View More View Less
  • 1 Marcel Breuer Doctoral School, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, , Boszorkány u. 2, H-7624Pécs, , Hungary
  • | 2 Center of Innovative Architecture & Built Environment, Programme of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan, , Malaysia
  • | 3 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, , Boszorkány u. 2, H-7624Pécs, , Hungary
Open access

Abstract

Rapid development has affected the elements of urban spaces adversely, particularly streets. These changes produce faceless cities with high dependency on vehicles for transportation to key ‘consumers’ aside from buildings that are not designed for the local environment and local needs. In urban design, concerns on character affect the sense of place. Thus, this paper assesses the crucial element of streets with respect to design and character in the urban setting, the subsequent issues, and the recommended solution. This study focuses on the scenarios that threaten today's street design. This work will discuss the advantages of traditional streets, which could be a potential solution to the issues mentioned earlier. Finally, a street design based on the traditional street model is proposed to fulfill the criteria necessitated by the local community.

Abstract

Rapid development has affected the elements of urban spaces adversely, particularly streets. These changes produce faceless cities with high dependency on vehicles for transportation to key ‘consumers’ aside from buildings that are not designed for the local environment and local needs. In urban design, concerns on character affect the sense of place. Thus, this paper assesses the crucial element of streets with respect to design and character in the urban setting, the subsequent issues, and the recommended solution. This study focuses on the scenarios that threaten today's street design. This work will discuss the advantages of traditional streets, which could be a potential solution to the issues mentioned earlier. Finally, a street design based on the traditional street model is proposed to fulfill the criteria necessitated by the local community.

1 Introduction

A good city establishment requires the harmonious existence of a number of key elements, including people, neighborhoods, streets, parks, government, and economy. These elements can be likened to the organs of the human body. These organs are connected with each other. Streets, which are one of the crucial elements in the formation of city or town, establish settlements with respect to urbanization [1]. Streets are regarded as major public spaces in the context of urban fabric, as these structures comprise more than 80% of public space in cities [2, 3], and provide for the functional, social, and leisure needs of users [4].

Streets constitute a significant part of the public open spaces and are described as the bones of the city [5]. These structures are not merely a channel of movement; streets also connect different areas and buildings [6]. Streets also serve as a venue for social interaction via different types of human behavior, including talking, playing, observing, and lingering. Streets are a gathering space for families and friends and sometimes a living room or a dining room for city dwellers [7]. Streets symbolize the public realm where people spend a majority of their time [8, 9]. Similarly, street manifests local, cultural, religious, and social activities, and in turn, these activities dictate the street's liveliness, uniqueness, as well as its success as a public space. Streets shape the urban living environment and create a city's image [10–12].

Studies mentioned that the city and the society can be understand in which the street is located by examining a street [7]. These studies indicate that to study the formation of streets,

  1. (i)a researcher must understand the larger context of the street because of the intertwining of the city and streets;
  2. (ii)the type of user and local society that form the activities, culture, and beliefs, which show the special identity of street environments, must be studied.

First thing come to minds when thinking about any cities is the streets, if the streets are dull the city looks dull, but if the streets are attractive the city looks attractive [12].

However, a remarkable difference exists between streets and roads. Roads propose movement to a destination and offer a transportation system that accommodates the movements of motor traffic. Streets also include these features but usually appear cater to slow movement and are inclined to public spaces and buildings catering to pedestrian activities. Streets can be referred to as a public arena that caters to various activities and users. Thus, streets are described as the spine of life for the cities is the place where all people come together [13]. Streets are social settings, and their names and functions come from being accepted by communities. Streets have their own architectural identities, as well as economic function and social importance [13], In other hand the culture artistic appear in the streets, reflecting the spiritual pursuit of the locals, and its model is in a stage of continuous development and transformation [14].

