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Meltem Boylu Department of Livestock Products and Food Preservation Technology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Hungary

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Géza Hitka Department of Postharvest, Commerce, Supply Chain and Sensory Science, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Hungary

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György Kenesei Department of Livestock Products and Food Preservation Technology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Hungary

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Abstract

Besides their unique taste and texture, mushrooms are a promising source of important nutrients, including dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Fresh mushrooms, however, can only endure for a brief time, typically up to three days at ambient conditions. Different methods have been used to preserve mushrooms for a prolonged period, such as drying, cooking, frying, irradiation and fermentation. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of different pre-treatments and fermentation on physicochemical, textural, and microbial properties of oyster mushrooms. The fresh oyster mushroom was considered as control and 6 alternative pre-treatment methods were used as; blanching in water, steaming, oven cooking, microwave, High Hydrostatic Pressure and UV Light treatment. Moisture, pH, yield, color, texture, and microbiological analyses were performed on each pre-treatment group before and after fermentation. Our results showed that the quality attributes of oyster mushrooms were significantly affected by the usage of different pre-treatments.

Abstract

Besides their unique taste and texture, mushrooms are a promising source of important nutrients, including dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Fresh mushrooms, however, can only endure for a brief time, typically up to three days at ambient conditions. Different methods have been used to preserve mushrooms for a prolonged period, such as drying, cooking, frying, irradiation and fermentation. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of different pre-treatments and fermentation on physicochemical, textural, and microbial properties of oyster mushrooms. The fresh oyster mushroom was considered as control and 6 alternative pre-treatment methods were used as; blanching in water, steaming, oven cooking, microwave, High Hydrostatic Pressure and UV Light treatment. Moisture, pH, yield, color, texture, and microbiological analyses were performed on each pre-treatment group before and after fermentation. Our results showed that the quality attributes of oyster mushrooms were significantly affected by the usage of different pre-treatments.

Introduction

Edible mushrooms are a very diversified group of fast-growing macrofungi and popular food items worldwide. Mushrooms have been consumed and studied for their several nutritional, medicinal, economical, and sustainable contributions and are considered next-generation healthy foods (Bringye et al., 2021; Das et al., 2021; Kumar et al., 2022). They can play a significant role in adaptive immunity, therapeutic attributes, and improvement of general health thanks to the primary components of mushroom polysaccharides, such as non-digestible prebiotic β-glucans (Kiss et al., 2021). Pleurotus mushrooms, also known as “oyster mushrooms” are one of the members of Basidiomycota and they are recognized for their nutritional and culinary value. They can grow on various agricultural wastes in a short growth time and can be cultivated easily and affordably as they do not require specific environmental control (El-Ramady et al., 2022). Pleurotus ostreatus, thanks to high protein and essential amino acid content, could be regarded as a viable vegan-protein source (Bakratsas et al., 2023). Besides being low in fat, calories, and cholesterol, they are rich in bioactive compounds such as β-glucans, phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites, dietary fiber, vitamins, and carbohydrates (Sharma et al., 2021). On the other hand, fresh mushrooms are prone to quick decay primarily because of the high water content (87–95%), metabolic rate, enzyme activity, and susceptibility to bacterial attack. They start deteriorating immediately after harvest and have a limited shelf life at ambient conditions, which might result in a loss of quality (moisture loss, discoloration, alteration of texture and flavor and reduction in nutrient content) and thus rejection by consumers (Nketia et al., 2020). Various preservation techniques such as drying, cooking, pickling, frying, and gamma irradiation have been investigated and utilized to extend mushroom shelf life and diversify the product for consumers (Maray et al., 2017; Nketia et al., 2020). Preservation of mushrooms by fermentation is also an affordable and efficient method domestically used in Eastern Europe and Asia (Jabłońska-Ryś et al., 2016). The current study aims to investigate the effects of different pre-treatments and fermentation on physicochemical, textural and microbiological properties of oyster mushrooms. The applied processing used in this study included blanching in water, steaming, oven cooking, microwave, High Hydrostatic Pressure and Ultraviolet Light treatment, and spontaneous fermentation of oyster mushrooms.

