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  • 1 Institute of Ceramic and Polymer Engineering, University of Miskolc, H-3515Miskolc-Egyetemvaros, Hungary
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Abstract

In this research, ceramic bricks were produced based on natural zeolite from Tokaj (Hungary) using the dry pressing technique. The microstructure, morphology and properties of the produced samples were examined via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The X-ray investigation revealed various minerals in the natural zeolite; moreover, the samples’ physical and thermal properties were also investigated. The sintering temperature and composition play a major role in the microstructure and the properties of the prepared ceramic samples. The produced ceramics bricks have excellent thermal insulation and good mechanical strength. The results of this research work confirm the potential use of natural zeolite from Tokaj as an eco-friendly building material.

Abstract

In this research, ceramic bricks were produced based on natural zeolite from Tokaj (Hungary) using the dry pressing technique. The microstructure, morphology and properties of the produced samples were examined via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The X-ray investigation revealed various minerals in the natural zeolite; moreover, the samples’ physical and thermal properties were also investigated. The sintering temperature and composition play a major role in the microstructure and the properties of the prepared ceramic samples. The produced ceramics bricks have excellent thermal insulation and good mechanical strength. The results of this research work confirm the potential use of natural zeolite from Tokaj as an eco-friendly building material.

1 Introduction

The energy demand is expected to highly increase in the upcoming years [1–3]. Therefore, saving energy by introducing new building materials with good thermal insulation properties has drawn huge interest [4, 5]. This is basically due to the economic and environmental importance of saving energy. In the hot climate area and especially during the summer, a considerable amount of energy is used for cooling the building, while in the cold climate area, almost the same amount is used to worm the building to achieve internal comfort [6]. The heating and cooling of the building, which causes discomfort, commonly occur due to heat transmittance through the wall. Therefore, using thermally insulated materials can reduce global warming and contribute to sustainability by reducing heat gain and loss through the walls [7, 8].

Natural zeolites are microporous materials of volcanic origin. They are a well-known group of hydrated crystalline aluminosilicate minerals [9–11]; they usually contain alkali- and alkaline earth ions, and they form by weathering of volcanic glass under different geochemical conditions [12]. The zeolite framework includes [SiO4]4− and [AlO4]5− tetrahedral, which are linked together by shared oxygen atoms, to make a systematic crystal structure with various interconnected open voids where foreign atoms or molecules can be accommodated [13, 14]. The replacement of Si by Al causes the negative charge in the zeolite framework, which is generally neutralized by some cations [15].

Due to their fascinating properties, including high specific area, superior ions exchange capacity, dehydration – rehydration and their highly porous structure, zeolites could be considered as one of the environmentally cleanest materials [16]; therefore, they are a potential candidate for many applications, for example, catalysts, ion exchangers and sorbents [17, 18].

Natural zeolites (Tokaj) are volcanic tuffs containing a low amount of zeolite (below 10%) together with quartz, cristobalite, montmorillonite and sometimes feldspar [19]. The low portion of zeolite in these materials hinder their advanced applications, but due to their superior mechanical characteristic, large porosity, and lightweight, natural zeolites are very good building materials. Many research works have been carried out regarding the use of natural zeolite in construction as an additive to the cement or masonry blocks [20, 21].

Ceramic bricks are essential building materials produced in a large amount all over the world [22]. They usually produce from clay [23–24] through grinding [25], molding, drying, and firing [26]. The clayey materials normally consist of many minerals, for instance, quartz, illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, chlorite and feldspars. The most common shaping techniques are dry pressing, semi-dry pressing and extrusion [27]. During the firing, many processes can take place that can affect the properties of the final product. These processes involve dehydration, decomposition of some mineral phases, phase transformations and physicochemical reactions [28]. Increasing the density due to the increase in the sintering temperature leads to an increase in the thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. The bricks’ thermal conductivity is highly connected to many factors, including raw material composition, firing temperature, and the porosity of the fired bricks. The thermal conductivity of ceramic bricks typically has a value of 1.0 ± 0.4 W/mK [29].

This research aims to study the preparation of ceramic bricks from natural zeolite. Ceramic samples were sintered at a different temperatures ranging from (950–1,300 °C) and evaluated based on their physical, mechanical and thermal characteristics.

