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  • 1 Department of Mechatronics and Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Szécsenyi István University, Egyetem tér 1, H-9026Győr, Hungary
  • | 2 Doctoral School of Multidisciplinary Engineering Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Egyetem tér 1, H-9026Győr, Hungary
Open access

Abstract

In recent years, in order to increase the energy efficiency of older buildings in Hungary, several tenders have supported the modernization of the thermal insulation. Various thermal insulation materials have been installed on walls, on slab and on floor. Unfortunately there are cases where thermal insulation materials are not installed in accordance with the construction permit or the manufacturer’s instructions, which poses a serious danger in case of a fire. During the research the effects of heat on the behavior of Expanded PolyStyrene, a thermal insulation material often used in Hungary is examined. Laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out, which are presented in detail in this paper. The aim of the research is to contribute to increase the fire safety of buildings.

Abstract

In recent years, in order to increase the energy efficiency of older buildings in Hungary, several tenders have supported the modernization of the thermal insulation. Various thermal insulation materials have been installed on walls, on slab and on floor. Unfortunately there are cases where thermal insulation materials are not installed in accordance with the construction permit or the manufacturer’s instructions, which poses a serious danger in case of a fire. During the research the effects of heat on the behavior of Expanded PolyStyrene, a thermal insulation material often used in Hungary is examined. Laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out, which are presented in detail in this paper. The aim of the research is to contribute to increase the fire safety of buildings.

1 Introduction

Fires occur quite often in various buildings in Hungary, therefore fire protection of building materials is an important, current issue [1]. Modernization of existing buildings will become topical after a certain period of time, during which the fire protection aspects must also be met. Knowledge of fire protection properties of the installed materials and application of the appropriate installation technology is extremely important in fire protection practice. One of the significant steps in the modernization of buildings is to increase their thermal insulation, which in case of old buildings is realized posteriorly. In the last two decades the government has also supported energy modernization, which has resulted in the thermal insulation of a large number of old buildings. One of the frequently used thermal insulation materials was Expanded PolyStyrene (EPS), which must be installed according to a separate standard [2]. Unfortunately, in practice, the installation regulations were not always followed by the contractors and it was only revealed during fires [3, 4]. It turned out for example that EPS was used not only for external thermal insulation, but also for internal thermal insulation placed over a built-in suspended ceiling or used as a sound insulation in a nightclub behind a similar perforated plate. EPS should not be used indoors because the direct combustion of it produces large amounts of toxic combustion products, like CO (carbon-monoxide), CO2 (carbon-dioxide), HBr (hydrogen-bromide), HCl (hydrogen-chloride), SO2 (sulfur-dioxide), which reduces the chances of survival of people in the fire-affected room [5]. The aim of the research is to investigate the changes in the EPS material due to direct heat in laboratory environment. Using results of the measurement the development of computer simulation has also been initialized in order to help to understand the phenomena more accurately and also contribute to the planning of future research tasks.

2 Laboratory measurements

In practice it was observed that deformations had occurred in the EPS insulations due to radiant heat. The standard tests mostly examine the ignitability and fire properties of materials [6], therefore a different laboratory experiment was performed to examine the temperature increase and the mass loss of EPS. In the scientific literature some examples of examining the behavior of EPS due to radiant heat can be found. However, different measurement devices and methods were used and different phenomena were investigated in these papers (e.g., the effect of solar radiation, the effect of sample width, etc.) [7–10]. During the experiment presented in this paper the temperature of the heat source can be adjusted precisely and the heat radiation reaching the surface of the EPS sample can be measured accurately, therefore the internal temperature change of EPS can be effectively detected.

Before starting the laboratory measurements, the properties connected to fire protection of the selected EPS were studied. During production of EPS thermal insulation material pentane (C5H12) is added to polymerized styrene as a first step. During the expansion, water vapor is introduced into the polystyrene granules and as a result the particles of the raw material soften. As the temperature increases, the pentane propellant swells the polystyrene beads 20-50-fold while forming tiny, closed cells within the polystyrene beads. The expanded polystyrene cannot be used immediately; a blocking process is required first. The surface of the beads hardens due to cooling, the propellant contracts and air diffuses into the formed cells. During rest moisture added during steaming evaporates from the beads. The pre-foamed beads are then re-steamed in a closed form, during which the beads are pressed together to form a homogeneous block without binder. After resting, these blocks are cut to size [11].

EPS is a thermoplastic material, therefore at higher temperatures (above +80 °C) its load capacity and dimensional stability deteriorate and it deforms under the influence of heat. Therefore is not recommended for use in places permanently exposed to temperatures above +70 °C. EPS used for thermal insulation is treated with a flame retardant, therefore the material does not burn on its own after the ignition source or direct fire has been extinguished. Thermal properties EPS are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1.