Materials and methods

Pretreatments and fermentation

The fresh oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) utilised in this research was supplied from a local market in Budapest, Hungary. The pre-treatments were performed at the pilot plant of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Department of Livestock Products and Food Preservation Technology. The damaged parts of oyster mushroom were separated. Cleaned, and longitudinally sliced mushrooms were used for pretreatments and fermentation. 2 kg of fresh oyster mushroom was used for each pretreatment group. Six different pretreatments applied to oyster mushrooms before fermentation were as follows; blanching in water (B), steaming (S), oven cooking (O), microwave (M), High Hydrostatic Pressure (H) and Ultraviolet Light treatment (U) and fresh oyster mushroom was used as control (F) (Table 1). Images of the pretreated mushroom samples are presented in Fig. 1. After the pretreatments, the fermentation process was applied in accordance with a prior investigation by Jabłońska-Ryś et al. (2022), with some modifications. All pretreated sample groups were divided into portions of 250 g each and left to spontaneous fermentation for 8 days at 21–22 ºC in sealed pouches with the addition of 2% (w/w) of salt, 1% (w/w) of sucrose and 70 ml of 2% salt solution. Images of the fermented mushroom samples are presented in Fig. 2. Fresh mushrooms, pretreated mushrooms, and mushrooms that were fermented for 8 days were evaluated in terms of moisture, pH, color, texture, Lactic acid bacteria count and yield were calculated for each group. All treatments were repeated twice independently.

Table 1.

Pretreatment of oyster mushroom

PretreatmentDescription
FFresh oyster mushroom used as control
BBlanched in boiling water for 3 min at 100°C
SSteamed for 3 min in oven at 100 °C on steam function (Lainox VE051P)
OOven cooked for 3 min, at 100 °C (Lainox VE051P)
MMicrowave oven treated for 3 min at 85 ºC, 100 W, A3 (vegetable mode)
HHHP treated for 3 min at 20 ºC, 300 MPa (Resato B2441)
UUV light treated for 15 min at 20 ºC, Power: 30 W, 312 nm (VL-115.M)
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images of the pretreated mushrooms (F – fresh; B – blanched; S – steamed; O – oven cooked; M – microwave treated; H – HHP treated; U – UV light treated)

Citation: Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 19, S1; 10.1556/446.2023.00080

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of the fermented mushrooms (F – fresh; B – blanched; S – steamed; O – oven cooked; M – microwave treated; H – HHP treated; U – UV light treated)

Citation: Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 19, S1; 10.1556/446.2023.00080

Moisture content, pH, yield and LAB count

The moisture content of mushroom samples was assessed in duplicate in accordance with AOAC, 2000. For this purpose, approximately 4 g of mushroom was dried in a convection oven (Labor MM, Hungary) at a temperature of 105 °C throughout 16 h. The pH of the mushroom samples was assessed with a pH meter (Testo AG., Germany) in triplicate. The weight of the mushrooms before and after the pretreatments and fermentation were recorded, and afterwards, the yield for each respective group was calculated according to the given formula.
Yield=Initialweightofthesample/FinalweightofthesampleX100

The following method was used to enumerate the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) count: United States Pharmacopeia (USP) (2013).

Color measurement

The color characteristics of mushroom samples were measured employing the CIELAB (Colorimetry, C. I. E., 1986) scoring system. Lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) values of the mushroom samples were determined using a CR-410-type colorimeter (Konika Minolta Sensing Inc., Japan). Prior to each measurement, the colorimeter was calibrated using a white standard plate (CRA43). Nine parallel readings were performed for each mushroom sample. Browning Index, Yellowness Index, and Total Color Change (ΔE) were calculated according to Doroški et al. (2020).

