity on growth, mineral composition, and water relations of grafted tomato plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167(5): 616622. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200420416.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gisbert, C., Prohens, J., Raigón, M.D., Stommel, J.R., and Nuez, F. (2011). Eggplant relatives as sources of variation for developing new rootstocks: Effects of grafting on eggplant yield and fruit apparent quality and composition. Scientia Horticulturea, 128: 1422.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, N., Picó, R., Camarena, F., Redondo, J., and Roig, B. (2012). Postharvest Biology and Technology Ultrasonic evaluation of the hydration degree of the orange peel. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 67: 130137.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kacjan Maršic, N., Mikulic-Petkovšek, M., and Stampar, F. (2014) Grafting influences phenolic profile and carpometrictraits of fruits of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 62: 1050410514.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khah, E.M. (2011). Effect of grafting on growth, performance and yield of aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) in greenhouse and open-field. International Journal of Plant Production, 5: 359366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khah E.M. (2005). Effect of grafting on growth, performance and yield of aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) in the field and greenhouse. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 3: 9294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krommydas, K., Mavromatis, A., Bletsos, F., and Roupakias, D. (2018). Suitability of CMS-based interspecific eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) hybrids as rootstocks for eggplant grafting. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 15(1): 115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumar, P., Lucini, L., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Kalunke, R.M., and Colla, G. (2015). Insight into the role of grafting and arbuscular mycorrhiza on cadmium stress tolerance in tomato. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6: 116.

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  • Kumar, B. and Sanket, K. (2017). Grafting of vegetable crops as tool to improve yield and tolerance against disease. International Journal of Agriculture Science, 9(13): 40504056.

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  • Kyriacou, M.C., Rouphael, Y., Colla, G., Zrenner, R., and Schwarz, D. (2017). Vegetable grafting: The implications of a growing agronomic imperative for vegetable fruit quality and nutritive value. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 123.

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  • López-Marín, J., González, A., Pérez-Alfocea, F., Egea-Gilabert, C., and Fernandez, J.A. (2013). Grafting is an efficient alternative to shading screens to alleviate thermal stress in greenhouse-grown sweet pepper. Scientia Horticulturae, 149: 3946.

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  • Martínez-Ballesta, M.C., Alcaraz-Lopez, C., Muries, B., and Carvajal, M. (2010). Physiological aspects of rootstock–scion interactions. Scientia Horticulturae, 127: 112118.

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  • Moncada, A., Miceli, A., Vetrano, F., Mineo, V., Planeta, D., and D’Anna F. (2013). Effect of grafting on yield and quality of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 4: 108114.

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  • Mozafarian, M. Ismail, N.S.B., and Kappel, N. (2020). Rootstock effects on yield and some consumer important fruit quality parameters of eggplant cv. ‘Madonna’ under protected cultivation. Agronomy, 10: 1442.

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  • Mozafarian, M. and Kappel, N. (2020). Grafting plants to improve abiotic stress tolerance. In: Hasanuzzaman, M. (Ed.), Plant ecophysiology and adaptation under climate change: mechanisms and perspectives II. Springer, Singapore, pp. 477490.

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  • Mozafarian, M. and Kappel, N. (2019). The role of grafting vegetable crops for reducing biotic and abiotic stresses. Handbook of plant and crop stress, 4th ed. CRC press.

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  • Nicoletto, C., Tosini, F., and Sambo P. (2013). Effect of grafting on biochemical and nutritional traits of ‘Cuore di bue’ tomatoes harvested at different ripening stages. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, B, 63: 114122.

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  • Ntatsi, G., Savvas, D., Huntenburg, K., Druege, U., and Schwarz, D. (2014). A study on ABA involvement in the response of tomato to suboptimal root temperature using reciprocal grafts with notabilis, a null mutant in the ABA-biosynthesis gene LeNCED1. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 97: 1121.

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  • Passam, H.C., Stylianou, M., and Kotsiras, A. (2005). Performance of eggplant grafted on tomato and eggplant rootstocks. European Journal of Horticultural Science 70(3): 130134.

