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  • 1 Department of Engineering Geology and Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Technology and Economics, , Műegyetem rkp 3, 1111, Budapest, , Hungary
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Abstract

Contact with groundwater in the disposal geological site will induce the creation of an amorphous corrosion layer on the high-level radioactive glass. This is connected to silicate saturation conditions in the surrounding medium, and it is influenced significantly by geochemical processes in the near-field minerals at that depth. The international simple glass is a six-oxide borosilicate glass that is commonly used in nuclear interest. It is a simple glass generated from its composition to be an international benchmark glass. The results of the standard materials characterization center leaching tests in double deionized water at 90 °C and an initial pH value of 6.3 showed that it reacts with Ankerite for a short period of time. The effect of Ankerite on borosilicate glass durability through magnesium-silicate precipitation has been investigated and confirmed in this study.

Abstract

Contact with groundwater in the disposal geological site will induce the creation of an amorphous corrosion layer on the high-level radioactive glass. This is connected to silicate saturation conditions in the surrounding medium, and it is influenced significantly by geochemical processes in the near-field minerals at that depth. The international simple glass is a six-oxide borosilicate glass that is commonly used in nuclear interest. It is a simple glass generated from its composition to be an international benchmark glass. The results of the standard materials characterization center leaching tests in double deionized water at 90 °C and an initial pH value of 6.3 showed that it reacts with Ankerite for a short period of time. The effect of Ankerite on borosilicate glass durability through magnesium-silicate precipitation has been investigated and confirmed in this study.

1 Introduction

The nuclear fuel generated is classified as High-Level radioactive Waste (HLW). The HLW is vitrified and is then discharged into stainless steel canisters as a method of pre-processing, preceding the final disposal of a geologic forming repository deeply during a long-term storage [1–4]. In Hungary, the Boda Claystone at Mecsek site is the candidate host rock of high level radioactive waste [5]. Borosilicate glass, a chemical-durable glass for stabilizing high-level waste by leaching tests for nuclear waste glass corrosion in aquatic environments, is stable against many corrosive parameters, but its durability can be influenced over time by critical extrinsic parameters such as temperature, chemicals, and solvents [6].

Flooding in nuclear waste packs occurs as a result of water diffusion via capillary absorption, which is also a process that influences water diffusion across different rock densities, surface tension, and the angle of contact [7]. Additional criteria should be explored in order to forecast water absorption levels, including the porosity, rhyolitic tuff, and the density of stones [8].

The hydration is due to water diffusion across the glass network and the ion exchange between the positive protons found in the aqueous and the glass alkaline metals, frequently leading to the formation of the surface of an amorphous corrosion layer. In a process defined as a hydrolysis, Ionic-covalent bonds of the most soluble elements in the aqueous solution attack the glass network and a reverse mechanism controlled by pH and temperature will be established if the silica easily dissolved in the aqueous solution can condense as a protective gel layer in the outer shell of the glass [9–11].

The protective gel layer should produce a balancing phase, reducing contact between the glass and the aqueous environment [12–14]. That balance leads to silicate saturation in a solution in which the ultimate silicic acid saturation (H4SiO4) occurs. Finally, if the interventions by iron minerals i.e., Ankerite or other geological factors are not carried out [15–21], the corrosion rate of HLW glass should reach a steady state.

2 Materials

2.1 Ankerite

A natural Ankerite-rich geological sample was employed in this investigation. The sample was crushed into a powder using an electrical mortar grinder of tungsten carbide. The X-ray diffraction measurement proved that the sample is a natural Ankerite including a minor amount of Siderite (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The XRD pattern of natural Ankerite sample, collected from the mining area in Rudabánya, Hungary

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00410

The iron-rich Dolomites or the iron Dolomites are the most so-called Ankerites. Dolomite-Ankerite is still in a constant transition according to the Fe/Mg ratio. Fe > Mg and Fe > Mn must be present at Ankerite (application of the rule of the predominance cation with predominance valence in each position). That implies that the host rock of the natural Ankerite can be mostly Dolomite [22, 23].

The powder was then sieved using a 100+120 mesh fraction vibratory strainer and collected the 75–125 μm part of the grain size. The Specific Surface Area (SSA) was measured at 225 cm2.g−1 using the BET-N2 approach. A portion with grain size 90 percent below 149.01 μm with an average diameter of 88.91 μm was shown by the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). For further analytical tests this powdered sample was dried overnight at 105 °C. Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for the elemental analysis of this sample. Thermal analysis has been used to assess the total carbon content. Table 1 shows the elemental composition of Ankerite.

