The last table in the Appendix in Balázs Szabó’s PhD thesis about the Bartók Violin Sonatas lists the composer's violinist partners. 1 According to his research, Bartók's most frequent violinist partner was Zoltán Székely, the dedicatee of the Violin Concerto (BB 117), with 20 performances, the second place goes to Ede Zathureczky with 19 occasions, and Joseph Szigeti, one of the commissioners of Contrasts (BB 116) and dedicatee of the Rhapsody no. 1, for violin and piano (or orchestra) (BB 94a, b), still earns a podium in this imaginary competition with 16 concerts.
Bartók's fourth most frequent violinist partner was Imre Waldbauer. His fame, compared to the violinists mentioned above, has faded heavily since his death in 1952. Although Waldbauer, according to the statistics by Szabó, seems to have been an important person in Bartók's career, surprisingly little is known about his life and work. 2 In a broader context, he is remembered today nearly only as the leader of the Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet, internationally known as the Hungarian Quartet. 3 If someone is curious specifically about him, it is hard to find anything at all not just in writings for the general public, but also in musicological works. 4 All that we know of him comes either from himself or from his close contemporaries. 5 The number of later recollections are also limited. 6 The only major work about Waldbauer is a 1977 D.M.A. dissertation by Julia Quick focusing on his violin pedagogy. 7 Quick's research was mainly based on interviews, and her publication is mostly valuable today as a systematic collection of oral history primarily related to Waldbauer's final years. The lack of exact information about Waldbauer's life in general and about his relation to Bartók is in sharp contrast with not just the aforementioned Székely–Zathureczky–Szigeti trio, but also with other important violinists in Bartók's life. 8
Imre Waldbauer's son, Ivan – who was a renowned musicologist and Bartók scholar – died in 2012, and in 2013 part of his papers was given to the Budapest Bartók Archives by his widow, Claudia Macdonald. This package, which actually contains mostly the legacy of his father, is now stored in the Budapest Bartók Archives in eight blue boxes, named and numbered as “Waldbauer I” to “Waldbauer VIII.” The first seven boxes contain sheet music, the eighth contains personal papers, such as unpublished letters, writings, clippings from newspapers, and photographs. 9 In the following section of my essay I summarize the life and work of Imre Waldbauer, using already available published sources as well as his unpublished CVs and letter drafts found in box W-VIII.
Balázs SZABÓ, “Forma és jelentés Bartók hegedűszonátáiban” [Forms and meanings in Bartók's violin sonatas] Ph.D. Dissertation (Budapest: Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music, 2015), 374. See online at http://docs.lfze.hu/netfolder/public/PublicNet/Doktori%20dolgozatok/szabo_balazs/ (accessed 25 September 2017).
As an example, both current major encyclopedic dictionaries of Western music, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition (NG2) and the Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, second edition (MGG2), lack a standalone article about Imre Waldbauer, who was still present in MGG1, see Antal MOLNÁR, “Waldbauer, Imre,” in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. by Friedrich BLUME (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1968), vol. 14, 143.
Both NG2 and MGG2 have articles about the Hungarian Quartet. The name Hungarian Quartet was used in Hungarian as “Magyar Vonósnégyes” and in German as “Ungarisches Streichquartett,” both can be literally translated as Hungarian String Quartet. This should not be confused with the internationally much more famous ensemble with the same name (founded in 1935 in Budapest, disbanded in 1972 after a long career in the United States), which was originally established as “Új Magyar Vonósnégyes” (New Hungarian String Quartet), and dropped “New” from its name after the disbandment of the Waldbauers. After the disbandment of the (New) Hungarian String Quartet in 1972 the violist Dénes Koromzay established another “New Hungarian String Quartet,” which existed until 1984; in 2018 another “New Hungarian Quartet” was founded by András Keller.
A notable exception – although with many inaccuracies – is: Zoltán FARKAS, “Waldbauer Imre,” in Nagy tanárok, híres tanítványok, ed. by Ágnes GÁDOR and Gábor SZIRÁNYI (Budapest: Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Egyetem, 2000), 326–327. See online, translated into English as the “Notable Alumni” page of the Liszt Academy of Music: http://lfze.hu/nagy-elodok/-/asset_publisher/HVHn5fqOrfp7/ (accessed 10 January 2018).