Thus, streets have a crucial function and play a critical role in the context of urban areas. Street designers must ensure that a street will fulfill its primary function, that is, as a place or public realm that fulfills the needs of users and exhibits character at the same time. A number of data-gathering techniques could be employed in ascertaining a sound street design. Among these approaches is behavioral observation, as well as data from public perception. These approaches aim to scrutinize a street with respect to its appearance and function. Therefore, this paper elaborates on the significance of street design and character in urban settings. Furthermore, the problems that occur in current street design, which dictates the character of a street, will also be addressed. A solution will be proposed.

2 Street design and character

“Character” is a combination of qualities in a person or a place that makes them different from others. In the context of place, character refers to the elements that make places different from others and recognizable or unique [5, 15]. Character provides life to a place and gives it names, and makes it recognizable to the rest of the world [16, 17].

Character is a matter of history as a place is built by “time” and every town has its own story during that time, which generates its distinctive character. However, the character of a place would be felt for a long time [5]. The image of a town or place grows in the human mind and forms the unique sense of a place. The character of a place is associated with its history, regardless of how short the history is [18, 19]. Thus, understanding a place's character and how it was formed is essential before planning a street design or management to reinforce the sense of place and conserve its unique character.

Qualities of the historic character of a town or urban area as streets consisting of tangible and intangible elements [15]. Tangible elements are categorized in two forms

  1. (i)natural elements (topography, open spaces, and green structures); and
  2. (ii)man-made elements (streets, ports, and buildings (age, type architectural forms, and material) [19].

Intangible elements express cultural activities, religious traditions, and lifestyle in a city that contribute to the visual and sensory elements that identify the character of a place [15].

However, streets mainly define the character of urban areas; streets mirror a city's image [20]. These structures are a place of interaction between all these elements (tangible and intangible) because most people in urban areas live in streets and pass through them daily [21]. Each street has its own character depending on the particular role it plays in a town at different times [5]; shopping streets are lined with many shops and are full of users during different times.

The elements that create a street character (tangible and intangible) must be considered in street design, which consists of the relations of all components and physical environment elements that create a street. This step ensures that the unique character that generates the identity and local uniqueness of a street is preserved for future generations [19]. These elements shape the quality of a street, which in turn helps create a good town or city with character and consequently affect a city's identity. Thus, fostering a street character identity that showcases local assets is a key to a successful street that can

  1. (i)attract more users;
  2. (ii)provide people with a safe and welcoming place;
  3. (iii)create different local activities;
  4. (iv)attract all types of users; and
  5. (v)is accessible to all users.

Thus, approaches to urban development should differ, and its historical and local values should be considered [22]. A good street design benefits the community and the image of a city while preserving its sense of place and its identity. Therefore, street designers should emphasize these elements in designing and developing streets.

3 Situation façed by today's urban streets

The significance of streets as a public space that mirrors the city image is already discussed above and considered street function as a public open space, and one of the most crucial characteristics within cities' public realm [22]. People socialize on streets and in cities. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly essential [22]. In fact, these social environments are given more emphasis. Then, modern movements, as highways and high-rise buildings, destroy the traditional urban fabric and harm urban quality [23].

Modernization adversely affected the key role played by traditional streets as a public space that enhances city appearance. When urban design focuses on motor vehicles, lost local character must be identified [22, 24]. Nonetheless, the aforesaid scenario is common. In fact, it occurs at both a local and global scale and can be classified into physical aspects, including

  1. (i)landscape; and
  2. (ii)building, which directly affects the pattern of a street or city.

Across nations, the issues, as well as problems related to street design as a public space can be perceived from the physical aspect (building). For instance, a new urban project was launched in Beirut, Lebanon to reform the center of the city Solidare. This reformation aims to reorient the city center's local identity from being a small scale, low-rise, and indigenous area into an international city with a distinctive global business district appearance [24]. However, the ‘new’ Beirut project caused dissatisfaction and disillusionment among many of the residents because it destroyed the image of the center [25].