Texture properties

The texture of mushroom samples was evaluated witha TA.XTplus Texture Analyzer (Stable Micro System, Surrey, UK). 60 g of mushroom samples were positioned within a Kramer cell for the shear force analysis. The speed for both pre-measurement and during measurement was fixed as 2 mm s−1, while the distance was 30 mm. Trigger force was set as 0.049 N. Force (N) was recorded as a function of time/distance. The obtained peak force (N) to shear through the sample was used to determine the firmness of the sample. Measure of work (mJ) performed during each trial was calculated assessing the obtained graph. Nine shear press values were derived for each pretreatment group.

Statistical analysis

One-way multivariate ANOVA in SPSS-23 software (SPSS Inc., IBM Company, US) was used for the statistical evaluation of the obtained results. Levene's test was used to confirm the homogeneity of the measured values. Tukey's post hoc tests were conducted for identifying any significant differences among the samples. The differences were regarded to be statistically significant at P < 0.05.

Results and discussion

Moisture content

The moisture contents of the mushroom samples after pretreatments and after fermentation are displayed in Table 2. Use of different pretreatments caused significant differences in the moisture content of the mushrooms. After pretreatments, B, H, O, and U samples had similar moisture contents, ranging between 88.90 and 90.47%, being close to the moisture content of fresh oyster mushrooms (89.66%) (Nketia et al., 2020). The lowest moisture content was obtained as 83.91% for M samples while S samples had 87.16% moisture content. Significant differences in the moisture content of the mushroom samples were also observed after the fermentation. F and U samples after fermentation had similar and highest moisture content (90%), and M samples had the lowest (85.56%). Similar results were reported by Wang (2015) in their research of Auricularia auricula mushroom pickles. The highest moisture content in U samples could be explained by the fact that UV treatment is a surface treatment. The lowest moisture content in M samples might be attributed to water molecules in mushrooms absorbing microwave energy quickly, whereas microwave energy was converted to heat, causing water to evaporate rapidly (Zhang et al., 2018).

Table 2.

Moisture, pH and yield values of the mushroom samples after pretreatments and after fermentation

SampleAfter pretreatmentsAfter fermentation
Moisture (%)pHYield (%)Moisture (%)pHYield (%)
F89.66 ± 1.23a6.35 ± 0.04a100.0090.21 ± 0.28A3.96 ± 0.07A88.28
B90.01 ± 0.35a7.60 ± 0.02e91.0088.61 ± 0.48D4.50 ± 0.10DE92.32
S87.16 ± 0.51b6.61 ± 0.09c92.3386.27 ± 0.39E4.98 ± 0.25F89.59
O88.90 ± 1.17a6.71 ± 0.02d94.1289.13 ± 0.48C4.18 ± 0.25BC89.30
M83.91 ± 3.11c6.69 ± 0.04d80.0085.56 ± 0.73F4.67 ± 0.26E95.46
H89.88 ± 0.22a6.50 ± 0.03b98.6589.69 ± 0.55B4.37 ± 0.46CD68.70
U90.47 ± 0.61a6.46 ± 0.09b99.7190.37 ± 0.19A4.02 ± 0.12AB88.28

a–e, A−F: Mean values with different letters differ significantly among samples (P < 0.05).