Imre WALDBAUER, “Waldbauer Imre,” in Zenei lexikon [Dictionary of music], ed. by Bence SZABOLCSI and Aladár TÓTH (Budapest: Győző Andor, 1931), vol. 2, 690; A magyar muzsika könyve [The book of Hungarian music], ed. by Imre MOLNÁR (Budapest: Merkantil kiadás, 1936), 516; A Magyar muzsika hőskora és jelene történelmi képekben [The early history and the present state of Hungarian music in historical pageants], ed. by László BATIZI (Budapest: Dr. Pintér Jenőné kiadása, 1944), 391.
Márta GÖNDÖR SZESZLERNÉ (Mrs. Szeszler), “Emlékezés Waldbauer Imrére” [Remembering Imre Waldbauer], Parlando 6/3 (1964), 15–16; András SCHIFF and Sándor VÉGH, “Száz éve született Waldbauer Imre” [Imre Waldbauer was born 100 years ago], Muzsika 35/5 (May 1992), 14–15.
Julia QUICK, “Violin Pedagogy of Imre Waldbauer,” D.M.A. Diss. (Iowa City: University of Iowa, 1977).
For Székely, see Claude KENNESON, Székely and Bartók: The Story of a Friendship (Portland: Amadeus Press, 1994). For Szigeti, see among others Joseph SZIGETI, With Strings Attached: Reminiscences and Reflections (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947) and László SOMFAI, “Bartók and Szigeti,” The New Hungarian Quarterly 33/128 (Winter 1992), 157–163. Although Zathureczky, in contrast to Székely and Szigeti, is missing from the major international encyclopedic dictionaries, he has at least one major biography written in Hungarian: István HOMOLYA, Zathureczky Ede (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1972). According to the number of joint concerts and pieces with dedication, further important Bartók violinists are Jelly d’Arányi, Stefi Geyer, Franz von Vecsey, André Gertler, and Yehudi Menuhin, see SZABÓ, “Forma és jelentés,” 374.
From here, I will refer to these as yet uncatalogued items as “Document title,” W-VIII, etc. The only document in W-VIII which has been already catalogued as C-2135/16 is an untitled concert diary of the Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet (listing performances from 1910 to the end of the 1927/1928 season). Since this paper was written, some of the documents have been published in an edited form, see Zsombor NÉMETH, “Bartók-témájú írások a Waldbauer-hagyatékban” [Bartók related documents in the Waldbauer legacy], Magyar Zene 58/1 (February 2020), 89–119.
The MGG1 article by Antal MOLNÁR gives wrong date: 3 March. 13 April can be considered correct as it is also presented in Waldbauer's own CV from the end of the 1940s: “Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII.
For more about József Waldbauer, see Imre WALDBAUER, “Waldbauer József,” in Zenei lexikon, vol. 2, 690.
Carl KRATOCHWILL et al., Neue musikalische Presse: Zeitschrift für Musik, Theater, Kunst, Sänger-und Vereinswesen (Wien: Hans Schneider, 1899), vol. 8, 31.
Vera LAMPERT, “Koessler [Kössler], Hans,” Grove Music Online http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000015256 (accessed 18 January 2018). In W-VIII, there is a picture of Koessler and an unidentified person wandering in the mountains, with the annotation “Kössler bácsi” (uncle Koessler).
According to the different volumes of Az Országos M. Kir. Zene-Akadémia Évkönyve [Almanac of the Royal Hungarian Academy of Music], ed. by Géza MORAVCSIK, Waldbauer was a student but was not qualified in 1904/1905, and he was an ordinary student between the academic years 1905/1906–1908/1909. In 1909/1910 he was a “repeater” of his own will, but at the end he did not acquire a diploma. He was not an official student of Koessler in composition, as stated in “Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII.
See his “Collection of clippings 1906–1910,” W-VIII. and the programs of the fifth Public [Chamber Music] Evening on 4 May 1908, the Examination Concert on 12 May 1909, and Haydn Memorial Concert on 6 June 1909. All concert data, unless noted otherwise, can be found in the work-in-progress Koncertadatbázis – budapesti hangversenyek 1900-tól napjainkig [Concert database – Budapest Concerts from 1900 to Present] of the Archives and Research Group for 20th–21st-Century Hungarian Music, Institute of Musicology, Research Centre for the Humanities: http://db.zti.hu/koncert (accessed 18 January 2018). Tonházi later became a noted cello teacher in Transylvania, see András BENKŐ, “A romániai magyar felsőfokú zenei oktatás történetének vázlata” [Sketches for the history of Hungarian higher music education in Romania], Erdélyi Múzeum 59 (1997), 220.