In Malaysia the a new architectural style was irresponsive to existing buildings [26]. In particular, the architectural style was monotonous and inappreciable to people walking by; poor contextual response creates a chaotic street frontage, and the dominance is of signage and billboards reflect a consumer society. In the physical aspect, sidewalks do not have continuity. Thus, sidewalk patterns are unclear [27].

Therefore, changes in street design have occurred on a global scale. These changes are manifested by the modifications and the physical appearance of streets, particularly with respect to their landscape, buildings, and street pattern. Thus, streets now cater more to motorist activities rather than those of pedestrians. The next section will discuss the issues and problems in the context of Jordan.

4 Implementation of street design in Jordan

Amman, the rapidly developing capital city in Jordan, also faces the same issues. Similar to the streets of Iran, Beirut, Malaysia, and globally, the streets of Amman are also progressively transforming into highways. In other words, the function of streets in Amman is slowly changing from a public and pedestrian space to a motorized vehicle-passing space. Amman streets are moving from localized architectural identities to globalized identities to fit within global development [22].

4.1 Situation in terms of physical appearance building

Globalization culture threatens the architectural scene of streets [28]. In Amman, the new architectural style appears to be irresponsive to existing buildings, particularly in terms of scale, material, and shape of the built environment of the city. According to studies the architecture in Amman is transforming; buildings are being made of new materials, as aluminum and glass rather than stone [29], as it is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

New building material used in Amman: stone vs glass (Source: author)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00433

Furthermore, the recent materials do not respond to climate, social and cultural needs, as well as to the traditions and economy. Instead, the city has begun to change its appearance and material to achieve a glossy and globally reflective look [28].

Nonetheless, the primary material used for buildings in Amman is stone. Amman is known as the ‘white capital’, which refers to its distinguished local stone dress because local masons have a widespread reputation in distinct stone manipulations [30]. The use of stone mirrors provides a harmonious and unique character of local architecture. Stone blends well with the natural geological and topographical features of the city and helps preserve the city's local character. However, Amman's special, small, and human-scale harmony that can be experienced in the entire urban fabric is changing because of development. This development, which is manifested in the new architectural vocabulary, the city's skyline and buildings on a large scale, has significantly influenced the relationship between the dwellers of Amman City and Amman's urban built environment [28, 31].

The transformations that occurred in the urban built environment of Amman are dramatic and affected people's way of interacting with their built environment. These transformations form new identities that influence the shape or appearance of a city (refer to Fig. 1) [32]. In relation to the transformations in Amman, the low-rise buildings are comfortable, encourage personal interaction, increase outdoor activities, and brighten up streets [30].

4.2 Situation under the physical appearance landscape

Walking in Amman city has become challenging, uncomfortable, and unsafe because some streets have a problem in the continuity of good and comfort sidewalks as it is shown in Fig. 2. Also, sidewalks in Amman are not properly maintained.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of unmaintained dangerous sidewalk in Amman (Source: author)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00433

The poor maintenance of streets and sidewalks can also be observed in other cities in Jordan, as Az zarqaa. Some places have street pavements of varying heights (blocks have different levels as a result of many factors, as rain), which affect the safety and comfort of pedestrians. In addition, many low-branched trees exist in their center, which causes difficulties for street users. Many traders showcase their goods in the middle of sidewalks located in front of their market. As a result, users could not use sidewalks comfortably and are forced to use vehicle paths, which are unsafe [29]. Heavy traffic usually occurs in streets, which makes crossing challenging and dangerous, particularly when reckless drivers use the street.

Tourism development projects for historic urban places, as al-Salt City, did not consider the specifics of the social, cultural, historical, and economic identities of places and were reduced to superficial beautification and surface treatments that prioritize a fleeting visual experience for tourists.