Thermal properties of EPS (by Authors bases on [12])

PropertyUnitValue
Density (ρ)kg/m315–30
Compressive strength (σc)kPa30–300
Tensile strength (σt)kPa100–300
Water uptake (W)kg/m21–5
Thermal conductivity (λ)W/m K0.032–0.040
Melting point (TO)°C80–85
Ignition temperature (TGY)°C346–405
Heating value (HV)kJ/kg42,000

Measurements were performed with an adjustable temperature heat source with heat sensors placed in front of it and in the test specimen and a six-channel data logger. The measurement results were recorded by a computer connected to the device. The measuring equipment and the sketch of the measurement are shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measurement device (up) and measurement sketch (down)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

Samples with a uniform width of 10 × 10 cm and a length corresponding to the material thickness were prepared. In each sample thermocouples were placed 3 cm apart at a depth of 5 cm from the side, and then the sample was fixed to holder stand 5 cm in front of the heat source. During the measurements, the heat source was set to a temperature of 500 °C. The temperature sensor in front of the sample (fixed on the sample holder stand) measured a temperature of 100 °C because of the air gap between the heat source and the device. At the beginning of the measurement, the thermal insulation sheet was removed and then the sample was exposed to radiant heat at 100 °C for a period of 10 min and in the case of a 20 cm wide sample for 16 min.

During measurements it was experienced that after approximately 3 and 6 min the temperature was above 120–140 °C at the first temperature sensor placed into the sample, which suggests that in the EPS samples exothermic processes start after a short period of time at temperature 100 °C. The measurement results are shown in Figs 24.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement results of the EPS sample with 12 cm width

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement results of the EPS sample with 15 cm width

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement results of the EPS sample with 20 cm width

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

Analyzing the results, it can be stated that after 3–4 min, the temperature measured by the first sensor in both the 12 and 15 cm samples exceeded the temperature of 100 °C, and then further increased to approximately 120 °C. In case of the second sensor it took 6–7 min to reach a temperature of 100 °C. By the end of the measurement time, the temperature measured at the second sensor approached 120 °C with no further increase. However the temperature measured by the first sensor has started to decrease. No flame combustion occurred, but mild smoke was observed in all experiments.

In case of the 20 cm thick sample it can be seen that after 3–4 min the temperature measured by the first sensor reached 100 °C, then increased further to approximately 110 °C. The temperature measured by the second sensor exceeded the temperature measured by the first sensor after 8 min and further increased to 115 °C, then decreased continuously until the end of the measurement.

The weight of each sample was measured before and after the measurement and the results are shown in the following Table 2.

Table 2.

Mass change of samples during the experiments

Size (mm)Mass (g)Mass loss (g)Mass loss %
100 × 100 × 12018.220.140.774
100 × 100 × 15024.980.261.051
100 × 100 × 20030.050.240.805

Analyzing the results it can be concluded that the exothermic processes in the samples were accompanied by weight loss and deformation, which can be clearly seen in Fig. 5. Smoke was also experienced during the measurements. Combustion with a flame did not occur, only oxidation happened.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Deformation of the EPS sample due heat

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

3 Computer simulation

Finite element simulations can be effectively used to examine fire behavior of building elements and materials [13]. In this research Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) was used [14], which was already used effectively to simulate indoor fires [15–18]. The simulation environment was set up based on the measurement described in Section 2. The temperature rise in the measurement points and the material loss were examined. The simulation environment was 120 × 220 × 130 mm open space. The temperature at surface y=0 was 500 °C. The mesh size was 5 × 5 × 5 mm. The simulation time was 600 s according to the measurement time. The simulation model is shown is Fig. 6.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulation model

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

Temperature sensors were placed according to the measurement set-up shown in Fig. 1. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulation results

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

It can be seen that in case of the first sensor (which is placed at the supporting frame in case of the measurement) the temperature rises to 101.24 °C similarly to the measurement. The maximum temperature is reached after 33.6 s. In case of the second sensor (which is the first sensor placed inside the sample) the temperature rises till 85.3 °C after 228 s. Therefore the maximum temperature is reached approximately 3 min after the surface of the sample reached 100 °C. The maximum temperature in case of the third sensor (second placed inside the sample) is 71.34 s and is reached after 492 s. Therefore the maximum temperature was reached after 7.6 min. The time to reach the maximum temperature is similar to the measurement. The maximum temperature is smaller, because the material was burned and the air temperature decreased because of the open space. Also there remained less material to burn and to increase the temperature further. In case of the other sensors there was no temperature change. It is because the material was not burned therefore the temperature of the combustion gases could not be measured. The mass loss was also estimated, which was 58%. It is much more than in case of the measurement. Therefore the simulation model should be improved in the future to capture the exotherm phenomena inside the EPS material more accurately.