See Antal Molnár's recollection in Dezső LEGÁNY, A magyar zene krónikája [The chronicles of Hungarian music] (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1962), 431.
Waldbauer already participated in an academic concert devoted to contemporary music as early as 21 October 1907, and Waldbauer and Tonházi were playing together in different formations with three later members of the Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet – Temesváry, Molnár and Egon Kornstein – on 14 May 1909 in a concert consisting only of contemporary music. According to an article written in 1925, Zoltán Kodály's String Quartet no. 1 was already rehearsed by an ensemble consisting Waldbauer, Temesváry, Molnár and Tonházi, see “Tizenöt éves a Waldbauer–Kerpely kvartett” [The Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet turns 15], Világ 16/99 (3 May 1925), 19. Note that Kodály and Molnár were close friends in this period. Bartók and Kerpely had already played Dohnányi's Piano Quintet op. 1 on 21 March 1903 together as part of a public concert of the Academy of Music, and they had a joint recital on 10 January 1906 in Pozsony [Pressburg, now Bratislava]. The players who performed in the Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet from 1910 onwards are listed in Appendix 1 .
Published in NÉMETH, „Bartók-témájú írások a Waldbauer-hagyatékban,” 96–99.
As currently there is no data about Bartók visiting the Waldbauer salon, this could have been also in the house of the Kunwalds, close friends of the Waldbauers, where Bartók was a regular guest at chamber music sessions. Bartók, Jr., notes that Bartók visited the Kunwalds on 3 June 1900, 18 April 1901, 21 April 1901, 14 May 1901, 19 May 1902, 25 October 1902, see Béla BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája [Chronicle of my father's life] (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1981), 33, 35, 21, 36, 43, 46. According to Bartók's letters to his mother dated 6 and 16 December 1901, he also visited the Kunwalds earlier that month; Bartók Béla családi levelei [Family letters of Béla Bartók], ed. by Béla BARTÓK, Jr. and Adrienne GOMBOCZ–KONKOLY (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1981), 51–53.
According to Bartók's letter to his mother on 12 January 1910, Waldbauer planned to arrange an own debut concert for the Quartet in early March, with the string quartets by Bartók, Kodály and Leó Weiner. See BARTÓK, Jr. and GOMBOCZ-KONKOLY (eds.), Családi levelei, 193–194.
“Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII.
Imre WALDBAUER, “A magyar kamarazene” [Chamber music in Hungary], in A magyar muzsika hőskora, 137–144.
“Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII. Debussy was indeed fascinated by the accomplished playing of the Quartet, see his letter to his wife on 3 December 1910 and his letter to Gusztáv Bárczy on 19 December 1910 in Claude DEBUSSY, Letters 1884–1918, ed. by François LESURE (Paris: Hermann, 1980), 200 and 202. About Debussy's 1910 Budapest concert, see Gergely FAZEKAS, “»Unhealthy« and »Ugly« Music or a »Compass Pointing Towards a Purer Art of Superior Quality«? The Early Reception of Debussy in Hungary (1900–1918),” Studia Musicologica 49 (2008), 330–335. According to László Lajtha, Waldbauer had a letter sent by Debussy, in which he also praised the performance of the Quartet. This letter was hanging in a frame in Waldbauer's studio which was destroyed in the 1944–1945 siege of Budapest. LEGÁNY, A magyar zene krónikája, 428.
“Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII and LEGÁNY, A magyar zene krónikája [Chronicle of Hungarian music], 428. The Quartet performed in Paris on 2 December 1912, and had three concerts there on 20, 24 and 25 January 1914. On 20 January, they performed in Debussy's apartment. See the “Concert diary of the Waldbauer–Kerpely String Quartet (1910–1928),” W-VIII C-2135/16, 2 and 4.
“Concert diary of the Waldbauer–Kerpely String Quartet (1910–1928),” W-VIII C-2135/16, 1.
“Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII. For detailed recollections of Molnár, see Antal MOLNÁR, Magamról, másokról [On myself and others] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1974), 18–21.
Aladár TÓTH, “A Waldbauer–Kerpely Vonósnégyes huszonöt éves jubileuma” [The 25th jubilee of the Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet], in Tóth Aladár válogatott zenekritikái [Aladár Tóth: Selected music reviews], ed. by Ferenc BÓNIS (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1968), 111. (Originally appeared in Pesti Napló, 20 March 1935).
“Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII and “Concert diary of the Waldbauer–Kerpely String Quartet (1910–1928),” W-VIII C-2135/16, –.
Dokumentumok a Magyar Tanácsköztársaság zenei életéből [Documents from the musical life of the Hungarian Soviet republic], ed. by József UJFALUSSY (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1973), 218–219, 229, 467, 477, 490, 500–501, 511–521. See also Bartók's letter to his mother on 23 October 1919: Béla Bartók Letters, ed. by János DEMÉNY (Budapest: Corvina Press, 1971), 144.
Róbert MESZLÉNYI, Az Országos Magyar Királyi Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1927/28-iki tanévről [Almanac 1927/28] (Budapest: Az Országos M. Kir. Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola Kiadása, 1928), 20.
Kálmán ISOZ, Az Országos Magyar Királyi Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1931/32-iki tanévről [Almanac 1931/32] (Budapest: Az Országos M. Kir. Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola Kiadása, 1932), 4.
Kálmán ISOZ, Az Országos Magyar Királyi Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1934/35-iki tanévről [Almanac 1934/35] (Budapest: Az Országos M. Kir. Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola Kiadása, 1935), 30, 38.
Imre WALDBAUER, “Hubay Jenő, a pedagógus” [Jenő Hubay, the pedagogue], A Zene18/10 (16 March 1937), 202–203; Imre WALDBAUER: “A magyar hegedűművészet és hegedűpedagógia fénykora” [The golden age of Hungarian violin art and pedagogy] and “A magyar kamarazene,” in A magyar muzsika hőskora, 80–136, 137–144.
“Követ úr,” W-VIII. See also the Circular of the “Magyar Művészeti Tanács” [Hungarian Art Council] dated 6 May 1946, preserved in W-VIII.
István KAPITÁNFFY, Az Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1945/46.-i tanévről [Almanac 1945/1946] (Budapest: Országos Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola, 1946), 3.
QUICK, “Violin Pedagogy of Imre Waldbauer,” 6.
“Követ úr,” W-VIII.
Waldbauer first tried to substitute Szervánszky with Sándor Végh unsuccessfully, see “Követ úr,” W-VIII. See also Miklós RAKOS, “Aki Magyarországon mutatta be Bartók hegedűversenyét” [The violinist who premiered Bartók's Violin Concerto in Hungary], Zenekar 4/1 (January–March 1997), 22.
See for example: Tully POTTER, “Hungarian Quartet (i),” Grove Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000013560 (accessed 25 January 2018); Tünde SZITHA, “Kerpely Jenő” and Zoltán FARKAS, “Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartett,” in Nagy tanárok, híres tanítványok, 150–51, 328–329.
See Tibor TALLIÁN, Magyar képek. Fejezetek a magyar zeneélet és zeneszerzés történetéből 1940–1956 [Hungarian sketches. Chapters from the history of Hungarian music life and composition 1940–1956] (Budapest: Balassi, 2014), 114; Jemnitz Sándor válogatott zenekritikái [Alexander Jemnitz collected music critiques], ed. by Vera LAMPERT (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1973), 378. About Kerpely's condition see the transmitted oral histories in György ÉDER, “Magyar gordonkások a 20. században. Dénes Vera és Banda Ede életműve a Popper Iskola tükrében” [Hungarian cellists in the 20th century. The life of Vera Dénes and Ede Banda and the Popper School] DLA Diss. (Budapest: Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Egyetem, 2011), 11.
NÉMETH, „Bartók-témájú írások a Waldbauer-hagyatékban,” 115–118.
See “Curriculum Vitae of Imre Waldbauer,” W-VIII; an untitled German CV on paper with heading of the Budapest Academy of Music, W-VIII and N. N., “President Hancher Names Waldbauer, Brown to Faculty,” The Daily Iowian (14 September 1946), 6. (see online The Daily Iowan: Archive covering 1868-present: http://dailyiowan.lib.uiowa.edu/(accessed 22 January 2018)). See also KAPITÁNFFY, Az Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1946/47.-i tanévről [Almanac 1946/1947] (Budapest: Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola, 1947), 30.
“Követ úr,” W-VIII.
N. N., “New Concert Master Expected to Arrive in I.C. Next Week,” The Daily Iowan (14 December 1946), 6; N. N., “Noted Hungarian Violinist Arrives Here Next Week to Join S.U.I.,” Iowa City Press-Citizen (14 December 1946). (Clipping and typewritten transcript in W-VIII.)