Changes were adopted in street furniture, building signage doors, and commercial front to adhere the new standards ones that never existed in al-Salt in the past, as it is illustrated in Fig. 3. The homogenized façades reduce the distinctiveness of the historic character of the urban landscape in Salt City [33].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Standardization of façades in al-Salt (Source: author)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00433

Thus, when streets change, the entire character of the urban pattern also changes. Rapid development, which occurs both locally and globally, have detached the town and street design from its pedestrians. New designs do not prioritize pedestrians' needs. When designers choose a style and design that does not cater to the local context, the appearance and function of streets as a public realm also change. These changes can be observed in newly designed buildings and landscapes that do not represent local needs and contexts.

5 Solution

Streets should fulfill their function as a public space. Thus, some scholars proposed the use of traditional streets as a model in designing new streets because these structures fully represent the people, nations, needs, and cultures within which it exists [32]. The traditional street model was successful on its function and appearance. Also, traditional environments grew gradually in accordance to peoples' needs. Traditions are the most important source of people knowledge and serve as the basis for our thoughts and actions [28].

The findings indicate that a strong attachment to traditional streets exists. Traditional streets affect the perception of users on the identity of places as streets highly crucial in sustaining economic activities. The authors also considered streets as a crucial element that could exude the identity of self and group identities, as well as the diversity of culture [34]. Studies finds that traditional streets stand out in a sense that they function as a public open space creates social interaction among the users, embodies a space of human scale, and has unique local architectural character.

Traditional streets are characterized by density and diversity of their activities, which reflect and represent genuine local social life. Thus, traditional streets attract users from all walks of life. Choosing traditional heritage street as the concept of heritage in its fundamental definition, stimulates a certain sense of belonging, recalling a shared memory that relates nations to their past and create a strong image for places [35]. Traditional streets are viewed as the best manifestations of social civilizations established through time. This study encourages capitalizing on the cultural pulling power of traditions and translating it into both social and economic outputs.

6 Conclusion

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the construction of streets to function as a public space, which could transform the meaning of a street from “a space that is dull, only for vehicles” to “a lively and active space for people.” A good street design produces streets with character. The traditional street model is a useful reference because it caters to the need of local communities. A designer must have ample knowledge on demographics and location, as well as the social and cultural values of a future street. These steps help create a successful design, and the new street will contribute towards a good urban design by increasing economic, social, and environmental values while preserving local identity. Thus, the function of streets, in addition to visual appearance, must also be considered. In summary, the current study attempts to characterize the physical elements of streets', namely building, landscape, and street pattern, which affect the character of a traditional street.

The approach of street design based on traditional streets as a model for future or existing development can contribute towards a design's uniqueness that enhances local communities. A unique street is created based on local identity and character distinctiveness. This model can contribute to a sustainable built environment by preserving cultural values and heritage and creating a great or successful street design. A successful street contributes towards a good urban design by expanding economic, social, and environmental values. As a result, new streets will be beneficial to investors, developers, residents, and the community in general, and local authorities.

Acknowledgment

The first Author would like to thank Prof. Tamas Janos Katona for his regular support and encouragement through writing this paper. His experience, knowledge, and guidance were essential to accomplish this study.

References

  • [1]

    N. Zaidin , M. R. M. Hussain , I. Tukiman , and M. F. Shahli , “Place attachment in relation to urban street vitality,” Int. Transaction J. Eng. Manag. Appl. Sci., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 219230, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    A. Ghahramanpouri , H. Lamit , and S. Sedaghatnia , “Behavioral observation of human stationary and sustained activities in pedestrian priority streets of Johor Bahru,” J. Constr. Dev. Ctries., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 105116, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    Nacto, “Urban street design guide,” National Association of City Transportation Officials 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-nacto-urban-street-design-guide.pdf. Accessed: May 18, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    N. A. Rahman , S. Shamsuddin , and T. Heath , “Peoples’choices and behavior in urban streets?” in 1st International Conference on Innovation and Technology for Sustainable Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perak, Apr. 16–17, 2012, pp. 873881.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    S. Shamsuddin , A. B. Sulaiman , and R. C. Amat , “Urban landscape factors that influenced the character of George Town, Penang Unesco World Heritage Site,” Proced. Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 238253, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    M. S. Ferwati , “Head-turning situations: A street walk in the City of Old Damascus,” Int. J. Archit. Res., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1936, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    R. Oranratmanee and V. Sachakul , “Streets as public spaces in Southeast Asia: Case studies of Thai pedestrian streets,” J. Urban Des., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 211229, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    N. Ja’afar and I. Usman , “Physical and transportation elements of traditional street in Malaysia,” Eur. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 669676, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    V. Mehta and J. K. Bosson , “Third places and the social life of streets,” Environ. Behav., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 779805, 2010.

