Authors:
Faraja Gonelimali Department of Fruit and Vegetable Processing Technology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, H-1118, Budapest, Villányi Street 29-43, Hungary
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agricultural Sciences and Food Technology, University of Dar es Salaam, 16103, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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Beatrix Szabó-Nótin Department of Fruit and Vegetable Processing Technology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, H-1118, Budapest, Villányi Street 29-43, Hungary

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Mónika Máté Department of Fruit and Vegetable Processing Technology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, H-1118, Budapest, Villányi Street 29-43, Hungary

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Abstract

Polyphenols from agro-industrial waste particularly of fruit origin are a reliable source of antioxidants and antimicrobials that can be used as natural food additives. Organic solvents play an important role in extracting the polyphenols, however, inefficiency in exerting bioactivity and interference with the organoleptic properties are among the reasons that hinder their use as food additives. These problems can be alleviated by purification. In this study, the effect of resin types and elution solvent for purification of the apple pomace extracts on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidants were investigated. Crude ethanolic extracts were purified using amberlite resins (XAD7HP and FPX66) in a glass column (25 × 310 mm). The sorption flow rate was 2 Bed volume (BV) per hour, rinse 2 BV per hour, and desorption was 2 BV per hour. Final wash and regeneration were each done by 2 BV per hour. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were quantified spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays respectively. Polyphenol recovery was 50% in XAD7HP (Lowest) using ethanol and 69% in FPX66 (Highest) using acetone. For the case of FRAP recovery, 76% (Lowest) was observed in FPX66 using ethanol while 93% (Highest) was observed in XAD7HP using acetone. Conclusively, FPX66 is the ideal resin for the purification of apple pomace extracts for enhancing antioxidant activity compared to XAD7HP. Further, acetone seems to be a good desorption solvent compared to ethanol.

Abstract

Polyphenols from agro-industrial waste particularly of fruit origin are a reliable source of antioxidants and antimicrobials that can be used as natural food additives. Organic solvents play an important role in extracting the polyphenols, however, inefficiency in exerting bioactivity and interference with the organoleptic properties are among the reasons that hinder their use as food additives. These problems can be alleviated by purification. In this study, the effect of resin types and elution solvent for purification of the apple pomace extracts on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidants were investigated. Crude ethanolic extracts were purified using amberlite resins (XAD7HP and FPX66) in a glass column (25 × 310 mm). The sorption flow rate was 2 Bed volume (BV) per hour, rinse 2 BV per hour, and desorption was 2 BV per hour. Final wash and regeneration were each done by 2 BV per hour. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were quantified spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays respectively. Polyphenol recovery was 50% in XAD7HP (Lowest) using ethanol and 69% in FPX66 (Highest) using acetone. For the case of FRAP recovery, 76% (Lowest) was observed in FPX66 using ethanol while 93% (Highest) was observed in XAD7HP using acetone. Conclusively, FPX66 is the ideal resin for the purification of apple pomace extracts for enhancing antioxidant activity compared to XAD7HP. Further, acetone seems to be a good desorption solvent compared to ethanol.

Introduction

In recent years, a great deal of interest has been observed in exploring the use of natural products such as plant extracts in developing food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceutically active agents. This is due to the presence of a high amount of bioactive compounds, including that of polyphenol origin. Polyphenols have a vital role as antioxidants, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities among others (Chojnacka et al., 2021; Landis-Piwowar et al., 2007; Raederstorff, 2009; Sun et al., 2021) hence becoming a potential prospect at solving food and medicine challenges. Exploration of cheap, reliable and sustainable sources of polyphenols harboring bioactive compounds has been on the rise (Romani et al., 2020). Among the promising polyphenol sources are pomaces. Pomaces are the waste products from the agroindustrial processing of fruits such as apples.

Apple pomace extracts have gained exciting interest from the scientific communities due to their wide range of bioactivities including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. These extracts are showing promising use in food products as well as pharmaceutical compounds (Barreira et al., 2019; Carpes et al., 2021). Although various solvents, methods and techniques for extracting polyphenols from the apple pomace have been explored and widely documented, there is little information on the purification of the polyphenols from the extracts (Chemat et al., 2019; Iqbal et al., 2021). Provided that purification helps in getting rid of unwanted compounds that might otherwise negatively affect the organoleptic properties of food as well as affect visual appearance through color changes, purifying plant extracts could be an important means of advancement towards their use in food products (Alsobh et al., 2022).