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Characterization of the raw material (natural zeolite)

In this work, natural zeolite, which is used as a starting raw material for the preparation of ceramic bricks, is obtained from Tokaj Mountain in north Hungary. Chemical analysis of the raw material was carried out using an energy dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. After the size reduction via planetary ball milling, the chemical composition and the phase identification were made using Rigaku Miniflex II X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). The samples were scanned between 2θ intervals of 0–70 °C with a scanning rate of 1 °C/min and a step size of about 0.01016 °C using CuKα radiation (λ = 1.54184 Å). For the computer-based investigation, DIFFRACT measurement software was used. ThermoGravimetric (TG) analysis, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential ThermoGravimetric (DTG) analysis of the powder samples were done at a temperature up to 1,200 °C with a heating rate of 5 °C/min in air. The topographical feature and the surface morphology of the prepared ceramic samples were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (Carl Zeiss EVO MA10 equipment work at 20 kV using a Bruker microprobe: the images were taken under BSD-SE mode. The prepared samples were examined under several magnification values. The optimal sintering temperature and the linear volume change of the natural zeolite powder were determined using a heating microscope.

2.2 Preparation of the ceramic samples and sintering method

Ceramic bricks based on the natural zeolite were prepared through the mechanical activation and reactive sintering method using uniaxial dry pressing. The zeolite tuffs were milled in Retsch PM 400 planetary ball mill for 15 min at 150 rpm. The milled powders were then used to make cylindrical pellets with a diameter of about 25 mm and a thickness of 10 mm using uniaxial pressing machine under a pressure of 55 MPa. The prepared pellets were sintered at different temperatures from 950 to 1,300 °C with 50 °C step in a high-temperature programmable furnace for 3 h, with a heating rate of 60 °C/h.

2.3 Characterization of the sintered samples

Using Archimedes principle, different properties including bulk density, apparent porosity and water absorption were determined; furthermore, loss on ignition, volume shrinkage and the thermal conductivity of the sintered ceramic samples as well as the microstructure characteristic and mineralogical composition were also examined using SEM and XRD.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Characterization results of the raw materials

3.1.1 XRD and XRF investigations

Natural zeolite powder (Tokaj) contains many minerals like cristobalite, quartz, montmorillonite, calcite and clinoptilolite, which is confirmed by XRD analysis (Fig. 1). Table 1 shows the percentage of the mineralogical constituents, chemical composition and Loss On Ignition (LOI) of the natural zeolite in wt% obtained from XRD and XRF tests; this raw material basically contains SiO2 and Al2O3.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD diffractogram of natural zeolite

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

Table 1.

Chemical and mineralogical percentages of the natural zeolite (Tokaj, Hungary)

wt %CaOSiO2Al2O3MgONa2OCO2H2OLOI
Quartz880.00
Cristobalite50500.00
Montmorillonite3019.14.063.210.742.872.87
Calcite21.120.90.88
Clinoptilolite105.791.890.571.75
Total1001.1282.85.953.211.310.92.875.50

3.1.2 Thermal properties of raw materials

TG/DTA curves of the natural zeolite are shown in Fig. 2. Overall weight loss of approximately 9.3% was obtained at 1,200 °C. Firstly, a 5.29% decrease in the mass was observed in a temperature range of 40–240 °C, which accounts for the removal of free water from the natural zeolite micropores. Secondly, a 1.74% weight loss was obtained at a temperature between 214 and 548 °C, which could be attributed to the evaporation of combined water and burning of the organic content. Finally, a weight loss of 2.27% was revealed at a temperature between 550 °C and 753 °C. In DTA graph, a large exothermic peak is shown in a temperature range of 192–752.6 °C, which likely indicates the evaporation of crystalline water and the burning of organic content in the ceramic raw material. Small reactions were obtained at about 796–1,200 °C, which indicates the physicochemical reactions and phase transformation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DTA and TG curves of natural zeolite

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

Figure 3 demonstrates the connection between the firing temperatures and the natural zeolite’s geometrical deformation, which is done using a heating microscope in a temperature range of 25–1,400 °C. Firstly, 4% height shrinkage is obtained at 1,250 °C due to the effect of sintering; at high temperature (1,385 °C), 10% volume expansion is determined with a shape distortion indicating the softening state prior to the melting.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Heating microscope images of the natural zeolite

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

3.2 Characterization results of the produced samples

3.2.1 Dimensional characteristic after firing

Sintering at different temperatures has enormously increased the shrinkages and changed the colors of the ceramics samples, as it is shown in Fig. 4. This could be attributed to the recrystallization of zeolite, which starts with dehydration and results in some physicochemical reactions which can change the microstructure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ceramic samples sintered at different temperatures