3.1 Simulation of a room with insulating material

The results presented above can also be used in the development of simulations of indoor fires. To begin with the research two types of preliminary simulation models were already created, which are shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulation of indoor fire with insulating material (up: insulating material defined as wall, down: insulating material defined as object)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

The wall temperature was measured, the simulation time was 60 s. The room and the fire model were based on [19]. In the first case the insulating material was specified as wall. In this case the heat load and the temperature of the walls and the room can be examined (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Temperature rise in case of the first simulation model

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

In the second case the insulating material was modeled as a separate object. The advantage of this model, those combustion properties can also be specified. With this model the combustion of the insulating material, fire spread and fire damage can be examined (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Temperature rise in case of the second simulation model

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2021; 10.1556/606.2021.00377

These simulations were run on a simple laptop. Using a rough mesh the calculation time was 32 min in the first case and 60 min in the second case. It is an ongoing research; therefore it is yet to decide which simulation model will be used to model indoor fires.

4 Conclusion

Continuous testing of insulating materials is very important to increase fire safety of buildings. Research results in the topic also contribute to the further development of products and materials. The performed experiments revealed that exothermic processes start in the examined EPS samples under the influence of heat even at 100 °C, which is accompanied by smoke formation. Knowing the properties of the insulating material, it can be concluded that smoke contains substances, which are harmful to human health. Therefore the use of EPS materials is not recommended indoors for either heat or sound insulation. The examined samples were the thickest available in order to observe the phenomena more accurately. At the same time a thinner sample loses its weight much sooner (penetrates) due to direct heat load as a result of which the building structure or equipment protected by it receives the heat load, which may even lead to fire. In the course of the presented research work it can be concluded that laboratory experiments are essential to create simulations that help to improve insulating materials. Experimental results help to fine-tune simulations therefore more accurate simulations can be performed in the future. In addition to the presented results the tasks of further research were also defined.

References

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    D. Bozsaky, “Recent studies on thermodynamic processes in nano-ceramic thermal insulation coatings”, Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 107116, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
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    • Search Google Scholar
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    P. Krause and A. Nowoświat, “Experimental studies involving the impact of solar radiation on the properties of expanded graphite polystyrene”, Energies, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 117, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    R. Coquard, D. Baillis, and D. Quenard, “Heat transfer in low-density EPS foams,” in 12th International Meeting on Heat Transfer, Tanger, Morocco, Nov. 15–17, 2005, 2005, pp. 291294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    A. Blazejczyk, C. Jastrzebski, and M. Wierzbicki, “Change in conductive-radiative heat transfer mechanism forced by graphite microfillerin expanded polystyrene thermal insulation - Experimental and simulated investigations,” Mater., vol. 13. no. 11, Paper no. 2626, pp. 126, 2020.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    B. Sajadian and H. Ashrafi, “Fire performance of concrete sandwich panel under axial load”, Pollack Period., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 4552, 2020.

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    • Search Google Scholar
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    K. McGrattan ,S. Hostikka, J. Floyd, R. McDermott, and M. Vanella, Fire dynamics simulator, User’s guide. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/firemodels/fds/releases/download/FDS6.7.5/FDS_User_Guide.pdf. Accessed: Dec. 29, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    X. Cheng, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and K. Y. Li, “Numerical study on temperature distribution of structural components exposed to travelling fire,” Proced. Eng., vol. 71, pp. 166172, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    D. Zigar, D. Pesic, I. Anghel, and N. Misic, “Simulation of fire radiative heat flux through compartment openings using FDS,” in Požární Ochrana, Ostrava, Czech Republic, Sep. 9–10, 2015, 2015, pp. 380383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    A. C. Y. Yuen, G. H. Yeoh, R. Alexander, and M. Cook, “Fire scene reconstruction of a furnished compartment room in a house fire,” Case Stud. Fire Saf. , vol. 1, pp. 2935, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    C.-S. Ahn and J.-Y. Kim, “A study for a fire spread mechanism of residential buildings with numerical modeling,” WIT Trans. Built Environ., vol. 117, pp. 185196, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    FDS tutorial. [Online]. Available: https://fdstutorial.com/your-first-fds-simulation/. Accessed: Oct. 10, 2020.