Table 1.

Oxide ratios in natural Ankerite, derived from ICP-OES and thermal analysis

MethodElementMass (%)ElementMass (%)
ICP-OESSiO20.56CaO11.7
K2O0.55Li2O0.03
Na2O0.88Fe2O337.6
Al2O30.30MgO11.9
MnO1.18SO31.50
CuO0.53ZnO0.03
MethodElementMass (%)
Thermal analysisCO235.7
TOTAL (%) 102.5

2.2 International simple glass

International Simple Glass (ISG) is a borosilicate six oxide glass with the same elemental ratios as SON68 (the inactive reference glass for the French R7T7 glass). It is commonly used to investigate the HLW glass’s durability. The ISG ingot was cut into 10 × 10 × 2 mm plates (coupons) with a diamond of 12.7 cm. The polishing machines using oil-based diamond suspension spray have been used to polish the ISG coupons. Each coupon’s Surface Area (SA) was geometrically measured with a digital caliper and found to be 2.4 cm2 but was adjusted to 3.1 cm2 after application of a surface roughness factor equal to 1.5 which was calculated using BET-N2 to account for the additional surfaces. The Inductive Coupling Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were used to detect the ISG’s composition in percentage ratios. The mass fraction of each element/oxide in the ISG reacted is shown in Table 2.

Table 2.

Results of the common oxide ratios and mass percentage ratios in ISG

MethodOxideMass (%)ElementMole (%)
ICP-OESSiO255.6Si26.0
B2O316.0B4.61
Na2O13.2Na4.91
Al2O35.50Al1.45
CaO5.53Ca3.95
ZrO22.98Zr2.21
ICP-MSOthers<0.79Others<0.25
TOTAL (%)∼99.63∼43.38

3 Experimental setup and methodology

The commonly performed static leach tests include the standard Materials Characterization Center (MCC) leach test for nuclear waste forms has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) [24]. It provides a comparison of the durability of candidate waste forms developed for the stabilization of high-level nuclear wastes [25]. The MCC-1 test has already been standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) through committee C-26 as Standard C1220-92 [26].

The very low Surface area to Volume (S/V) used in the MCC-1 test represents the improbable event of the headspace of a waste canister being instantaneously filled with groundwater and provides a simple method of comparing the relative durability of different homogeneous waste glass. The MCC-1 test is commonly used for low S/V (i.e., ∼10 m−1) glass at 90 °C. Teflon vessels and ASTM deionized water are required for this test [24].

In the current experiment, the MCC-1 test was employed with PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) vessels of a 30 ml capacity each. The leaching was conducted at a temperature of 90 °C. The test samples were fabricated by adding specific (∼300 mg) ISG coupons and (∼240 mg) Ankerite powder to the containers, pouring 24 mL of ASTM-I water (having a conductivity and resistivity of 0.055 μS.cm−1, 18.2 MΩ.cm) in each container, then deoxygenating the samples by Argon gas. The pH of the ASTM-I water was adjusted to 6.3 at 25 °C by adding 10 µL of 0.08 g.L−1 NaOH.

Throughout this study, three experimental systems were set up and they were admitted in the oven for (3, 7, 14, 28, 90 days) reacting durations at 90 °C:

  • System (MCC-1): PTFE vessels were assembled using ISG coupons, each coupon was put into a separate vessel;

  • System (reference Ankerite): PTFE vessels were assembled using Ankerite powder. This system was used to facilitate Normalized mass Loss (NL) calculation of dissolved elements, resulting solely from the corrosion product of ISG;

  • System (MCC-1 + Ankerite): PTFE vessels were assembled using ISG coupons and Ankerite powder.

At the end of the designated leaching period, the hot samples were cooled to room temperature and then centrifuged at 4,500 rpm for 10 min. The pH value of the leaching solution was measured immediately for all samples at 25 °C. pH records are plotted in Fig. 2. The leaching solution was then filtered through a Millipore filter (0.45 µm pore size) and 15 milliliters of the filtrate were taken for ICP-MS analysis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

pH readings for all systems at various leaching times, (point = experiment)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00410

4 Results

4.1 Acidity evolution

In the extracted solutions, pH values were shown (Fig. 2) in two ranges:

  1. (i)pH (7.7–8.3);
  2. (ii)pH (6.2–9.2).

Samples include solely Ankerite powder at 90 °C, and samples including Ankerite powder and ISG coupons at 90 °C indicate a pH of a range (i). At 90 °C the pH values were shown in range (ii) on the reference samples of the glass coupon. Dissolution of Ankerite was found for pH improvements over the first 28 days, which accelerated the ISG corrosion rate [20]. As iron minerals may accelerate their hydrolysis predominantly [27], which will lead to hydroxyl ions being released and H+ intake from the solution being enhanced [28].