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

3.2.2 XRD investigations

X-ray diffraction results, which show the crystallinity and phase analysis of the raw material and fired samples, are demonstrated in Fig. 5. The XRD diffractogram of the sintered samples revealed the formation of different phases. The samples sintered at 1,000 °C confirmed the existence of silica (quartz + cristobalite) as the main component with a small portion of anorthite; increasing the sintering temperature to 1,300 °C leads to the formation of mullite, increase the amorphous percentage and reduce the amount of anorthite.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

XRD results of fired samples (M: montmorillonite; C: clinoptilolite; Cr: cristobalite; Q: quartz; Ca: calcite; A: anorthite; T: tridymite; Mu: mullite)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

3.2.3 SEM examination

The topographical feature and morphology of the fractured surface obtained from the samples fired at a temperature range of (950–1,300 °C) are shown in the scanning electron micrographs (Fig. 6). The reactive sintering process starts at 1,050 °C. It can be seen that raising the sintering temperature reduces the pore size, therefore increasing the density of the produced samples. In the samples sintered at a temperature of 1,200 °C, the pores are interconnected, forming a capillary. Furthermore, dense ceramic samples with a large amount of amorphous phase can be noticed in the samples sintered at 1,300 °C. This mainly happens due to the intensive sintering and conversion of some crystalline silica to amorphous silica.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM images of the sintered samples

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

3.2.4 Physical properties

Upon increasing the firing temperature, several physical properties were changed, as it is shown in Fig. 7. At lower sintering temperatures (950–1,100 °C), the samples showed relatively higher dimensional stability with volume firing shrinkages of about 10%. At higher temperatures (above 1,100 °C), some minerals in the natural zeolite (montmorillonite, clinoptilolite and calcite) decompose. Furthermore, physicochemical reactions take place and lead to the formation of anorthite and mullite, as confirmed by XRD analysis (Fig. 5).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The a) bulk density, b) volume shrinkage, c) water absorption and d) apparent porosity of the ceramic bricks sintered at variable temperatures

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

As a result, the volume shrinkages start to increase gradually and finally reach 29% at 1,300 °C. The values of bulk density, water absorption and apparent porosity of the prepared ceramic bricks sintered at different temperatures are shown in Fig. 7. The bulk density of the brick samples sintered at 950 °C is 1.62 g/cm3, while its porosity is 30% and water absorption is about 20%, the corresponding compressive strength is 18.3 MPa. The bulk density of the produced samples has increased from 1.62 g/cm3 to about 1.85 g/cm3. The water absorption and apparent porosity reduced from 20 to 6% and from 30 to 13%, respectively, with the firing temperature increase to 1,300 °C. This change in the physical properties occurred due to the decomposition and reactive sintering process, which lead to the creation of new phases.

3.2.5 Thermal conductivity

The thermal conductivity of the prepared samples as a function of sintering temperatures is shown in Fig. 8a. The samples’ thermal conductivity tends to increase with increasing the sintering temperature. The lowest value of thermal conductivity was 0.37 W/mK obtained from the samples sintered at 950 °C. As the sintering temperature increases to 1,300 °C, the thermal conductivity increases and reaches a maximum value of 0.76 W/mK. The main reason beyond the rise in the thermal conductivity is the sintering, which occurs at high temperature through the diffusion that reduces the porosity and therefore, increases the thermal conductivity. Usually, the material with higher porosity has higher thermal conductivity since the air absorbed into the materials’ pores act as insulating materials.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

a) Thermal conductivity, b) compressive strength, of the ceramic bricks sintered at variable temperatures

Citation: Pollack Periodica 16, 3; 10.1556/606.2021.00341

3.2.6 Compressive strength

Compressive strength is considered one of the crucial factors determining the quality of ceramic bricks and other construction materials [30]. Figure 8b demonstrates the value of compressive strength for the prepared ceramic samples fired at variable temperatures. The results confirm that the compressive strength tends to increase with increasing the sintering temperature. This occurs due to thermally-induced volume shrinkage and physicochemical processes, for instance, mineral decomposition and chemical reactions as confirmed by XRD test in Fig. 5, reducing the porosity and increasing the density and compressive strength. The minimum compressive strength was 18.36 MPa achieved when the ceramic bricks sintered at 950 °C; this value of compressive strength is far above the value of the standards required for the building brick which is 5 MPa. The highest value for compressive strength was 55.6 MPa obtained from the ceramic samples sintered at 1,250 °C. The compressive strength of the samples fired at 1,300 °C decreased up to 48.8 MPa. This decrease in compressive strength could be attributed to the conversion of some crystalline silica into amorphous silica.