pH

The pH value of fermented foods is a critical element in ensuring product durability and microbiological safety. As a result, to achieve a rapid and significant decrease in pH (increase in titratable acidity) in fermented foods is critical. The fresh oyster mushroom that was used in our study had a mean pH of 6.35 ± 0.04. The pH values of pretreated and fermented mushroom samples are given in Table 2. Different pretreatments and fermentation had a significant impact on the pH of the mushroom samples. The pH values of control sample (F) were the lowest while the B samples had the highest pH value, 6.35 ± 0.04 and 7.60 ± 0.02 respectively. All pretreated samples had a higher pH value compared to fresh oyster mushrooms. Similarly, LeLAS et al. (2007) reported an increase in the pH of button mushrooms after water blanching for 3 min. As expected, all sample groups had a pH drop after fermentation. The lowest pH after fermentation was achieved in F samples as 3.96 ± 0.07 and the highest pH was detected in S samples as 4.98 ± 0.25. These results are consistent with the findings of Chen et al. (2021) where the pH of Shiitake mushroom was dropped from 6.5 to 5.0 after 5 days of fermentation. In another study with oyster and chanterelle mushrooms, after 3 or 4 days of fermentation, with L. plantarum, pH values reached 3.5 (Jabłońska-Ryś et al., 2016). According to research, the pH of other fermented mushroom species ranges between 3.3 and 4.6 and it is regulated by fermentation temperature, carbohydrate content, and chemicals employed in the process (Jabłońska-Ryś et al., 2019).

Yield

The yields of applied pretreatments before and after fermentation are given in Table 2. For fresh mushrooms (F), it was estimated as 100% as no pretreatment was applied to these samples as a control group. The final weight of mushroom after pretreatments was found highest for the U (99.71%) and H samples (98.65%). Among the pretreatments, mushrooms obtained after microwave treatment revealed the lowest yield (80%). The loss in mushroom weight of M, S, and O samples may be due to the removal of water, while it could be attributed to the solid waste from the mushroom tissues for B samples (Maray et al., 2017). After the fermentation, M samples exhibited the highest yield (95.46%), which was followed by B (92.32%) and S (89.59%) samples. The lowest yield was obtained for H (68.70%) and U (69.41%) samples after the fermentation. This result points out to the importance of pretreatments before fermentation process in terms of yield.

Lactic acid bacteria count

Lactic acid bacteria counts of the mushroom samples after pretreatments and fermentation are shown in Table 3. The highest number of LAB was recorded for U and F samples after pretreatments, i.e., 2.54 and 2.29 log CFU mL−1 respectively. The population of LAB in all pretreated fermented mushroom samples increased by the end of fermentation. A favorable population of LAB (>8 Log CFU mL−1) was acquired for four pretreatment groups (S, H, B, O) after 8 days of fermentation. Similar results were reported by Jabłońska et al. (2022) with fermented button mushrooms. Low pH, high organic acid concentrations, and a decrease in the accessible carbohydrates amount all have an inhibitory effect on the LAB population.

Table 3.

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts of mushroom samples

LAB count (Log CFU mL−1)FBSOMHU
After Pretreatment2.29<1<2<2<21.302.54
After Fermentation7.848.629.118.576.868.946.81

Color

Mushrooms are prone to browning and color change due to processing, microbial contamination and enzymatic activity. Pretreatments and fermentation significantly affected the color of the mushrooms (Table 4). Compared to untreated samples (F), all pretreated samples had significantly lower L* values, other than U samples (P < 0.05). This was in accordance with the Browning Index, indicating that the browning occurred the most in S, M and O, and the least in U samples. Similar results were reported by Wang et al. (2017) for UV-C treatment, averting surface browning of oyster mushrooms. Yellowness Index followed the same pattern with the Browning Index, in accordance with b* values. The lowest a* values were detected for H and O samples. Total color difference (TCD), evaluating the complete variations in color of an analyzed sample in comparison with a control (in our study, F), indicates that the H and S samples experienced the biggest color changes. Similarly, darkening and significant changes in BI were observed for canned oyster mushrooms after steam blanching. It was elucidated as the outcome of the enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols by polyphenol oxidase in mushrooms, causing browning and subsequent loss of whiteness (Nketia et al., 2020). Our results are in agreement with Eissa et al. (2009) where the water-blanched mushrooms had a BI lower than steam-blanched mushrooms, due to thermal pretreatments increasing the development of non-enzymatic browning as in the case of steamed, microwaved and oven treated mushrooms in our study.

Table 4.

