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  • 1 Doctoral School of Multidisciplinary Engineering Sciences, Széchenyi István University, , Egyetem tér 1, H-9026 Győr, , Hungary
  • | 2 Department of Mechatronics and Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, , Egyetem tér 1, H-9026 Győr, , Hungary
Open access

Abstract

In Hungary a lot of people live in condominiums or in block of flats where fire often occurs despite of precise design and effective fire protection arrangements. This means a hazard for the people living there, for the building constructions and also for the environment. A deeper knowledge of the burning process and examining the negative effects of fire load on building constructions with scientific methods are actual questions nowadays. In order to get to know the phenomena more accurately, fire spread in a bedroom was modeled and numerical simulation was carried out, which is presented in this paper in detail. These experiences may help increasing the fire safety and preventing fires in apartments. The simulations were carried out considering the characteristics of the Hungarian architecture.

Abstract

In Hungary a lot of people live in condominiums or in block of flats where fire often occurs despite of precise design and effective fire protection arrangements. This means a hazard for the people living there, for the building constructions and also for the environment. A deeper knowledge of the burning process and examining the negative effects of fire load on building constructions with scientific methods are actual questions nowadays. In order to get to know the phenomena more accurately, fire spread in a bedroom was modeled and numerical simulation was carried out, which is presented in this paper in detail. These experiences may help increasing the fire safety and preventing fires in apartments. The simulations were carried out considering the characteristics of the Hungarian architecture.

1 Introduction

The topic of this paper is apartment fire which is widely examined by researchers from different aspects. Fire safety quality of the built-in materials, fire spread, and the consequences of the heat for the constructions is examined most frequently [1–3]. Other studies are dealing with the possibilities of reducing the heat load or with the problems of firefighting [4–8]. According to the experiences so far, heat radiation of flue-gases accumulated under the floor slabs conduces to fire spread in closed spaces like rooms beside the direct fire itself. However the high temperature caused by fire is a danger to the building constructions and to people stuck inside. Hence analyzing the damaging effects of the spreading fire, the oxygen level and the produced heat, is an important task.

As enclosure fires originated often in residential buildings, a furnished room in an average apartment is modeled in this paper, considering the characteristics of the Hungarian architecture. The fire spread in the room is analyzed. The initial model is based on preliminary calculations considering the quantity of combustible materials in the room [9]. The model used for simulation, is composed by applying the calculations in order to examine the effects more precisely.

2 Origin of residential fires

The combustion conditions in general are right amount of fuel and oxygen and enough heat (Fig. 1). After ignition the amount of heat is increasing due to the burning of the combustibles. In addition to the amount of heat generated in the room the smoke contains many additional combustion products due to imperfect combustion. In this case, if one of the doors or windows is opened and air flows into the room, the combustible materials will suddenly ignite, as the combustion conditions are met again.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fire triangle (by authors, based on the [10])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

Once the conditions for combustion have been met, a sudden, intense, rapid spread of fire occurs, which results in the formation of a so called backdraft, which is extremely dangerous for building structures and people in the vicinity.

In surveys it is shown that the most common sources of residential fires are cooking, incendiary, open flame, smoking, electrical distribution system or other electrical equipment or the heating system [9, 11]. Most of the statistics report cooking as the leading ignition source around the world. Kitchen fires contributed about 20–26% to the total number of fires, followed by living areas and sleeping areas with 10–15% each. However the highest numbers of injuries (about 40%) and deaths (about 60%) were reported in fires originated in living and sleeping areas [11]. These cases cannot be extinguished because of the personal element. According to the statistics of Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH) deaths caused by fire or its side effects (for example smoke) cannot be retained under 5% of deathly residential accidents [9]. For this reason, an average bedroom is examined as a small compartment in this paper, which properties are presented in the followings.