4 Conclusion

Through the processing technique proposed, ceramic bricks were successfully produced. The properties of the final product are highly affected by sintering temperatures. A remarkable change is observed in the density, porosity, shrinkage, and color of the produced bricks. This change could be due to liquid-phase sintering associated with the formation of new phases. The XRD test confirms the formation of anorthite and mullite. The SEM analysis reveals that the porosity of the ceramic samples decreases with increasing the sintering temperature. This could be attributed to the liquid-phase diffusion of the melt into the pores. In contrast, their bulk density is noticeably increased. The sample sintered at 950 °C shows the lowest value of thermal conductivity (0.37 W/mK) with excellent compressive strength (18.36 MPa). These properties make them an outstanding candidate for bricks making. The samples sintered at 1,300 °C showed the highest thermal conductivity (0.76 W/mK), which still lies within the standards. The data examined in this research work confirm the potential application of natural zeolite from Tokaj region as efficient insulating building bricks. These studies could be used to control the microstructure and, hence, the properties of the produced ceramic materials.

Acknowledgments

The described study was carried out as part of the EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00011 “Younger and Renewing University – Innovative Knowledge City – institutional development of the University of Miskolc aiming at intelligent specialisation” project implemented in the framework of the Szechenyi 2020 program. The realization of this project is supported by the European Union, co-financed by the European Social Fund.

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  • [1]

    Y. Wang , A. Gu , and A. Zhang , “Recent development of energy supply and demand in China, and energy sector prospects through 2030,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 67456759, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    J. E. Tilton , Ed., World Metal Demand: Trends and Prospects. New York: Resources for the Future, 1990.

  • [3]

    A. Hsu , C. Rosengarten , A. Weinfurter , Y. Xie , E. Musolino , and H. E. Murdock , “Renewable energy and energy efficiency in developing countries: Contributions to reducing global emissions,” Third Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    L. Aditya , T. M. Mahlia , B. Rismanchi , H. M. Ng , M. H. Hasan , H. S. Metselaar , O. Muraza , and H. B. Aditiya , “A review on insulation materials for energy conservation in buildings,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 13521365, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    G. L. Bai , N. J. Du , Y. Z. Xu , and C. G. Qin , “Study on the thermal properties of hollow shale blocks as self-insulating wall materials,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 2017, pp. 12, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    S. I. A Ali and Zs. Szalay , “Overview and analysis of the overheating effect in modern Sudanese buildings,” Pollack Period., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 208219, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    A. S. Apkaryan , S. N. Kulkov , and L. A. Gömze , “Foam glass ceramics as composite granulated heat-insulating material,” Epitoanyag – J. Silicate Based Compos. Mater., vol. 66, pp. 3842, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    O. Kaynakli , “A review of the economical and optimum thermal insulation thickness for building applications,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. , vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 415425, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    C. Feng , K. C. Khulbe , T. Matsuura , R. Farnood , and A. F. Ismail , “Recent progress in zeolite/zeotype membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. Res., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 4972, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    A. Y. Buzimov , S. N. Kulkov , L. A. Gömze , R. Géber , and I. Kocserha , “Effect of mechanical treatment on the structure and properties of natural zeolite,” Inorg. Mater. Appl. Res., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 910915, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    A. Y. Buzimov , S. N. Kulkov , W. Eckl , S. Pappert , L. A. Gömze , E. Kurovics , I. Kocserha , and R. Géber , “Effect of mechanical treatment on properties of zeolites with chabazite structure,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 790, no. 1, Paper no. 012004, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    I. Marantos , G. E. Christidis , and M. Ulmanu , “Zeolite formation and deposits,” in Handbook of Natural Zeolites ,V. J. Inglezakis and A. A. Zorpas , Eds, 2012, pp. 2851.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Amália

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Péter

 

Scientific Secretary

Miklós M. Iványi

Editorial Board

  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Ján Bujňák (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS

 

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
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Subscription fee 2021 Online subsscription: 321  EUR / 402 USD
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Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 16
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

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