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  • Rahmatian, A., Delshad, M., and Salehi, R. (2014). Effect of grafting on growth, yield and fruot quality of single and double stemmed tomato plants grown hydroponically. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 55: 115119.

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  • Riga, P., Benedicto, L., García-Flores, L., Villaño, D., Medina, S., and Gil-Izquierdo, A. (2016). Rootstock effect on serotonin and nutritional quality of tomatoes produced under low temperature and light conditions. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 46: 5059.

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  • Sabatino, L., Iapichino, G., Maggio, A., D’Anna, E., Bruno, M., and D’Anna, F. (2016). Grafting a_ects yield and phenolic profile of Solanum melongena L. landraces. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15: 10171024.

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  • Sabatino, L., D’Anna, F., D’Anna, F., Iapichino, G., Moncada, A., D’Anna, E., and De Pasquale, C. (2019). Interactive effect of genotype and molybdenum supply on yield and overall fruit quality of tomato. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9: 1922.

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  • Turhan, A., Ozmen, N., Serbeci, M.S., and Seniz, V. (2011). Effects of grafting on different rootstocks on tomato fruit yield and quality. Horticulture Science, 38: 142149.

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  • Tsaballa, A., Christos, A., Konstantinos, P., Ioannis, G., Irini, N., and Athanasios, T. (2013). Molecular studies of inheritable grafting induced changes in pepper (Capsicum Annuum) fruit shape. Scientia Horticulturae, 149: 28.

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  • Wang, J., Jiang, L., and Wu, R. (2017). Plant grafting: how genetic exchange promotes vascular reconnection. New Phytologist 214(1): 5665. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14383.

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

 

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Felföldi, József

Chair of the Editorial Board Szendrő, Péter

Editorial Board

  • Beke, János (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineerin, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Fenyvesi, László (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Szendrő, Péter (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Felföldi, József (Szent István University, Faculty of Food Science, Budapest – Hungary)

 

Advisory Board

  • De Baerdemaeker, Josse (KU Leuven, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Leuven - Belgium)
  • Funk, David B. (United States Department of Agriculture | USDA • Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Kansas City – USA
  • Geyer, Martin (Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Department of Horticultural Engineering, Potsdam - Germany)
  • Janik, József (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Kutzbach, Heinz D. (Institut für Agrartechnik, Fg. Grundlagen der Agrartechnik, Universität Hohenheim – Germany)
  • Mizrach, Amos (Institute of Agricultural Engineering. ARO, the Volcani Center, Bet Dagan – Israel)
  • Neményi, Miklós (Széchenyi University, Department of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Győr – Hungary)
  • Schulze-Lammers, Peter (University of Bonn, Institute of Agricultural Engineering (ILT), Bonn – Germany)
  • Sitkei, György (University of Sopron, Institute of Wood Engineering, Sopron – Hungary)
  • Sun, Da-Wen (University College Dublin, School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science, Dublin – Ireland)
  • Tóth, László (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)

Prof. Felföldi, József
Institute: Physics-Control Department, Szent István University
Address: 1118 Budapest Somlói út 14-16
Phone: +36 1 305 7206
E-mail: Felfoldi.Jozsef@etk.szie.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • CABI

2020  
Scimago
H-index
8
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,197
Scimago
Quartile Score
Environmental Engineering Q4
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Q3
Mechanical Engineering Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
33/69=0,5
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Environmental Engineering 126/146 (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 269/336 (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering 512/596 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,211
Scopus
Cites
53
Scopus
Documents
41
Days from submission to acceptance 122
Days from acceptance to publication 40
Acceptance rate 86%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
6
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,123
Scimago
Quartile Score
Environmental Engineering Q4
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Q4
Mechanical Engineering Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
18/33=0,5
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Environmental Engineering 108/132 (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 242/340 (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering 481/585 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,211
Scopus
Cites
13
Scopus
Documents
5

 

Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2004
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 17
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
1
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1786-335X (Print)
ISSN 1787-0321 (Online)

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