3 Fire load calculation of a small compartment

The examination is based on an average Hungarian apartment. This type of apartment is widely applied in condominiums in the last 50 years with its floor space and composition. Recently the two most frequent methods and applied materials for building condominiums are the followings. One is reinforced concrete skeleton combined with clay block bricks and the other is precast concrete walls and floor slabs. The test room is modeled according to the first method. Therefore the external wall, and the boundary common wall is made of 30 cm thick clay block bricks, while the partition wall is made of 10 cm thick clay block bricks. However it is not included in the present research, it is worth notifying that using drywall filled with mineral wool insulation as partition walls is becoming more and more popular. Following the constructing trends, the floor slabs of the test room are reinforced concrete. Ordinary floor layers are modeled in the test room. Above the insulation, the concrete floor is floated by edge insulation strips and finished with floor covering. The window is standard sized, tripled glazed and made of plastic. The height in the room is 2.65 m.

The interior design also follows the average scheme that is placing furniture parallel by the walls and leaving the middle area empty. The flooring is modular synthetic carpet tile. The age of the examined building is 10 years. Floor plan and 3D model of the tested room can be seen below (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Floor plan and 3D model of the tested room (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

The furniture of the room contains a wardrobe, a drawer, an LCD TV, a desk with chair, a simple bed with mattress and two beanbags. The weight of furniture is estimated for the calculations. Materials and combustion parameters can be seen in the following Table 1. Carpet floor and clothes stored in wardrobe, are also included.

Table 1.

Combustial parameters of fixtures and burnable built-in materials found in the tested room (edited by authors according to data in [12])

Type of materialQuantity [kg]Ignition temperature [°C]Combustion heat [MJ kg−1]Density [kg m−3]
Wood (pine)6026016.75600–900
Fibreboard (hardboard)10028018.84800–1,500
Paper1023015.9700–1,200
Textile (synthetic carpet)5043020.93300
Textile (clothes)2034023.0260–130
Plastic (TV, fixtures)2046046.47900–920
Plastic (window)1546046.47900–920
Fibreboard (door)4028018.84800–1,500
The first step was defining the temporary fire load with the following formula. The aim of calculating the temporary fire load is to get information about the harmful effects of heat. As it was mentioned, the examined room is 10 years old theoretically. Thus the calculation is based on a standard that was in force then. This standard is the Hungarian National Standard of Fire protection published by 9/2008 Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, and regulation. The calculation is based on the parameters presented in the table above.
pn=j=1nMiHiS,
where p n is the temporary fire load; M i is the mass of the n-th combustible material [kg]; H i is the calorific value of the n-th combustible material [MJ kg−1]; S is the floor area of building or part of building [m2]; j is the number of materials included in temporary fire load.
Completing the calculation, the value of temporary fire load is:
pn=j=1nMiHiS=5,484.3012=457.03MJ/m2.
According to the rules of the standard that were in force 10 years ago, the normative fire load was determined in 400 MJ m−2. It is easy to admit that the fire load developed during the ignition of furniture exceeds the permitted value. The developed heat is enough to inflame the built-in combustible constructions (door, window). Therefore also the constant fire load has to be determined with the following formula.
ps=j=1kMiHiS,
where p s is the constant fire load.
Completing the calculation, the value of constant fire load is:
ps=j=1kMiHiS=1,450.6512=120.89MJ/m2.
Summarizing the temporary and constant fire loads, one can get the calculated fire load:
p=pn+ps,457.03+120.89=577.92MJ/m2.

As the permanent fire load exceeds the value permitted by the standards, it can cause irreversible damages in the constructions if firefighting does not start in time.