Means ± standard deviations of color attributes of mushroom samples, Browning Index, Yellowness Index and Total Color Change (ΔE)

SampleL*a*b*BIYITCC (ΔE)
After Pretreatment
F70.29 ± 6.02b0.28 ± 0.65d9.80 ± 2.30a14.9619.920.00
B62.70 ± 5.32a0.47 ± 0.64d10.84 ± 1.84ab19.1024.707.66
S63.93 ± 4.79a−0.07 ± 0.61cd15.72 ± 1.83d27.4635.138.70
O63.91 ± 6.32a−0.97 ± 0.76ab13.43 ± 2.27c21.8730.027.45
M64.65 ± 4.57a−0.42 ± 0.70bc15.02 ± 2.12cd25.3133.197.72
H61.68 ± 5.72a−1.09 ± 0.80a11.65 ± 1.64b19.1026.988.91
U72.39 ± 5.67b0.10 ± 0.57cd9.68 ± 1.74a14.1219.102.11
After Fermentation
F59.24 ± 6.13A−0.25 ± 1.56A16.23 ± 1.87B30.9039.140.00
B64.65 ± 5.65C0.61 ± 0.81B13.56 ± 1.72A23.7029.966.09
S60.17 ± 4.97AB−0.08 ± 0.84AB16.69 ± 1.71B31.5839.631.05
O57.53 ± 4.70A−0.31 ± 0.77A16.71 ± 1.18B33.0341.491.78
M63.83 ± 5.71BC−0.50 ± 0.81A16.63 ± 1.68B28.8437.224.61
H58.31 ± 4.59A−0.09 ± 0.79AB21.32 ± 2.10C44.0852.235.18
U59.42 ± 5.70A−0.21 ± 1.01A19.79 ± 2.63C39.1447.583.56

a–d, A−C: Mean values with different letters differ significantly among samples (P < 0.05).

After the fermentation process, significant differences were detected among the samples regarding all color attributes. The L* values detected as the highest for B and M samples and lowest for F, U, O and H samples. This was in accordance with BI indicating that blanching in water and microwave treatments could prevent the browning of mushrooms. Similarly, B samples showed the highest a* values compared to other samples, followed by S and H samples. F, M, U and O samples experienced the biggest losses of redness. YI in agreement with b* values showed that H samples exhibited the highest yellowness while B samples had the lowest. It was also observed that fermentation caused a decrease in lightness and redness values (other than B samples) with a high increase in yellowness values of all mushrooms. Liu et al. (2016) reported similar results for Pleurotus spp. subjected to lactic fermentation where they reported a comparable rise in b* values, in addition to darkening of the fruiting bodies (decreased L* value), however an increase in the a* values was also reported in their study. In another study with button mushrooms, an increase in L* and b* values was observed with a decrease in the values (Jabłońska-Ryś et al., 2022).

Texture

The texture of mushrooms is subject to change due to time, loss of water, wounds, mechanical damage, and thermal processing (Zhang et al., 2018). Also, the application of heat and the specific methods employed for thermal processing are of important factors (Hasani et al., 2021). The type of pretreatment applied before fermentation led to significant differences in textural parameters of mushrooms (P < 0.05). The results of texture evaluation are demonstrated in Fig. 3a and b. According to results, the force required to shear F (54.79 ± 4.86), U (54.41 ± 3.10) and M (52.41 ± 3.39) samples was much higher than that of other samples, while H (35.30 ± 4.39) samples required the lowest. Also, more shear work was required to cut through these samples than H and B samples Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a): Texture evaluation of the mushroom samples after pretreatments; (b): Texture evaluation of the mushroom samples after fermentation. a–d, A−E: Mean values with different letters indicate significant differences among samples (P < 0.05)

Citation: Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 19, S1; 10.1556/446.2023.00080