On day 90, and due to the continuous silicate dissolution in the MCC-1 system, an elevation occurred in the pH value, which increased the silicate’s solubility while the system was attempting toward saturation. Consequently, the higher pH values on day 90 were eventually attributed to glass corrosion [29]. At the same time, the “MCC-1 + Ankerite” system maintained at steady-state pH after 28 days reaction due to the influence of Ankerite, which regulated the pH and clogged the ISG alteration layer’s porosity. This represented a lower rate of ISG corrosion versus MCC-1 as described in Fig. 4.

4.2 Leaching solution analysis

Iron (Fe) concentrations in the ISG systems were lower than the detection limit in the present experiment, which might be owing to its rapid integration into the Si network during the first corrosion phase [16]. Magnesium solubility was observed in various systems. However, lower concentrations in the ISG coupon system were attributable to Mg-Si precipitation, as indicated by the extra silicic acid created as a consequence of increased glass corrosion rates owing to the presence of adequate magnesium in the solution [29].

Due to the development and precipitation of Mg-Si, which may be Sepiolite [30], the main silicic acid concentrations were depleted, and the deficit will be composed of silicic acid provided by glass corrosion. Mg concentrations in the reference Ankerite system achieved a high value on day 90 of this experiment, but the opposite occurred in the “MCC-1 + Ankerite” system. This was due to the initiation of Mg-Si precipitations, which increased silicate solubility as a consequence of the higher pH. The reduced Mg amounts measured at day 90 support this theory (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of Magnesium and Silicate concentrations with time in all systems, (point = experiment)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00410

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The main normalized loss results and ISG corrosion rate (r) (point = experiment)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00410

The normalized loss (NLi) was calculated using Eq. (1) [7] for the main elements resulting from the dissolution of the glass samples (Na, B, Si, Ca, Al); concentrations of Zr were not sufficient for said calculations,
NLi=mifi.SA,
where m i is the mass of element i in the leachate (g); f i is the mass fraction of element i in the pristine solid (unit less) and SA is the sample geometric surface area (m2).
Figure 4 depicts the effect of Ankerite by displaying total values of normalized mass loss. The MCC-1 method, however, produced better outcomes. Clogging the porosity of gel [31] was probably mainly due to dissolving products of Ankerite [32]. The normalized weight transfer by a layer that evolves as the glass erodes and/or a rise in glass corrosion product concentrations in the solution; Fig. 4 shows the inverse proportional link between leaching duration and ISG corrosion rate. This reduces the driving force of mass transfer, which slows down the several processes that release these components. The corrosion rate (r) for all leaching methods is shown in Fig. 4 and has been computed by using the following Eqs (2) and (3), used by Neill et al. [15] for ISG:
r=d(Eth(B))dt,
Eth(B)=NLBρISG,
where r denotes the glass corrosion rate (nm.d−1); Eth(B) is the equivalent thickness of Boron (nm) calculated from the following equation; NLB is the normalized mass loss for B (g.m−2) and ρISG is the density of ISG (2.500 g.cm−3).

Boron levels were observed to be substantially greater constantly than silicone levels, a typical characteristic concerning corrosion of borosilicate glass. B is, therefore, better suited to assess glass corrosion rate [29, 33]. Simultaneously, the concentrations of silicon in this study do not apply to the monitoring of glass corrosion because of its constant kinetics and the dissolution/evolution of porous texture in the gel layer [34].

In all systems, the ISG corrosion rate decreased with time (Fig. 4) due to the solution becoming more occupied with glass corrosion products [29]. For the first 14 days of the reaction, the MCC-1 system exhibited the highest corrosion rate and total ISG corrosion products when compared to the “MCC-1 + Ankerite” system. However, on day 90, the “MCC-1 + Ankerite” system began generating Mg-Si precipitations as the silicate solubility increased with increasing the pH.

5 Discussion

In this investigation, iron corrosion products were represented by Ankerite (CaFe (CO3)2), a common iron carbonate mineral found in soils in various clay matrices [35]. The ISG reference system reached higher corrosion rates and lower pH values during the first 14 days of leaching compared with the Ankerite Mixed System (Fig. 4). At the same time, lower levels of dissolved glass per unit area were exhibited; this is because glass corrosion products are highly concentrated in a solution. ISG glass corrosion rates are reduced by a saturation of the surrounding solution with amorphous silicate (SiO2). The higher the pH, the higher the silicate in a solution, the higher the pH, the more the pH control was achieved by providing the ideal medium for increased silicate solubility. The gel layer formation was not enough as long as it did not show a substantial reduction in the ISG corrosion rate because of insufficient silicic acid concentration [29].

