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  • 1 Marcel Breuer Doctoral School, Department of Engineering Studies, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, University of Pécs, , Boszorkány u. 2, H-7624, Pécs, , Hungary
  • | 2 Department of Engineering Studies, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, University of Pécs, , Boszorkány u. 2, H-7624, Pécs, , Hungary
  • | 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, University of Pécs, , Boszorkány u. 2, H-7624, Pécs, , Hungary
Open access

Abstract

Building information modeling is a complex and structure-based methodology. It applies predefined steps and frameworks; however, an audit procedure can be complicated and time-consuming. The steps of the evaluations are based on logical connections that also form algorithms in a manual workflow. Algorithms can be interpreted by computers with the help of software languages. A higher level of automation, more efficient workflows, and more economical and accurate results can be developed by using algorithms.

Abstract

Building information modeling is a complex and structure-based methodology. It applies predefined steps and frameworks; however, an audit procedure can be complicated and time-consuming. The steps of the evaluations are based on logical connections that also form algorithms in a manual workflow. Algorithms can be interpreted by computers with the help of software languages. A higher level of automation, more efficient workflows, and more economical and accurate results can be developed by using algorithms.

1 Introduction

The first phase of the development of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is usually called “Classic BIM”, which means a methodology of creating models after completing construction design. This method has been induced by using 3D models for audit purposes to highlight mistakes of plans before starting construction [1].

As a result of technology development, an increasing number of BIM uses have been revealed that require the creation of more accurate information models and a higher level of precision [2]. For instance, these are facility management and documentation-based BIM methods [3]. Fulfilling requirements, the audit process has been more profound, and stricter criteria have been applied. Some rules have been developed based on predefined steps (forming simple algorithms) to comply with the final goals of audit processes that have been the creation of perfect models. In the past, these have been mainly manual audit workflows involving some clash detection software. However, these methods can be further developed and automated [4]. This research also supports its feasibility and usage possibilities through test situations according to real project experiences.

2 Algorithm-based audit workflows

The definition of BIM is more than modeling it also includes the meaning of management processes that are connected to this technology. Due to this technology development audit processes have also been improved to a higher level. BIM contractual documents [5] have appeared that regulates processes specified to projects according to BIM standards [6]. Missing these requirements may also lead to the refusal of contractual compliance. It results in higher responsibilities on the quality control processes. The Auditors, as in addition to the previous audit workflows (e.g., examination of element types, dimensions, duplicates, collisions) it is also necessary to check the compliance with the information content was defined in design programs and other BIM documents.

The software may help during audit processes but it should be noted, that these are not ready solutions. The software platforms can provide a framework for examining various parameters and parameter values, also allowing the incorporation of algorithm-based workflows.

2.1 Examination of BIM model, element content, content plan and budgeting

The emergence of simultaneous design and construction workflows (Design & Build method [7]) allowed constructors, investors, and customers to define new requirements. Due to the modeling and designing processes are parallel, models can be used for the calculation of quantities or budget for the moment in time. Its bases are the placed model elements and their attributes, which means the inaccuracy of the calculations is disparate in different project phases. Generally, in the case of a conceptual design, only a few elements are placed in the model therefore, the calculation is rather estimation while in the construction phase thousands or millions of elements are placed which may result in a more accurate Quantity Take-Off (QTO).

Because of the numerous elements, the classification of elements must have a precise structure and needs to be updated. It can be documented in a form of Content Plan (CP) however the enormous number of elements makes budgeting and audit more complicated. In the case of model-based budget creation, it is suggested to develop an element-based item list aligned to CP. Thereby the accuracy and content may be followed and controlled by time-consuming manual methods or by more efficient automated algorithms. The element-based item list needs to be considered. Currently, in Hungary, there is no uniformly developed and accepted budget system of norms that may provide a framework for BIM content. It is not common to use but it can support the work of budgeting professionals.