  • [10]

    M. Carmona , T. Heath , T. Oc , S. Tiesdell , and M. Carmona , Public Places – Urban Spaces. Routledge, 2012.

  • [11]

    V. Mehta , “Evaluating public space,” J. Urban Des., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 5388, 2014.

  • [12]

    J. Jacobs , The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The Failure of Modern Town Planning. London: Penguin Books, 1961.

  • [13]

    S. Shahideh , “Analyzing the quality of pedestrian street in the case of Istiklal Street in Walled City of Famagusta,” MSc Thesis, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimağusa, North Cyprus, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    H. He and J. Gyergyak , “Enlightenment from street art activities in urban public space,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 169175, 2021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    M. Sepe and M. Pitt , “The characters of place in urban design,” Urban Des. Int., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 215227, 2014.

  • [16]

    K. Kropf , “Urban tissue and the character of towns,” Urban Des. Int., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 247263, 1996.

  • [17]

    N. H. Ja’afar , A. B. Sulaiman , and S. Shamsuddin , “The contribution of landscape Features on traditional streets in Malaysia,” Proced. Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 643656, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    B. Miskell , “Wellington City urban character assessment,” Wellington City Council, 2008.

  • [19]

    S. Shamsuddin , A. B. Sulaiman , and N. H. Ja’afar , “The traditional shopping streets and its attractions to the users,” Urban Des. Issues Dev. World Case Malaysia Niger. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    A. B. Sulaiman and S. Shamsuddin , “The vanishing streets in the Malaysian urbanscape,” in Public Places in Asia Pacific Cities, P. Miao , Ed., Springer, 2001, pp. 137149.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [21]

    S. Abu-Khafajah , R. Al Rabady , and S. Rababeh , “Urban heritage ‘space’ under neoliberal development: a tale of a Jordanian plaza,” Int. J. Herit. Stud., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 441459, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [22]

    M. F. Tawil , C. Reicher , M. Jafari , and K. Baeumer , “Assessment of public space efficiency in relation to spatial development in Amman: Exploring indicators to sustainable models of future city life,” J. Sustain. Dev., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 104117, 2016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [23]

    Z. T. Ultav , T. Çağlar , and S. Drinkwater , “Architectural literary analysis: reading ‘The death of the street’ through Ballard's literature and Trancik's ‘lost space’,” Metu J. Fac. Archit., vol. 32, pp. 133150, 2015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [24]

    M. Aljafari , “Emerging public spaces in the city of Amman, Jordan: An analysis of everyday life practices supervised by,” Doctoral Thesis, Dortmund University, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [25]

    P. O. Brien , “Beirut: A changing urban environment,” Geography, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 114119, 2015.

  • [26]

    N. H. Ja’afar , A. B. Sulaiman , and S. Shamsuddin , “Traditional street activities in Kuala Lumpur City Centre,” Int. J. Multidiscip. Thoughts, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 93105, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [27]

    S. Shamsuddin , N. R. Abu Hassan , and S. F. Ilani Bilyamin , “Walkable in order to be liveable,” J. Asian Behav. Stud., vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 165172, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [28]

    O. M. Jarar , “Cultural influences in Jordanian architectural practices: Post 1990,” Doctoral Thesis, University of Calgary, 2013.