The use of resins in purifying crude plant extracts is an important technique that can facilitate the exploitation of their biological properties in food and pharmaceuticals. In industrial settings, resins are used to purify and concentrate protein and pharmaceutically active compounds (Oliveira et al., 2015; Pérez-Larrán et al., 2018). There is ongoing research on the use of resins in purifying crude extracts from plant sources. For example, great results have been observed in purifying and preserving biological activities of grapes pomace and soybean extracts (Mariotti-Celis et al., 2018; Tran et al., 2022). In apple pomaces, a study by Kammerer et al. (2010), provides an important clue about the possibility of using resins to purify the extracts for industrial-scale use in food and pharmaceuticals.

In this study, the effect of resin type (Amberlite resins XAD7 HP and FPX66) and desorption solvent (Acetone and ethanol) were evaluated for their potential use in purifying crude extracts of the apple pomace. Their effect on the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were evaluated.

Materials and methods

Extraction

Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to obtain extracts from dried apple pomace as described by Murphy et al. (2020) with some modifications. Briefly, 20 g of the dried apple pomace was mixed with 60 mL of 80% ethanol followed by sonication 20 kHz, 25 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the extracts were centrifuged at 4,500 rpm for 5 min. The obtained supernatant was filtered using Whatman filter paper No.1 followed by rotary evaporation to remove the extraction solvent. The concentrated extracts were further dried at 60 °C to obtain complete dried extracts. The weight of the extracts was determined and the extracts were redissolved in the distilled water making a final concentration 200 mg mL−1. The obtained extracts were stored at −20 °C until further analysis.

Resin purification

Purification of the crude extracts using two types of Amberlite resins (XAD7 HP and FPX66, from DuPont Company) was performed according to Seif Zadeh and Zeppa (2022) with some modifications. 20 g of each resin was activated by mixing with 40 mL of absolute ethanol under a shaker (20 rpm) for three hours. Thereafter, ethanol was removed through filtration and the resins were packed into a glass column (25 × 310 mm). Diluted crude extracts of apple pomace (5 mg mL−1) were then loaded into the column and the sorption flow rate was set to 2 Bed volume per hour. Rinse and desorption flow rates were also set to be 2 Bed volume per hour. Distilled water was used as the rinse solvent while 96% ethanol or acetone was used as the desorption solvent. The amount of polyphenols (TPC) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in the desorption solvent were quantified.

Total phenolic content assay

Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Singleton and Rossi (1965) with few modifications. Briefly, a small volume of sample (50–250 µL) was mixed with 1,250 µL of Folin reagent solution. If needed, the volume of the sample plus Folin reagent was brought to 1,500 µL using 80% methanol. The mixture was then allowed to stand for 1 min followed by adding 1,000 µL of sodium carbonate solution. Thereafter, the mixture was well shaken and incubated for 5 min at 50 °C in a water bath. The absorbance was read at 760 nm using a spectrophotometer (HITACH 2900). The obtained readings were converted into concentration; Garlic acid equivalent (GAE) using a standard calibration curve. TPC recovery was deduced using the equation below
TPCrecovery(%)=(TPCineluent÷TPCbeforepurification)×100
where TPC is total phenolic content, TPC in eluent is the amount of TPC (GAE) determined in the eluant solvent after passing the extracts in resin and TPC before purification is the amount of TPC (GAE) in extracts prior to subjecting the extracts to resin.

The ferric reducing ability of plasma assay

The antioxidant activity of the apple pomace was measured by the means of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) according to Benzie and Strain (1996) with some modifications. A small volume of sample (10–50 µL) was mixed with 1,500 µL of FRAP reagent. Distilled water (0–50 µL) was used to adjust the total volume to 1,550 µL if needed and the mixture was allowed to stand for 5 min in a room temperature. After that, absorbance was read at 593 nm in a spectrophotometer (HITACHI2900). The concentration of the extracts was given as Ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE) using a standard calibration curve. The antioxidant recovery was given using the equation below
FRAPrecovery(%)=(FRAPineluent÷FRAPpriorpurification)×100
where FRAP is the Ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP in eluent is the concentration of extracts (AAE) in the eluent solvent after passing through the resin. FRAP prior to purification is the concentration of extracts (AAE) in the crude extracts before subjecting the extracts to the resin.