2.1.1 Developing the connection between model, CP, and budgeting documents

The first step is to create a connection between spreadsheet documents and the classification of budget items (Table 1). Inconsistent BIM workflows result in more complex algorithms. In a consistent situation matching of items can be made by using classification or some element-specific parameter. During this research, Autodesk Revit and Dynamo add-on was used for creating algorithms.

Table 1.

Assignment of model-based CP and budget items

2.1.2 Developing of algorithms

The first components of the script have been used to define the parameter values for comparison purposes (Fig. 1). It is necessary to compare the values of the model and CP and besides converting the identifiers of model elements to be able to compare with budget items. After the parameter assignment process, a test was done, which resulted in differences between the budget list, BIM model, and CP. Results have been presented in a spreadsheet format in a specific column of the budget list and in a new empty table.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Operating principles of the developed algorithm

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00485

2.1.3 Results of the examination

The result of the test is an algorithm that can be used for auditing documents and BIM models with the same data structure (Table 2). It is applicable for future project audit processes but the specification of the algorithm is always necessary.

Table 2.

The result of the test

BIM content plan
NameItem numberModel based quantityResults
Uniformat II. codeModel element name
A4020.20Elevator plate, monolithic reinforced concrete1.0.11.44.11.2214.05CP
B1010.20Slab contraction joints, monolithic reinforced concrete1.0.11.44.11.00756.27CP
B1010.20Slab contraction joints, monolithic reinforced concrete1.0.11.44.00.882801.01CP
B1010.20Slab contraction joints, monolithic reinforced concrete1.0.11.44.11.661143.77C
B1010.20Slab contraction joints, monolithic reinforced concrete1.0.11.44.00.887420.38CP
B3040.10Balcony - green roof1.0.44.00.11.003261.93CP+C
B3040.10Terraces1.0.44.00.88.00889.83CP+C

C is the item in cost table only; CP+C can be found in both the BIM content plan and the cost table; CP is the item found in BIM content plan only.

2.2 Parameter audit according to the architectural design program

BIM includes management processes that require a higher level of audit processes. Examination of model elements according to contractual documents is mandatory. One of the most important parts of an audit is to check the architectural design program because in most cases the assets or parts of the assets are sold before the planning or construction phase and it is essential to ensure the client what they have paid for. According to this statement, the permit and construction design documentation have to be aligned with the design program. In the case of BIM projects, the creation of plans should be connected to model elements.

Design programs (Table 3) are also written or spreadsheet documents in which data must be examined with the content of the BIM model. It can be managed with manual methods or using algorithms that may be an automate solution.

Table 3.

A general example of room's requirements in the design program

Requirements of height
  • free ceiling height of underground garage levels: min. 2.10 m;

  • ground floor garage level free ceiling height: min 2.4 m;

  • free ceiling height of the lobby shops: 4.25 m;

  • general level ceiling height in the elevator lobby: min. 2.65 m;

  • general level ceiling height in the corridor: min. 2.50 m;

  • free ceiling height of floor levels: 2.95 m;

Minimal requirements of apartment design
  • minimum size of rooms: 12 m2;

  • minimum size of living room: 17 m2;

General requirements of apartment design
  • in the case of living room +2 rooms, additional bathroom with shower is required per apartment (double comfort);

  • in the case of living room +1 room, a separate toilet from the bathroom is required;

  • pantry room required for larger apartments (>55 m2);

  • in the case of large flats (>62 m2) there must be a utility room;

  • as many rooms as possible have windows.

2.2.1 The connection between document content and model elements

It was essential to have rooms or spaces placed in the model with their data content, to be able to compare it with the architectural design program. Furthermore, it was fundamental to list the used values from the document and define the calculation method for the audit. Model and algorithm management were made by Autodesk Revit and Dynamo add-in. The source format of the template was not authoritative because the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format may also be applied.

The base of this audit process was the accurate BIM model that has been created according to BIM methods and rules because the algorithm has used the information content of the model elements. It was obliged to check the model accuracy and if necessary then correct it.