In a study with Agaricus bisporus and Boletus edulis mushrooms, Kramer shear cell measurement indicated that the shear force for blanched Agaricus mushrooms was higher than that of fresh ones, while the shear force for blanched Boletus mushroom was lower compared to the fresh ones. Work values were also detected to be higher for fresh mushrooms compared to blanched mushrooms (Jaworska et al., 2010). Similar results were explained by high temperatures while blanching, causing denaturation of proteins, membrane destabilization, and decrease in weight or volume leading to softening of mushroom tissues (Zivanovic et al., 2004). It is noteworthy that in our study, H samples experienced more textural alterations even compared to heat treated samples while U and M samples demonstrated much better results. This outcome could potentially be attributed to the fundamental distinctions in how heat treatments and HHP treatment impact proteins (Kenesei et al., 2017). There were significant differences between the samples after fermentation (Fig. 1(b)). The force required to shear B (46.85 ± 4.29), M (46.37 ± 4.85) and S (44.88 ± 5.35) mushrooms after the fermentation process was higher than that of other samples, while U (8.53 ± 1.12) samples required the lowest force. Shear work values were in accordance with the required force after the fermentation as well, less work was required to cut through U, H, and F samples after fermentation. In their study, Jabłońska-Ryś et al. (2022) reported that fermentation of the mushroom fruiting bodies resulted in reduced firmness, pointing out that it is a common problem for fermented vegetables. In our study, the objective was to see the effects of different pretreatments on mushrooms before and after fermentation. As a result, blanched, steamed and microwave-treated mushroom samples were able to tolerate both pretreatment and fermentation processes with less change in texture. The biggest alterations were observed in fresh, UV, and HHP-treated mushrooms.

Conclusions

The type of pretreatment applied affected all the investigated quality properties of oyster mushrooms. The possibility of using novel technologies such as HHP, microwave, and UV Light in addition to steaming, oven cooking, and water blanching prior to fermentation was investigated. Overall, microwave and steaming pretreatments exhibited good results in terms of color, texture, and yield for the fermentation of mushrooms, thus could be considered as alternatives to water blanching. On the other hand, UV and HHP treatments were not found to be suitable for the pretreatment of mushrooms due to severe quality alterations.

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  • Wang, W.H. (2015). Effect of processing techniques on the quality and acceptability of Auricularia auricula mushroom pickle. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 3(1): 4651. https://doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-3-1-8.

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  • Wang, Q., Chu, L., and Kou, L. (2017). UV-C Treatment maintains quality and delays senescence of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Scientia Horticulturae, 225: 380385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.07.019.

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  • Zhang, K., Pu, Y.Y., and Sun, D.W. (2018). Recent advances in quality preservation of postharvest mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus): a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 78: 7282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2018.05.012.

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  • Zivanovic, S. and Buescher, R. (2004). Changes in mushroom texture and cell wall composition affected by thermal processing. Journal of Food Science, 69(1): 4449. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb17885.x.

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  • Bakratsas, G., Polydera, A., Nilson, O., Kossatz, L., Xiros, C., Katapodis, P., and Stamatis, H. (2023). Single-cell protein production by Pleurotus ostreatus in submerged fermentation. Sustainable Food Technology, 1(3): 377389. https://doi.org/10.1039/D2FB00058J.

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  • Doroški, A., Klaus, A., Kozarski, M., Cvetković, S., Nikolić, B., Jakovljević, D., and Djekic, I. (2020). The influence of grape pomace substrate on quality characterization of Pleurotus ostreatus—Total quality index approach. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 45(1): e15096. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.15096.

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  • Kumar, H., Bhardwaj, K., Kuča, K., Sharifi-Rad, J., Verma, R., Machado, M., and Cruz-Martins, N. (2022). Edible mushrooms’ enrichment in food and feed: a mini review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 57(3): 13861398. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.15546.

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  • Maray, A.R., Mostafa, M.K., and El-Fakhrany, A.E.D.M. (2017). Effect of pretreatments and drying methods on physico-chemical, sensory characteristics and nutritional value of oyster mushroom. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42(1): e13352. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13352.

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  • Nketia, S., Buckman, E.S., Dzomeku, M., and Akonor, P.T. (2020). Effect of processing and storage on physical and texture qualities of oyster mushrooms canned in different media. Scientific African, 9: e00501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00501.