  • [29]

    R. El-Khoury and E. Robbins , Eds. Shaping the City: Studies in History, Theory and Urban Design. Routledge, 2015.

  • [30]

    M. M. Tariq , “Livable street café creating a pedestrian network in town of modern Manibota,” MSc Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [31]

    T. M. Abu-Ghazzeh , “The dialectic dimensions of homes as an expression of identity and communality in Amman, Jordan,” Hous. Stud., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 247263, 1997.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [32]

    M. A. N. Musa , “Constructing global Amman: Petrodollars, identity, and the built environment in the early Twenty-First Century,” PhD Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [33]

    L. Khirfan , “Ornamented facades and panoramic views: The impact of tourism development on al-Salt’ s historic urban landscape,” Int. J. Islamic Archit., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 307324, 2013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [34]

    S. Shamsuddin and N. Ujang , “Making places: The role of attachment in creating the sense of place for traditional streets in Malaysia,” Habitat Int., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 399409, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [35]

    H. Barbara and T. Molnár , “Towards understanding the colonial heritage in Algeria: The case of the Sheridan villa,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 223234, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [1]

    N. Zaidin , M. R. M. Hussain , I. Tukiman , and M. F. Shahli , “Place attachment in relation to urban street vitality,” Int. Transaction J. Eng. Manag. Appl. Sci., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 219230, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    A. Ghahramanpouri , H. Lamit , and S. Sedaghatnia , “Behavioral observation of human stationary and sustained activities in pedestrian priority streets of Johor Bahru,” J. Constr. Dev. Ctries., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 105116, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    Nacto, “Urban street design guide,” National Association of City Transportation Officials 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-nacto-urban-street-design-guide.pdf. Accessed: May 18, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    N. A. Rahman , S. Shamsuddin , and T. Heath , “Peoples’choices and behavior in urban streets?” in 1st International Conference on Innovation and Technology for Sustainable Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perak, Apr. 16–17, 2012, pp. 873881.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    S. Shamsuddin , A. B. Sulaiman , and R. C. Amat , “Urban landscape factors that influenced the character of George Town, Penang Unesco World Heritage Site,” Proced. Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 238253, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    M. S. Ferwati , “Head-turning situations: A street walk in the City of Old Damascus,” Int. J. Archit. Res., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1936, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    R. Oranratmanee and V. Sachakul , “Streets as public spaces in Southeast Asia: Case studies of Thai pedestrian streets,” J. Urban Des., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 211229, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    N. Ja’afar and I. Usman , “Physical and transportation elements of traditional street in Malaysia,” Eur. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 669676, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    V. Mehta and J. K. Bosson , “Third places and the social life of streets,” Environ. Behav., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 779805, 2010.

  • [10]

    M. Carmona , T. Heath , T. Oc , S. Tiesdell , and M. Carmona , Public Places – Urban Spaces. Routledge, 2012.

  • [11]

    V. Mehta , “Evaluating public space,” J. Urban Des., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 5388, 2014.

  • [12]

    J. Jacobs , The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The Failure of Modern Town Planning. London: Penguin Books, 1961.

  • [13]

    S. Shahideh , “Analyzing the quality of pedestrian street in the case of Istiklal Street in Walled City of Famagusta,” MSc Thesis, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimağusa, North Cyprus, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    H. He and J. Gyergyak , “Enlightenment from street art activities in urban public space,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 169175, 2021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    M. Sepe and M. Pitt , “The characters of place in urban design,” Urban Des. Int., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 215227, 2014.

  • [16]

    K. Kropf , “Urban tissue and the character of towns,” Urban Des. Int., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 247263, 1996.