N. N., “New Concert Master Expected to Arrive in I.C. Next Week.” His Iowa debut – according to news advertisements – was on 5 February 1947, see N. N., “Orchestra to Give Concert Wednesday,” The Daily Iowan (31 January 1947), 4.
QUICK, “Violin Pedagogy of Imre Waldbauer,” 7.
KAPITÁNFFY, Az Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1946/47.-i tanévről, 30.
Waldbauer's holiday was officially lengthened until 1 September 1948, see István KAPITÁNFFY, Az Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1947/48.-i tanévről [Almanac 1947/1948] (Budapest: Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola, 1948), 22. His position was terminated afterwards: István KAPITÁNFFY, Az Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola évkönyve az 1948/49.-i tanévről [Almanac 1948/1949] (Budapest: Országos Magyar Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola, 1949), 5.
See his released letter drafts „Dear Martin” and „Követ úr” in W-VIII. He also states in “Dear Martin” that he was offered high positions if he returned to Hungary. According to Szervánszky's letter of 25 November 1946 to his father from Vienna to Budapest, Waldbauer said in the train station before leaving that he had high hopes about the recovery of Hungarian musical life and hoped he would come back shortly. RAKOS, “Aki Magyarországon mutatta be Bartók hegedűversenyét,” 22.
N. N., “Famed Budapest-Born Musician Enjoys Summer Climate Here,” Duluth News Tribune (5 September, 1948). (Clipping in W-VIII.) It is noteworthy that Sándor Jemnitz who, as a strong advocate of modern music, supported Waldbauer from the beginnings – as a committed communist attacked him in a discrediting article half a year after his departure in the newspaper of the communists: Sándor JEMNITZ, “Furcsaságok a Zeneművészeti Főiskolán,” Népszava (21 January 1947) (Clipping in W-VIII.)
Obrecht Eldon, Instructor of String Bass at SUI then recalled some other particularly memorable performances of Waldbauer in QUICK, “Violin Pedagogy of Imre Waldbauer,” 14–15. W-VIII holds many clippings about Waldbauer's concerts in Iowa.
See clippings in W-VIII: N. N., “Roth Quartet: Gives »Wonderful, Interest-Holding Program«,” Iowa City Press–Citizen (11 March 1949); N. N., “Waldbauer to Perform with Roth Quartet,” The Daily Iowan (19 March 1949), 8; N. N., “String Quartet Gives Display of Precision and Dynamics,” Galesburg Register-Mail (22 March 1949); Bill RYAN, “Roth Quartet is Warmly Received By Appreciative Aggie Audience,” The Daily O'Collegian (25 March 1949), N. N., “Chamber Group Ends Season,” San Antonio Express (29 March 1949), 1.
N. N., “Four Become Naturalized Citizen Here Today,” Iowa City Press–Citizen (13 May 1952), 9.; N. N., “4 Local Residents Become U.S. Citizens,” The Daily Iowan (15 May 1952), 10 (Clippings in W-VIII.).
The MGG1 article gives 5 November 1952, the NG2 (“Hungarian Quartet (i)”) indicates 3 December 1953, Nagy tanárok, híres tanítványok [Notable Alumni] gives 5 December 1953. The death of Waldbauer was officially announced the day after his death on the front page of The Daily Iowan, see N. N., “Waldbauer dies – SUI Music Professor Dies Here,” The Daily Iowan (5 December 1952), 1 and 5.
All dates of the following paragraphs, unless noted otherwise, come from the Koncertadatbázis and BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája.
The performance of the early version is verified in János DEMÉNY, “Bartók Béla művészi kibontakozásának évei” [Béla Bartók's years of artistic evolution], in Zenetudományi Tanulmányok, vol. III, ed. by Bence SZABOLCSI and Dénes BARTHA (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1955), 378.
László PÉTER, Bartók Szegeden [Bartók in Szeged] (Szeged: Somogyi Könyvtár, 1981), 22–29.
Bartók és a Waldbauer Kerpely vonósnégyestársaság hangversenykörútja (Budapest: Pannonia, s. a.). This flyer mentions the 1911 tours, but still lists Antal Molnár as the violist, who was replaced by Egon Kenton as Molnár announced his retirement from concertizing in Zeneközlöny (11 April 1912), 622.