  • [1]

    D. Bozsaky, “Recent studies on thermodynamic processes in nano-ceramic thermal insulation coatings”, Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 107116, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    MSZ 7573: 2015, Thermal insulation products for buildings, Factory made expanded polystyrene (EPS) products (in Hungarian), Magyar Szabványügyi Testület, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    L. G. Takács, “Fire Cases in Low Energy Buildings(in Hungarian), Védelem Online, Tűz-és Katasztrófavédelmi Szakkönyvtár, 2013 . [Online]. Available: http://www.vedelem.hu/letoltes/document//9-alacsony-energiaigenyu-epuletek-tuzeseti-tapasztalatai.pdf. Accessed: Dec. 1, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    M. Lestyán, “Fire protection issues of thermal insulation systems(in Hungarian), Védelem Online, Tűz-és Katasztrófavédelmi Szakkönyvtár, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://vedelem.hu/files/UserFiles/File/konf2012/lakitelek/Lestyan_Hoszigetelo_rendszerek_tuzvedelmi_kerdesei.pdf. Accessed: Dec. 10, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    R. Kuti and G. Zólyomi, “Hazards from smoke during fires(in Hungarian), Védelem Tudomány: Katasztrófavédelmi Online Tudományos Folyóirat, vol. 3, no. 2.III/2, pp. 6776, 2019. [Online]. Available: http://www.vedelemtudomany.hu/articles/05-kuti-zolyomi.pdf. Accessed: Dec. 10, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    ISO 11925-2:2020, Reaction to fire tests, Ignitability of products subjected to direct impingement of flame, Part 2: Single-flame source test, International Organization for Standardization, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    G. B. Baker, Performance of expanded polystyrene insulated panel exposed to radiant heat, Fire Engineering, Research report, no. 722, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    P. Krause and A. Nowoświat, “Experimental studies involving the impact of solar radiation on the properties of expanded graphite polystyrene”, Energies, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 117, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    R. Coquard, D. Baillis, and D. Quenard, “Heat transfer in low-density EPS foams,” in 12th International Meeting on Heat Transfer, Tanger, Morocco, Nov. 15–17, 2005, 2005, pp. 291294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    A. Blazejczyk, C. Jastrzebski, and M. Wierzbicki, “Change in conductive-radiative heat transfer mechanism forced by graphite microfillerin expanded polystyrene thermal insulation - Experimental and simulated investigations,” Mater., vol. 13. no. 11, Paper no. 2626, pp. 126, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    B. Pukánszky and J. Móczó, Plastics (in Hungarian). Budapest: Typotex Kiadó, 2012.

  • [12]

    M. Lestyán, “Wherever we try to test, polystyrene foam is combustible(in Hungarian), Védelem Katasztrófa-és Tűzvédelmi Szemle, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 4042, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://vedelem.hu/letoltes/ujsag/v201105.pdf. Accessed: Dec. 10, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    B. Sajadian and H. Ashrafi, “Fire performance of concrete sandwich panel under axial load”, Pollack Period., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 4552, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    K. McGrattan ,S. Hostikka, J. Floyd, R. McDermott, and M. Vanella, Fire dynamics simulator, User’s guide. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/firemodels/fds/releases/download/FDS6.7.5/FDS_User_Guide.pdf. Accessed: Dec. 29, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    X. Cheng, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and K. Y. Li, “Numerical study on temperature distribution of structural components exposed to travelling fire,” Proced. Eng., vol. 71, pp. 166172, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    D. Zigar, D. Pesic, I. Anghel, and N. Misic, “Simulation of fire radiative heat flux through compartment openings using FDS,” in Požární Ochrana, Ostrava, Czech Republic, Sep. 9–10, 2015, 2015, pp. 380383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    A. C. Y. Yuen, G. H. Yeoh, R. Alexander, and M. Cook, “Fire scene reconstruction of a furnished compartment room in a house fire,” Case Stud. Fire Saf. , vol. 1, pp. 2935, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    C.-S. Ahn and J.-Y. Kim, “A study for a fire spread mechanism of residential buildings with numerical modeling,” WIT Trans. Built Environ., vol. 117, pp. 185196, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    FDS tutorial. [Online]. Available: https://fdstutorial.com/your-first-fds-simulation/. Accessed: Oct. 10, 2020.

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  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
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  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
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  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
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  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
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  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
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  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
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  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS

 

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Online subsscription: 321 EUR / 402 USD
Print + online subscription: 384 EUR / 480 USD
Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

 

Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2006
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 16
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

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Jun 2021 0 49 37
Jul 2021 0 32 12
Aug 2021 0 0 0