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  • Sharma, A., Sharma, A., and Tripathi, A. (2021). Biological activities of Pleurotus spp. polysaccharides: a review. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 45(6): e13748. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United States Pharmacopeia (USP) (2013). Microbial enumeration tests—nutritional and dietary supplements. USP41-NF36. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, W.H. (2015). Effect of processing techniques on the quality and acceptability of Auricularia auricula mushroom pickle. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 3(1): 4651. https://doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-3-1-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Q., Chu, L., and Kou, L. (2017). UV-C Treatment maintains quality and delays senescence of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Scientia Horticulturae, 225: 380385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.07.019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, K., Pu, Y.Y., and Sun, D.W. (2018). Recent advances in quality preservation of postharvest mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus): a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 78: 7282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2018.05.012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zivanovic, S. and Buescher, R. (2004). Changes in mushroom texture and cell wall composition affected by thermal processing. Journal of Food Science, 69(1): 4449. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb17885.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

 

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Felföldi, József

Chair of the Editorial Board Szendrő, Péter

Editorial Board

  • Beke, János (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineerin, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Fenyvesi, László (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Szendrő, Péter (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Felföldi, József (Szent István University, Faculty of Food Science, Budapest – Hungary)

 

Advisory Board

  • De Baerdemaeker, Josse (KU Leuven, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Leuven - Belgium)
  • Funk, David B. (United States Department of Agriculture | USDA • Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Kansas City – USA
  • Geyer, Martin (Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Department of Horticultural Engineering, Potsdam - Germany)
  • Janik, József (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Kutzbach, Heinz D. (Institut für Agrartechnik, Fg. Grundlagen der Agrartechnik, Universität Hohenheim – Germany)
  • Mizrach, Amos (Institute of Agricultural Engineering. ARO, the Volcani Center, Bet Dagan – Israel)
  • Neményi, Miklós (Széchenyi University, Department of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Győr – Hungary)
  • Schulze-Lammers, Peter (University of Bonn, Institute of Agricultural Engineering (ILT), Bonn – Germany)
  • Sitkei, György (University of Sopron, Institute of Wood Engineering, Sopron – Hungary)
  • Sun, Da-Wen (University College Dublin, School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science, Dublin – Ireland)
  • Tóth, László (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)

Prof. Felföldi, József
Institute: MATE - Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Process Control
Address: 1118 Budapest Somlói út 14-16
E-mail: felfoldi.jozsef@uni-mate.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • CABI
  • ERIH PLUS
  • SCOPUS

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.191
Scimago Quartile Score

Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Industrial Manufacturing Engineering (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering (Q3)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.1
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Agricultural and Biological Sciences 141/213 (34th PCTL)
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 104/147 (29th PCTL)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 261/355 (26th PCTL)
Mechanical Engineering 494/631 (21st PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 145/184 (21st PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.222

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
8
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,141
Scimago Quartile Score Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering (Q4)
Mechanical Engineering (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0,8
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 261/338 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 138/173 (Q4)
Mechanical Engineering 495/601 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,381

2020  
Scimago
H-index
8
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,197
Scimago
Quartile Score
Environmental Engineering Q4
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Q3
Mechanical Engineering Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
33/69=0,5
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Environmental Engineering 126/146 (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 269/336 (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering 512/596 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,211
Scopus
Cites
53
Scopus
Documents
41
Days from submission to acceptance 122
Days from acceptance to publication 40
Acceptance rate 86%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
6
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,123
Scimago
Quartile Score
Environmental Engineering Q4
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Q4
Mechanical Engineering Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
18/33=0,5
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Environmental Engineering 108/132 (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 242/340 (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering 481/585 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,211
Scopus
Cites
13
Scopus
Documents
5

 

Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2004
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
1
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia  
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1786-335X (Print)
ISSN 1787-0321 (Online)

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