4 Simulation model

Using the calculated data above and preliminary calculations, an experimental numerical simulation using Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) was carried out [13]. FDS is a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) [14, 15] software to simulate fire and smoke spread. In the scientific literature there are several examples of using FDS to examine fire spread in different rooms. In [16] the fire spread in a room is examined with numerical simulation and experimental study. It was assumed that a bin full of paper was ignited. It was observed that the fire growth was faster in the simulation, otherwise the simulation could capture the temperature and spread of fire and smoke well. In [17] the fire spread in different rooms and a residential building is examined with numerical simulations and full-scale tests. It was observed, that the temperature was risen to 800–1,000 °C in case of the numerical simulation, which was less than in case of full-scale tests. The peak temperature was reached faster in case of the numerical simulation. In [18] the pressure risen in different size rooms is examined. It was observed, that increasing the room size increased the pressure rise and the pressure drop. In [19] different ventilation scenarios are investigated in order to study the effect of ventilation on fire dynamics in a small room. The fire consisted of a sofa and 2 wood cribs underneath it. It was investigated how the location of openings affect the fire characteristics. Examining the available literature on the topic it can be seen that most simulations were carried out in case of larger rooms or a simplified model was used with one piece of furniture to compare the numerical results with real life tests. Most simulation used assumed fire, the reconstruction of real fire cases is rarer. Therefore our aim was to simulate a real fire case, in which the television exploded in the living room. The other purpose of the simulation was to investigate the possibility of examining the spread of fire in enclosed rooms in simulation environment. The simulation setup and the presented results will be the basis of forthcoming researches. To simplify the simulation and to reduce the calculation time, furniture was modeled as blocks (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tested room in simulation environment (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

Density of the pieces of furniture was given by the weight ratio of their materials (see Table 2). The ignition properties (reference temperature, heat of reaction, heat of combustion) were based on Table 1 and FDS reference examples. The width of the materials was specified based on FDS simulation examples [13].

Table 2.

The weight ratio built in the pieces of furniture (upper row) and thickness of materials (lower row)

WoodFiberPaperTextile
Wardrobe0.300.500.20
0.010.010.01
Bed0.200.350.45
0.010.010.01
Drawer0.3750.625
0.010.01
Desk0.3750.625
0.010.01
Folder0.120.210.67
0.010.010.001
Chair0.3750.625
0.010.01

The material of the television was plastic with a thickness of 0.05 and the material of the carpet was synthetic carpet with a thickness of 0.05. The material of the wall was based on FDS simulation tutorials (conductivity = 0.6 W m−1 K−1; specific heat = 0.84 kJ kg−1 K−1; density = 1,440 kg m−3) [13].

The size of the mesh was 5 cm. It was the smallest mesh size that could be used with using a laptop. According to [17] this mesh size is sufficient in a compartment with this size. In the future simulations a more detailed mesh sensitivity analysis will be carried out using supercomputers.

The simulation time was 15 min according to the following:

  1. The alarm time of a professional fire brigade is 2 min;
  2. The travel time to the location of the fire is 10 min;
  3. Preparation for firefighting is 3 min.

A 10-min time limit for the arrival of firefighting units on site is an EU recommendation [20]. In Hungary, the area of intervention of firefighting units has been defined in a way that they can keep the recommended time [21].

First, a simulation was carried out with opened door and window and then one with a totally closed room. For measurement, temperature sensors were set in simulation environment. The sensors were located as follows: 4 in the corners of the window (A1-A4), one in the center of the room (S1) and one above the wardrobe (S2) next to the wall (see Fig. 4 and Table 3).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Locations of sensors in the tested room in 3D (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

Table 3.

Location of sensor from the origin (O)

PontXYZ
A100.92.05
A202.12.05
A302.10.55
A400.90.55
S121.50.55
S22.732.4

The sensors placed in the 4 corners of the window provide important information about the heating and fire spread of the immediate surroundings. This information will be especially useful to model fire spread in façade. Additional sensors were placed at a higher point on top of the wardrobe to examine changes in the upper air layer as well as to the center of the room to examine the effects of fire spread on persons who might be in the room.

In both simulations the TV located on the drawer was the ignition source. The fire spread 5 min after the ignition is shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spread of fire in simulated environment, 300 s after ignition with opened and closed door and window (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

5 Results

During the first simulation, the fire spread quickly to the furnishings in the room due to oxygen supply (Fig. 5). The temperature increase measured with the sensors is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spread of fire in simulated environment, 300 and 600 s after ignition with closed door and window (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

It can be observed that the highest temperature increase was measured with the sensor above the wardrobe (S2). The temperature is higher at the sensors, which are placed higher. This can be explained that the heat is released from the ignition and burning of the furniture and then propagated extended vertically downwards from the ceiling.