See Lynn HOOKER, “Modernism on the Periphery: Béla Bartók and the New Hungarian Music Society of 1911–1912,” Musical Quarterly 88/2 (2005), 284, 286–287, 302; David COOPER, Béla Bartók (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2015), 122–123.
On 7 January the program of 19 March 1910 was repeated. According to Kodály, Bartók was not in favor of that idea, or rather, he did not approve of it on account of the quintet, but finally gave in. Quoted in the preface by Denijs Dille of Béla BARTÓK, Quintetto (Budapest: Editio Musica Budapest, 1970), [4.].
The later concert is only mentioned in “Concert diary of the Waldbauer–Kerpely String Quartet (1910–1928),” W-VIII C-2135/16, 11.
BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája, 198–199., SZABÓ, “Forma és jelentés,” 218. We have information about Bartók rehearsing the First Sonata (and also some drafts of the Second) with Zoltán Székely in August 1922, as he was not sure that the then seriously injured Waldbauer would be able to play the premiere in December. See also COOPER, Béla Bartók, 189–190.
On the scandal surrounding this concert, see Ferenc BÓNIS, Így láttuk Bartókot: Harminchat emlékezés [Thus we saw Bartók: 36 recollections] (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1981), 108 [Iván Engels recollection] and Jenő A. MOLNÁR, “A műélvezet rendészete” [Law enforcement and the arts], Muzsika 6/9 (September 1963), 20–22.
About the preparation of the concert, see Bartók's 1923 correspondence with András Vitéz (2 February, 1 March): Basel, Paul Sacher Foundation, Béla Bartók Collection, deposit from Peter Bartók, BB MISC V 101 (photocopy in the Budapest Bartók Archives). This concert was most probably organized as some kind of a propitiation: the program of the Quartet and Bartók performed on 1 January in Budapest was scheduled to 14 January to Košice, but it was cancelled, as was Bartók's solo recital of 16 January. János DEMÉNY, “Bartók Béla művészi kibontakozásának évei: Bartók Béla megjelenése az európai zeneéletben (1914–1926)” [The years of Béla Bartók's artistic development: Béla Bartók's appearance in European musical culture (1914–1926)], in Zenetudományi Tanulmányok, vol. VII, ed. by Bence SZABOLCSI and Dénes BARTHA (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959), 243.
See Bartók's letter to his mother on 5 April 1923: BARTÓK Jr. and GOMBOCZ-KONKOLY (eds.), Családi levelei, 337–338.; DEMÉNY (ed.), Béla Bartók Letters, 161–162.
According to the recollections of Antal Doráti, Bartók told him a similar story in the 1940s: during one of the performances of the First Sonata in Budapest, Bartók thought that Waldbauer would forget to put on the mute, but he did so in the very last moment. BÓNIS, Így láttuk Bartókot, 83.
This was the only time when Bartók played a work by Franck. SZABÓ, “Forma és jelentés,” 9, 11.
According to Koncertadatbázis, Waldbauer – at least in Budapest – did not play any solo repertoire between his last concert with Bartók and his recital with Lajos Kentner on 17 December 1930 in public. Bartók's letter to Herr Windisch from Budapest, dated 6 November 1923 also supports this hypothesis: in this letter Bartók writes about his fears, that the participation of Waldbauer and his Quartet will not be easy because of their busy schedule. This letter was sold in a Sotheby's auction in 2003: http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2003/music-including-important-autographs-by-beethoven-and-wagner-l03404/lot.22.html (accessed 12 February 2018).
See Imre KUN, Harminc év művészek között [Thirty years among artists] (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1960), 154. and BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája, 337. As a “warm-up”, two concerts were scheduled on 15 and 16 December 1933 in Oradea (formerly Nagyvárad, Hungary) and Cluj (formerly Kolozsvár, Hungary) with a partly similar program (Violin Sonatas by Beethoven and Brahms, and works by Bartók: First Rhapsody and Rumanian Folk Dances, BB 68 in Székely's transcription and short works for piano solo); the two events were cancelled due to the illness of Waldbauer and Bartók played a solo recital instead, see András BENKŐ, Bartók Béla romániai hangversenyei [The concerts of Béla Bartók in Romania] (Bukarest, Kriterion, 1970), 116.
All the dates are from the homepage of the Budapest Bartók Archives: http://zti.hu/bartok/ba_en_06_m.htm?0101 (accessed 24 January 2018).
See NÉMETH, „Bartók-témájú írások a Waldbauer-hagyatékban,” 114–118.