  • [17]

    N. H. Ja’afar , A. B. Sulaiman , and S. Shamsuddin , “The contribution of landscape Features on traditional streets in Malaysia,” Proced. Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 643656, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    B. Miskell , “Wellington City urban character assessment,” Wellington City Council, 2008.

  • [19]

    S. Shamsuddin , A. B. Sulaiman , and N. H. Ja’afar , “The traditional shopping streets and its attractions to the users,” Urban Des. Issues Dev. World Case Malaysia Niger. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    A. B. Sulaiman and S. Shamsuddin , “The vanishing streets in the Malaysian urbanscape,” in Public Places in Asia Pacific Cities, P. Miao , Ed., Springer, 2001, pp. 137149.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [21]

    S. Abu-Khafajah , R. Al Rabady , and S. Rababeh , “Urban heritage ‘space’ under neoliberal development: a tale of a Jordanian plaza,” Int. J. Herit. Stud., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 441459, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [22]

    M. F. Tawil , C. Reicher , M. Jafari , and K. Baeumer , “Assessment of public space efficiency in relation to spatial development in Amman: Exploring indicators to sustainable models of future city life,” J. Sustain. Dev., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 104117, 2016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [23]

    Z. T. Ultav , T. Çağlar , and S. Drinkwater , “Architectural literary analysis: reading ‘The death of the street’ through Ballard's literature and Trancik's ‘lost space’,” Metu J. Fac. Archit., vol. 32, pp. 133150, 2015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [24]

    M. Aljafari , “Emerging public spaces in the city of Amman, Jordan: An analysis of everyday life practices supervised by,” Doctoral Thesis, Dortmund University, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [25]

    P. O. Brien , “Beirut: A changing urban environment,” Geography, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 114119, 2015.

  • [26]

    N. H. Ja’afar , A. B. Sulaiman , and S. Shamsuddin , “Traditional street activities in Kuala Lumpur City Centre,” Int. J. Multidiscip. Thoughts, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 93105, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [27]

    S. Shamsuddin , N. R. Abu Hassan , and S. F. Ilani Bilyamin , “Walkable in order to be liveable,” J. Asian Behav. Stud., vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 165172, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [28]

    O. M. Jarar , “Cultural influences in Jordanian architectural practices: Post 1990,” Doctoral Thesis, University of Calgary, 2013.

  • [29]

    R. El-Khoury and E. Robbins , Eds. Shaping the City: Studies in History, Theory and Urban Design. Routledge, 2015.

  • [30]

    M. M. Tariq , “Livable street café creating a pedestrian network in town of modern Manibota,” MSc Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [31]

    T. M. Abu-Ghazzeh , “The dialectic dimensions of homes as an expression of identity and communality in Amman, Jordan,” Hous. Stud., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 247263, 1997.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [32]

    M. A. N. Musa , “Constructing global Amman: Petrodollars, identity, and the built environment in the early Twenty-First Century,” PhD Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [33]

    L. Khirfan , “Ornamented facades and panoramic views: The impact of tourism development on al-Salt’ s historic urban landscape,” Int. J. Islamic Archit., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 307324, 2013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [34]

    S. Shamsuddin and N. Ujang , “Making places: The role of attachment in creating the sense of place for traditional streets in Malaysia,” Habitat Int., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 399409, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [35]

    H. Barbara and T. Molnár , “Towards understanding the colonial heritage in Algeria: The case of the Sheridan villa,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 223234, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Submit Your Manuscript
 
The author instructions template is available in MS Word.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Amália

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Péter

 

Scientific Secretary

Miklós M. Iványi

Editorial Board

  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Ján Bujňák (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS

 

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 327 EUR / 411 USD 321
Print + online subscription: 393 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

 

Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2021 0 0 0
Sep 2021 0 0 0
Oct 2021 0 0 0
Nov 2021 0 90 33
Dec 2021 0 15 16
Jan 2022 0 34 24
Feb 2022 0 0 0