During the second simulation, the fire could not get oxygen supply due to the closed door (Fig. 5). The temperature increase measured with the sensors is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Temperature versus time diagram with closed door (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

Examining the results, it can be seen that the highest temperature could be measured with the sensors at the top of the window (A1, A2) and above the wardrobe (S2). The cause of it is that this can be explained with the heat generated during the fire is concentrated under the ceiling. Due to decrease in the amount of oxygen (O2) available in the room, the intensity of the combustion and then the spread of the fire were decreased. If the fire does not supply oxygen and cannot break out of the room, the oxygen concentration in the room's air starts to decrease when the rate of reduction reaches 14 vol%, the fire is extinguished.

The total Heat Release Rate (HRR) is shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Heat release rate in case of opened and closed door and window (edited by authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00422

It can be seen that the heat release rate is continuously increasing till 2,500 kW in case of opened door and window. In case of closed room it increases fast after the ignition, then it drops, then increases again till 500 kW and after the fire has been extinguished it decreases till 0 kW.

From the heat release rate the fire load can be estimated with a similar formula, presented in Section 3 [22]. It is 80 MJ m−2 in case of opened door and window and 5 MJ m−2 in case of closed room. It is less, than the value given in standard. This is caused by the assumption that the fire extinguish started in time (after 15 min) and that not all the furniture were burned down. Also the modeled pieces of furniture were assumed as solid blocks, which burn slowly. Further research will be necessary to investigate how detailed furniture models affect the simulation results. From Fig. 8 it can be seen that the HRR increased with time, therefore without firefighting the building would be damaged. In the future additional simulations are planned with more accurate furniture models as well to gain more accurate estimation about the fire load of buildings. New case studies are also planned, which include the braking of the window and the fire spread at facades.

6 Conclusion

Most fires originated in closed spaces of buildings are caused in residential buildings. Protecting the lives of people stuck in, reducing the fire loads of constructions, defending of furnishing and assisting the firefighting during fire requires continuous scientific researches. In this paper a furnished room in an average condominium is modeled and the effects and consequences of fire inflamed in the room is examined. Researches so far confirmed that computer simulations support understanding the process of ignition, the phenomenon of fire spread and how different factors affect each other. A fire originated in an average room is examined and simulated with a determined period. However it should be noted that in most of the apartments the quantity of stored combustible materials is much more, thus a fire could cause higher loads in constructions. The conditions can be modified easily in the simulation presented in this paper, in this way extreme cases could be examined also. Results can be used during designing building as well as during firefighting.

References

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    N. Ocran , Fire loads and design fires for mid-rise buildings, MSc Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, 2012.

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    T. Kompolthy and L. Szalai , Eds. Fire and Explosion Protection (in Hungarian), Budapest, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, 1990.

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    K. McGrattan , R. McDermott , S. Hostikka , J. Floyd , C. Weinschenk , and K. Overholt , “Fire Dynamic Simulator User’s Guide,” NIST Special Publication, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    M. Petrik , G. Szepesi , and K. Jármai , “CFD analysis and heat transfer characteristics of finned tube heat exchangers,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 165176, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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    T. Pusztai and Z. Simenfalvi , “CFD analysis on a direct spring-loaded safety valve to determine flow forces,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 109113, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    A. C. Y. Yuen , G. H. Yeoh , R. Alexander , and M. Cook , “Fire scene reconstruction of a furnished compartment room in a house fire,” Case Stud. Fire Saf., vol. 1, pp. 2935, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    C. S. Ahn and J. Y. Kim , “A study for a fire spread mechanism of residential buildings with numerical modeling,” WIT Trans. Built Environ. , vol. 117, pp. 185196, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Y. Z. Li , “CFD modeling of pressure rise in a room fire,” SP Rapport, no. 08, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, pp. 142, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    H. H. Saber and A. Kashef , “CFD simulations for fully-developed fires in a room under different ventilation conditions,” in 16th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Saskatoon, Canada, June 9, 2008, pp. 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    39/2011. (XI. 15.) BM, Regulation on the general rules for firefighting and technical rescue activities of the fire brigade (in Hungarian), Ministry of Interior, Hungarian Government, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    43/2011. (XI. 30.) BM, Regulation on the area of intervention of disaster management offices (in Hungarian), Ministry of Interior, Hungarian Government, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [22]