Results and discussion

The effect of Resin type (Amberlite XAD7HP and Amberlite FPX66) as well as desorption solvent (Ethanol and Acetone) were investigated on the ability to recover the polyphenols from the extracts during purification. Results show that the lowest recovery was 50% observed on amberlite XAD7HP resin when ethanol was being used as a desorption solvent. The highest recovery was 69% observed on amberlite FPX66 resin using acetone (Fig. 1). Statistical analysis however indicated that there was no significant effect of both resin type F (1, 8) = 1.50, P = 0.27, and desorption solvent F (1, 8) = 1.18, P = 0.31 on TPC recovery. The interaction of the resin type and desorption solvent did not have a significant effect on the TPC recovery either, F (1, 8) = 0.13, P = 0.73. In a study by Monsanto et al. (2015), on the effectiveness of resins amberlite XAD7 HP and FPX66 on the recovery of useful polyphenols from black tea, they concluded by recommending FPX66 to be the optimal resin for recovery of catechin with the ability to recover 59% of the aflavins. Ostrihoňová et al. (2023) studied the ability of 17 different types of industrial resin including the amberlite XAD 7HP and FPX66. Their study indicated that all of them had good performance however FPX68 which is closely related to FPX66 had the best performance among all. They concluded that particle porosity, pore size distribution, surface morphology and functionalized components such as sulphonyl groups are among the most important parameters for resin functioning.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The effect of resin type and desorption solvent on TPC recovery of the apple pomace extracts. Bars represent the mean value of triplicate reading. Error bars represent standard error

Citation: Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 19, S1; 10.1556/446.2023.00087

Figure 2 displays the results of the effect of resin type and desorption solvent on the recovery of the antioxidant capacity of the purified extracts. The highest antioxidant recovery 93% was observed on the resin Amberlite XAD7 HP using acetone as a desorption solvent. The lowest recovery 76% was observed on FPX66 when ethanol was used as a desorption solvent. Similar to TPC recovery, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of the resin type F (1, 8) = 0.10, P = 0.77 and solvent type F (1, 8) = 4.16, P = 0.08. Moreover, the interaction between resin type and desorption solvent did not have a significant effect on the recovery of the polyphenols F (1, 8) = 0.09, P = 0.77. A study by Green et al. (2022) investigating four types of resin on the recovery of antioxidants from the fruit non-palatable fruit juice of Aronia mitschurinii, showed that FPX66 resin which displayed the best results managed to recover 40% of the anthocyanins responsible for antioxidant activity. Similarly, for the case of total flavonoids, FPX66 recorded the highest with a recovery of 45.5%. For the case of polyphenols, FPX66 was also the best resin with a recovery percentage of 33%. In their study, acidified ethanol was used as a desorption solvent. Results from this study support a wide range of literature where it has been shown that resin FPX66 is a good choice for the recovery of polyphenols from various sources (Green et al., 2022; Monsanto et al., 2015; Yangui et al., 2017).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The effect of resin type and desorption solvent on antioxidant recovery of the apple pomace extracts. Bars represent the mean value of triplicate reading. Error bars represent standard error

Citation: Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 19, S1; 10.1556/446.2023.00087

Several studies suggest that ethanol is widely used as a desorption solvent during resin purification of polyphenols and other high-value bioactive compounds (Green et al., 2022; Mariotti-Celis et al., 2018; Monsanto et al., 2015; Pérez-Larrán et al., 2018; Tran et al., 2022; Yangui et al., 2017). Little is known about the use of acetone as an effective solvent for the purification of extracts from plant sources. This study, however, demonstrates that, although there was no significant difference attributed to solvent in the recovery of the polyphenols as well as antioxidant ability, in all cases, acetone had slightly higher performance than ethanol (Figs 1 and 2). This suggests that acetone could be a good desorption solvent for purifying apple pomace extracts similar to or more than ethanol.