When Ankerite is present, fewer quantities of boron are released from the glass. Simultaneously, silicon concentrations in MCC-1 systems were much higher. On day 90, they attained a high of (85 mg.L−1) compared to “MCC-1 + Ankerite” (19 mg.L−1) at the same time. As already stated, any silicate consumption in the solution will result in further supplies of silicate from the glass. Sorption and precipitation by Ankerite took place, but the impact of precipitation was nevertheless more substantial since sorption is typically more intense at higher concentrations of silicon acid [36]. Due to the low surface area of ISG to leachate volume, there were not adequate concentrations of silicon acid. The principal concentration of silicic acid is conceivable when the amorphous layer, SiO2, begins to disintegrate and dissolve after 90 days of reaction.

In the experiment conducted, NL is a focal factor in the calculation of the glass corrosion rate and is aimed illustrating a better understanding of the normalized elementary loss of the glass components owing to the probable effects of Ankerite on the pH levels. Investigations and analysis of the ICP-MS data show that the released Mg and other corrosion products i.e., Carbonates from Ankerite increased the pH of the leachate in the initial phase of leaching, thereby increasing silicate solubility and initiating early Mg-Si precipitation. However, the presence of Ankerite during the 90 days of reaction was sufficiently effective to reduce ISG’s corrosion rates by (i) regulating the pH to not approach free pH value (≈ 9); and (ii) its products of dissolution were able to clog the newly produced gel layer which decreased the exchange with the external area.

6 Conclusion

This paper illustrated the results of our research in which the influence of Ankerite, Mg-Si precipitation, on ISG durability during the 90 days of disposal was studied. The dissociation of Silicic acid increased as pH increased, requiring more glass to be dissolved to achieve saturation in solution. In comparison to the pure glass water system, adding Ankerite regulated the pH. Thus, throughout the entire period, Ankerite’s pH influence on glass corrosion may explain its impact on glass corrosion. In contrast, the Mg-Si precipitation in Ankerite + ISG system was not aggressive until day 90 of reaction due to the clogging effect, and the system was attempting toward saturation. Under the present experimental conditions, the pH-profile of Mg-Si precipitation over longer durations should be investigated further.

Acknowledgement

The Stipendium Hungaricum Scholarship Programme is highly acknowledged for supporting this PhD study and research work. Authors acknowledge the Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, BME for doing the ICP-OES tests on the Ankerite. Authors are grateful for the help of Department of Atomic Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, BME in cutting and polishing the ISG glass. This research was also assisted by the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), Jordan Uranium Mining Company (JUMCO) as most of the experimental work and curing was carried out in their laboratories. The authors would also like to acknowledge Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), USA, for kindly providing the original ISG sample.

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  • [1]

    IAEA SSR-5 2011, Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Specific Safety Requirements. International Atomic Energy Agency, 2011.

  • [2]

    Andra , Evaluation of the Feasibility of a Geological Repository in an Argillaceous Formation. France, Dossier: Report Series, 2005.

  • [3]

    IAEA NW-T-1.19, Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Technological Implications for Retrievability, Nuclear Energy Series, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    I. Donald , Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts: Radioactive, Toxic and Hazardous Wastes. Chichester (UK): Wiley, 2010.

  • [5]

    I. Buocz , N. Rozgonyi-Boissinot , Á. Török , and P. Görög , “Direct shear strength test on rocks along discontinuities, under laboratory conditions,” Pollack Periodica, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 139150, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    S. Gin , J. Ryan , S. Kerisit , and J. Du , “Simplifying a solution to a complex puzzle,” npj Mater. Degrad., vol. 2, 2018, Paper no. 36.

  • [7]

    P. Juhász , K. Kopecskó , and Á. Suhajda , “Analysis of capillary absorption properties of porous limestone material and its relation to the migration depth of bacteria in the absorbed biomineralizing compound,” Periodica Polytechnica, Civil Eng., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 113120, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    O. Farkas and Á. Török , “Effect of exhaust gas on natural stone tablets, A laboratory experiment,” Periodica Polytechnica, Civil Eng., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 115120, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
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Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Amália

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Péter

 

Scientific Secretary

Miklós M. Iványi

Editorial Board

  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Ján Bujňák (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
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2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
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Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
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Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
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Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

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Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

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