See for example his letters of 5 April 1910 to Volkmar Andreae to Zürich, of 20 August 1921, to Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi to London and of 10 November 1937 to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing to Baden-Baden, all cited in BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája.
In a letter sent to his mother dated 27 September 1910 Bartók writes that the Orchestra of the Academy of Music will play his Violin Concerto with Waldbauer, and, independently from that, he has to orchestrate for an orchestral concert with Kún on 4 December the following piano pieces: Romanian Dance no. 1 (BB 56/1), Evening in Transylvania (BB 51/5), Ma mie qui danse (BB 50/14, which later became the second Portrait in 1916), Romanian Dance no. 2 (BB 56/2). BARTÓK, Jr. and GOMBOCZ-KONKOLY (eds.), Családi levelei, 201–202.
Benjamin SUCHOFF, Béla Bartók: Life and Work (Lanham, Maryland and London: The Scarecrow Press, 2001), 99.
About the premiere of the Sonata for Violin and Piano no. 1, see COOPER, Béla Bartók, 162–64; SZABÓ, “Forma és jelentés,” 154–155.
N. N., „Mi készül zeneszerzőink műhelyében?,” Az Ujság 21/16 (21 January 1923), 7. The Waldbauer–Kerpely Quartet was on an English-Italian tour between 12 February and 6 March, see “Concert diary of the Waldbauer–Kerpely String Quartet (1910–1928),” W-VIII C-2135/16, 20–21.
KENNESON, Székely and Bartók, 60; SZABÓ, “Forma és jelentés,” 220–221.
“Követ úr,” W-VIII
László SOMFAI, Béla Bartók: Composition, Concepts, and Autograph Sources (Berkeley–Los Angeles–London: University of California Press, 1996), 302. See online: http://zti.hu/bartok/ba_en_06_m.htm?0301 (accessed 19 February 2018).
See “Követ úr,” W-VIII, but Waldbauer was not sure about the date of the Grünfeld-Bürger-performance: he wrote originally 1908 which he changed to 1907.
Photocopy in the Budapest Bartók Archives.
Bartók Béla levelei, ed. by János DEMÉNY (Budapest: Zeneműkiadó, 1976), 475, 479, 481.
A copy of the program booklet survives in W-VIII.
Márta Waldbauer wanted to get a visa to travel to the USA and therefore she had to communicate with the US and UK ambassadors in Hungary. This made her suspicious to the newly established communist government, and she was sent to the detention camp of Kistarcsa. Her father wanted to offer the valuable documents to the Hungarian State in exchange for his daughter. It is not known whether the undated drafts “Követ úr” [Mr. Ambassador] and “Dear Martin” found in W-VIII, which inform us about this story, were ever sent, and if so, what further actions occurred.
Victor BATOR, The Béla Bartók Archives: History and Catalogue (New York: Bartók Archives Publication, 1963), 22.
SOMFAI, Béla Bartók, 214.; BAN: 4131c has been preserved in the Budapest Bartók Archives.
For us today, the most extreme is the fingering for measures 91–93, where Waldbauer marks constant slides. This was in fact not alien from Jenő Hubay or his school, see for example Hubay's fingering in Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto, movement II, measures 37–38, 85–86. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Violinkonzert mit Orchesterbegleitung, Op. 64. Für Violine und Klavier (Budapest: Rozsnyai, s. a. [ca. 1913]). Quick writes in 1975: “… probably the most distracting mannerism that he [Waldbauer] had was the frequent use of portamenti in shifting. Not only was the sound linking the two notes obvious, but Waldbauer's shifts were even more pronounced because he often accented the last note … Waldbauer would often stress the portamenti by gliding either from the last note of the old position, or from the intermediary note to the first note of the new position. He never used the ‘modern slide’ – sliding with the ‘new’ finger and if someone tried it, Waldbauer would admonish him for playing like a Gypsy. He also referred to them as ‘Jewish slides’.” QUICK, “Violin Pedagogy of Imre Waldbauer,” 20.
See the facsimile of the first page in László SOMFAI, Bartók's Workshop, Sketches, Manuscripts, Versions: The Compositional Process. Exhibition of the Budapest Bartók Archives (Budapest: Institute for Musicology, 1987), 36. See also SOMFAI, Béla Bartók, 231; BAN: 1084 has been preserved in the Budapest Bartók Archives.