Conclusion

The search and subsequent use of natural food additives have gained much interest in the food science communities due to interests of consumers' concern about the safety and well-being of the commonly used synthetic food additives. Despite being a reliable source of natural food additives, the use of polyphenols including that of apple pomace is limited by the purification and concentration of the useful bioactive compounds. In the present study, among the investigated resins and desorption solvents, it was found that resin FPX66 exerts good recovery of total phenolic content as well as antioxidant activity. Furthermore, acetone showed great potential in the recovery of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity when used as a desorption solvent. These results demonstrate that the use of resins particularly FPX66 and acetone can be reliable in the recovery and concentration of polyphenols from crude extracts of the apple pomace for the development of natural food additives.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the Doctoral School of Food Science of the Hungarian University of Agricultural and Life Sciences for the support.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barreira, J.C.M., Arraibi, A.A., and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. (2019). Bioactive and functional compounds in apple pomace from juice and cider manufacturing: potential use in dermal formulations. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 90(May): 7687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.05.014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benzie, I.F.F. and Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239(1): 7076. https://doi.org/10.1006/ABIO.1996.0292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carpes, S.T., Bertotto, C., Bilck, A.P., Yamashita, F., Anjos, O., Bakar Siddique, M.A., Harrison, S.M., and Brunton, N.P. (2021). Bio-based films prepared with apple pomace: volatiles compound composition and mechanical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. LWT, 144: 111241. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.LWT.2021.111241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chemat, F., Abert-Vian, M., Fabiano-Tixier, A.S., Strube, J., Uhlenbrock, L., Gunjevic, V., and Cravotto, G. (2019). Green extraction of natural products. Origins, current status, and future challenges. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 118: 248263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2019.05.037.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chojnacka, K., Skrzypczak, D., Izydorczyk, G., Mikula, K., Szopa, D., and Witek-Krowiak, A. (2021). Antiviral properties of polyphenols from plants. Foods, 10(10): 2277. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, B.V., Ford, T.W., Goldsborrough, H., Abdelmotalab, M., Ristvey, A.G., Sauder, D.G., and Volkis, V.V. (2022). Extraction of antioxidants from Aronia mitschurinii juice using macroporous resins. ACS Omega, 7(34): 2987729885. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c02785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iqbal, A., Schulz, P., and Rizvi, S.S.H. (2021). Valorization of bioactive compounds in fruit pomace from agro-fruit industries: present Insights and future challenges. Food Bioscience, 44: 101384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kammerer, D.R., Carle, R., Stanley, R.A., and Saleh, Z.S. (2010). Pilot-scale resin adsorption as a means to recover and fractionate apple polyphenols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(11): 67876796. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1000869.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landis-Piwowar, K.R., Huo, C., Chen, D., Milacic, V., Shi, G., Chan, T.H., and Dou, Q. P. (2007). A novel prodrug of the green tea polyphenol (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate as a potential anticancer agent. Cancer Research, 67(9): 43034310. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4699.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mariotti-Celis, M.S., Martínez-Cifuentes, M., Huamán-Castilla, N., Pedreschi, F., Iglesias-Rebolledo, N., and Pérez-Correa, J.R. (2018). Impact of an integrated process of hot pressurised liquid extraction–macroporous resin purification over the polyphenols, hydroxymethylfurfural and reducing sugars content of Vitis vinifera ‘Carménère’ pomace extracts. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(4): 10721078. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13684.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monsanto, M., Mestrom, R., Zondervan, E., Bongers, P., and Meuldijk, J. (2015). Solvent swing adsorption for the recovery of polyphenols from black tea. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(1): 434442. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie503590m.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, A., Norton, E., Montgomery, F., K. Jaiswal, A., and Jaiswal, S. (2020). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from ginger (Zingiber officinale) and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology, 6(2): 8896. https://doi.org/10.17756/jfcn.2020-088.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oliveira, L.M., Brites, L.M., Bustamante, M.C.C., Parpot, P., Teixeira, J.A., Mussatto, S. I., and Barboza, M. (2015). Fixed-bed column process as a strategy for separation and purification of cephamycin C from fermented broth. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(11): 30183026. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie504499z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ostrihoňová, M., Gramblička, M., and Polakovič, M. (2023). Industrial hydrophobic adsorbent screening for the separation of 1-phenylethanol and acetophenone. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 137: 124134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2022.11.009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pérez-Larrán, P., Díaz-Reinoso, B., Moure, A., Alonso, J.L., and Domínguez, H. (2018). Adsorption technologies to recover and concentrate food polyphenols. Current Opinion in Food Science, 23: 165172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2017.10.005.

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  • Raederstorff, D. (2009). Antioxidant activity of olive polyphenols in humans: a review. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 79(3): 152165. https://doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831.79.3.152.

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  • Romani, A., Campo, M., Urciuoli, S., Marrone, G., Noce, A., and Bernini, R. (2020). An industrial and sustainable platform for the production of bioactive micronized powders and extracts enriched in polyphenols from Olea europaea L. And Vitis vinifera L. Wastes. Frontiers in Nutrition, 7(August): 118. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00120.