    L. Staffansson , “Selecting design fires,” Scientific report, no. 7032, Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [1]

    D. K. Banerjee , “Thermal response of a composite floor system to the standard fire exposure,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 111, 2020, Paper no. 102930.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    N. Roenner , H. Yuan , R. H. Krämer and G. Rein , “Computational study of how inert additives affect the flammability of a polymer,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 106, pp. 189196, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    J. Bleszity and M. Zelenák , Basics of Firefighting Tactics (in Hungarian). Budapest: BM Könyvkiadó, 1989.

  • [4]

    H. Ingason and R. Fallberg , “Positive pressure ventilation in single medium-sized premises,” Fire Technol., vol. 38, pp. 213230, 2002.

  • [5]

    Gy. Heizler , “Main principles of pressurized ventilation,” (in Hungarian), Védelem , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 56, 1996.

  • [6]

    S. Svensson , “A study of tactical patterns during firefighting operations,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 673695, 2002.

  • [7]

    G. Zólyomi , “Experiences of applying positive pressure ventilation during firefighting in closed spaces” (in Hungarian), Védelem ,vol. XIII, no. 3, pp. 29–31, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    R. Kuti , G. Zólyomi , G. Horvát and P. Molnár , “Hazards of dust-air mixtures explosions and the possibility of their prevention in food industry(in Russian), Пожары и чрезвычайные ситуации предотвращение ликвидация, vol. 1, pp. 7177, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    G. László , “Changes in fire loading of residential buildings in Hungary(in Hungarian), Műszaki Katonai Közlöny , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 155164, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    Back to basics with the fire triangle. [Online]. Available: https://www.elitefire.co.uk/help-advice/basics-fire-triangle/. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    N. Ocran , Fire loads and design fires for mid-rise buildings, MSc Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    T. Kompolthy and L. Szalai , Eds. Fire and Explosion Protection (in Hungarian), Budapest, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, 1990.

  • [13]

    K. McGrattan , R. McDermott , S. Hostikka , J. Floyd , C. Weinschenk , and K. Overholt , “Fire Dynamic Simulator User’s Guide,” NIST Special Publication, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    M. Petrik , G. Szepesi , and K. Jármai , “CFD analysis and heat transfer characteristics of finned tube heat exchangers,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 165176, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    T. Pusztai and Z. Simenfalvi , “CFD analysis on a direct spring-loaded safety valve to determine flow forces,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 109113, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    A. C. Y. Yuen , G. H. Yeoh , R. Alexander , and M. Cook , “Fire scene reconstruction of a furnished compartment room in a house fire,” Case Stud. Fire Saf., vol. 1, pp. 2935, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    C. S. Ahn and J. Y. Kim , “A study for a fire spread mechanism of residential buildings with numerical modeling,” WIT Trans. Built Environ. , vol. 117, pp. 185196, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    Y. Z. Li , “CFD modeling of pressure rise in a room fire,” SP Rapport, no. 08, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, pp. 142, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    H. H. Saber and A. Kashef , “CFD simulations for fully-developed fires in a room under different ventilation conditions,” in 16th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Saskatoon, Canada, June 9, 2008, pp. 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    39/2011. (XI. 15.) BM, Regulation on the general rules for firefighting and technical rescue activities of the fire brigade (in Hungarian), Ministry of Interior, Hungarian Government, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [21]

    43/2011. (XI. 30.) BM, Regulation on the area of intervention of disaster management offices (in Hungarian), Ministry of Interior, Hungarian Government, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [22]

    L. Staffansson , “Selecting design fires,” Scientific report, no. 7032, Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Amália

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Péter

 

Scientific Secretary

Miklós M. Iványi

Editorial Board

  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Ján Bujňák (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS

 

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 327 EUR / 411 USD 321
Print + online subscription: 393 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

 

Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2021 0 0 0
Sep 2021 0 0 0
Oct 2021 0 22 15
Nov 2021 0 101 47
Dec 2021 0 32 33
Jan 2022 0 46 27
Feb 2022 0 0 0