About Bartók visiting Waldbauer rehearsals, see Béla BARTÓK, Jr., Bartók Béla műhelyében [The workshop of Béla Bartók] (Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1982), 505.; BÓNIS, Így láttuk Bartókot, 59 [Egon Kenton's recollection]; BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája, 162 and 276.
During the last stage of writing this article, I have found – using the online ArchiveSpace of The University of Iowa Libraries –, in the University of Iowa Archives, in Philip Greeley Clapp Papers (a professor of music at Iowa 1919–1953, composer and symphony conductor) an entry about two 78 RPM discs recorded on 7 June 1948: http://aspace.lib.uiowa.edu/repositories/3/archival_objects/257669 (accessed 30 January 2018). This is the only known recording of Waldbauer. According to my correspondence with Sarah Lucas, the first disc is a recording of the first movement of Beethoven's op. 12, no. 2, perhaps from a performance for a radio broadcast (Clapp made a few remarks on the piece before he and Waldbauer played), the second disc has a recording of the third movement and a partial recording of the fourth movement of Schubert's “Trout” Quintet.
N. N., “Faculty Recital »Hypnotically Interesting«,” The Daily Iowan (10 January 1948), 6; N. N., “Music Hours Series Broadcast to Begin,” The Daily Iowan (18 October 1949), 7; N. N., “Waldbauer to Play on WSUI Show,” The Daily Iowan (17 April 1951), 6; “Program of Bartok Memorial Concert 18 April 1951,” W-VIII; N. N., “High School Students To Attend Music Workshops Today,” The Daily Iowan (1 March 1952), 3.
N. N., “Waldbauer Named to Bartok Board,” The Daily Iowan (9 December 1950), 3. (Clipping in W-VIII.) The reports of the first three meetings are also preserved in W-VIII.
See Appendix 4 . Published in an edited form, with additional footnotes in NÉMETH, “Bartók-témájú írások a Waldbauer-hagyatékban,” 95–112.
“Bartóknak a hegedűtehnikára gyakorolt hatása/6 quartettjének és 2 heg.-zong. szonátájának alapján,” W-VIII.
This is a typical, recurring element in Waldbauer's writing, not just in published ones, but also in sketches, and not limited to violinistic topics.
Mátyás SEIBER, “Béla Bartók's Chamber Music,” Tempo 13 (Autumn 1949), 19–31.
Carl FLESCH, Das Skalensystem (Lepizig: Peters, 1926.) According to Paul Rolland, Flesch's pedagogical works were considered and undoubtedly used by Waldbauer in his teaching. Statements made by other interviewers confirm that there was close mutual respect and sharing of knowledge between Flesch and Waldbauer, see QUICK, “Violin Pedagogy of Imre Waldbauer,” 58. W–I contains a 1930 Peters edition of the Bach Sonatas and Partitas, edited by Flesch, a copy is dedicated to Waldbauer (Baden-Baden, 22 October 1930) by the editor.
It is interesting to compare Waldbauer's solutions with Joseph SZIGETI, A Violinist's Notebook (London: Gerald Duckworth, 1964), 35–38.
World premiere. Performed two times during the concert.
According to Bartók's letter to his Mother on 5 April 1923, Brahms' A-major Violin-Piano Sonata op. 100 was printed in the program. DEMÉNY (ed.), Béla Bartók Letters, 337–338.
According to Bartók's aforementioned letter, the printed program consisted piano works by Bartók instead of the Handel Sonata.
According to Béla Bartók, Jr., originally Bartók's Sonata no. 1 was planned. BARTÓK, Jr., Apám életének krónikája, 210.
This item is missing from Szabó, “Forma és jelentés”.
János Demény writes that in the sources only “Bartók: Sonatina” is given and we cannot rule out the possibility of the playing of either the First or the Second Violin Sonata. János DEMÉNY, “Bartók Béla pályája delelőjén (1927–1940)” [Béla Bartók on the peak of his career (1927–1940)], in Zenetudományi Tanulmányok, vol. X, ed. by Bence SZABOLCSI and Dénes BARTHA (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1962), 402.
NB: Waldbauer played this Sonata with Philip Greeley Clapp on 23 April 1947 in Iowa.
Waldbauer sent information to Stevens' Bartók biography, see Halsey STEVENS, The Life and Music of Béla Bartók (New York: Oxford University Press, 11953, 21964), xiii.
Page 7 contains remarks about missing scores from the Faculty.