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  • Seif Zadeh, N. and Zeppa, G. (2022). Recovery and concentration of polyphenols from roasted hazelnut skin extract using macroporous resins. Foods, 11(13): 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131969.

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  • Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3): 144158. http://www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144.abstract.

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  • Sun, S., Huang, S., Shi, Y., Shao, Y., Qiu, J., Sedjoah, R.-C.A.-A., Yan, Z., Ding, L., Zou, D., and Xin, Z. (2021). Extraction, isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activities of non-extractable polyphenols from pomegranate peel. Food Chemistry, 351(November 2020): 129232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129232.

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  • Tran, T., Bui, X., Loan, N., Anh, N., Le, T., and Truong, T. (2022). Adsorption and desorption characteristics and purification of isoflavones from crude soybean extract using macroporous resins. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 72(2): 183192. https://doi.org/10.31883/pjfns/149816.

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  • Yangui, A., Njimou, J.R., Cicci, A., Bravi, M., Abderrabba, M., and Chianese, A. (2017). Competitive adsorption, selectivity and separation of valuable hydroxytyrosol and toxic phenol from olive mill wastewater. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(4): 35813589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.06.037.

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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

 

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Felföldi, József

Chair of the Editorial Board Szendrő, Péter

Editorial Board

  • Beke, János (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineerin, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Fenyvesi, László (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Szendrő, Péter (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Felföldi, József (Szent István University, Faculty of Food Science, Budapest – Hungary)

 

Advisory Board

  • De Baerdemaeker, Josse (KU Leuven, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Leuven - Belgium)
  • Funk, David B. (United States Department of Agriculture | USDA • Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Kansas City – USA
  • Geyer, Martin (Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Department of Horticultural Engineering, Potsdam - Germany)
  • Janik, József (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)
  • Kutzbach, Heinz D. (Institut für Agrartechnik, Fg. Grundlagen der Agrartechnik, Universität Hohenheim – Germany)
  • Mizrach, Amos (Institute of Agricultural Engineering. ARO, the Volcani Center, Bet Dagan – Israel)
  • Neményi, Miklós (Széchenyi University, Department of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Győr – Hungary)
  • Schulze-Lammers, Peter (University of Bonn, Institute of Agricultural Engineering (ILT), Bonn – Germany)
  • Sitkei, György (University of Sopron, Institute of Wood Engineering, Sopron – Hungary)
  • Sun, Da-Wen (University College Dublin, School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science, Dublin – Ireland)
  • Tóth, László (Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gödöllő – Hungary)

Prof. Felföldi, József
Institute: MATE - Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Process Control
Address: 1118 Budapest Somlói út 14-16
E-mail: felfoldi.jozsef@uni-mate.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • CABI
  • ERIH PLUS
  • SCOPUS

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.191
Scimago Quartile Score

Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Industrial Manufacturing Engineering (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering (Q3)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.1
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Agricultural and Biological Sciences 141/213 (34th PCTL)
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 104/147 (29th PCTL)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 261/355 (26th PCTL)
Mechanical Engineering 494/631 (21st PCTL)
Environmental Engineering 145/184 (21st PCTL)
 
Scopus
SNIP
0.222

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
8
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,141
Scimago Quartile Score Environmental Engineering (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering (Q4)
Mechanical Engineering (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0,8
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 261/338 (Q4)
Environmental Engineering 138/173 (Q4)
Mechanical Engineering 495/601 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,381

2020  
Scimago
H-index
8
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,197
Scimago
Quartile Score
Environmental Engineering Q4
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Q3
Mechanical Engineering Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
33/69=0,5
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Environmental Engineering 126/146 (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 269/336 (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering 512/596 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,211
Scopus
Cites
53
Scopus
Documents
41
Days from submission to acceptance 122
Days from acceptance to publication 40
Acceptance rate 86%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
6
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,123
Scimago
Quartile Score
Environmental Engineering Q4
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Q4
Mechanical Engineering Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
18/33=0,5
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Environmental Engineering 108/132 (Q4)
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 242/340 (Q3)
Mechanical Engineering 481/585 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,211
Scopus
Cites
13
Scopus
Documents
5

 

Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2004
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
1
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia  
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1786-335X (Print)
ISSN 1787-0321 (Online)

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