2.2.2 Creation of algorithm

After opening IFC files the first step of the algorithm creation (Fig. 2) was to examine the element types and finding the room elements. The next step was to manage the 2D metadata according to the design program. After that, the identification, scheduling, and comparison of the reference value-based parameters with the design program had to be done. The result of the process was to find the matches or differences and record them in a previously formed spreadsheet with specified comments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flowchart showing the principle of operation of an algorithm

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2021.00485

2.2.3 Results of the process

The final result of the study was an algorithm that contained about 100 Node and 175 logical connections, which can be used to evaluate the reference values with model information. Its principles can be applied directly in a project with the same data structure. It is applicable for future audit projects but the specification of the algorithm is necessary. Table 4 shows the commented final results.

Table 4.

The result of the test (“Comments” column)

Room category (Archicad Properties)Room name (AC_Pset_room_ stamp _3_20)Room number (AC_Pset_ room_stamp _3_20)Room area (Archicad Quantities)Room height (Archicad Quantities)Comments
Common Service AreasStaff000-00-066.783,000
CommerceCommerce000-0343.463,000The height does not meet the design specifications.
Corridor AreasCorridor000-00-033.433,000
Corridor AreasSmoke-free lobby000-00-0217.33,000
Corridor AreasLobby000-00-0541.53,000The height does not meet the design specifications.
CommerceCommerce000-0238.13,000The height does not meet the design specifications.
FitnessFitness/5000-058.83,000
FitnessAir mechanical room000-1141.24,070
CommerceCommerce000-0173.533,000The height does not meet the design specifications.
Apartment areaLiving room001-01-0421.882,900
Apartment areaRoom001-01-0711.712,900The area does not meet the design specifications.
Apartment AreaRoom001-01-0810.392,900The area does not meet the design specifications.

3 Conclusion

The spread and development of BIM technologies have been obliged to use and integrate algorithms in future projects. This implied the fact that the time spent on creating algorithms is much less than the time that can be saved during its use. Therefore, the use of algorithms is efficient and economically favorable. A disadvantage is that the development of algorithms needs special knowledge and in many cases, only experienced professionals can perform. However, the use of an algorithm is not complicated and it can support all project stakeholders in any project phase. Applying algorithms to any project size saves time and resources. However, its benefit may vary depending on the scale of each task and the number of activities performed.

References

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    M. B. Zagorácz , “Optimization and Implementation Possibilities of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Hungary(in Hungarian), PhD Thesis, University of Pecs, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    J. Etlinger , O. Rák , M. B. Zagorácz , and P. M. Máder , “Revit add-on modification with simple graphical parameters,” Pollack Period., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 7381, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    M. Zagorácz , D. Kócsó , and P. M. Máder , “The necessity of defining BIM contractual documents in Construction Industry,” in 13th Miklós Iványi International PhD & DLA Symposium, Abstract Book: Architectural, Engineering and Information Sciences, A. Fülöp and P. Iványi , Eds, Pécs, Hungary, Nov. 3–4, 2017, p. 142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    R. Sárközi , P. Iványi , and A. B. Széll , “Formex algebra adaptation into parametric design tools and rotational grids,” Pollack Period., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 152165, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    D. Kócsó , and M. Zagorácz , “Key aspects of integrating a BIM project into the contractual environment,” in 13th Miklós Iványi International PhD & DLA Symposium, Abstract Book: Architectural, Engineering and Information Sciences, A. Fülöp and P. Iványi , Eds, Pécs, Hungary, Nov. 3–4, 2017, p. 72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    BS EN ISO 19650-1:2018 , Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM). Information management using building information modelling Concepts and principles, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.iso.org/search.html?q=ISO%2019650&hPP=10&idx=all_en&p=0&hFR%5Bcategory%5D%5B0%5D=standard. Accessed: Aug. 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    Z. P. Lee , R. A. Rahman , and S. I. Doh , “Key drivers for adopting design build: A comparative study between project stakeholders,” Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 120, 2020, Paper no. 102945.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [1]

    M. B. Zagorácz , “Optimization and Implementation Possibilities of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Hungary(in Hungarian), PhD Thesis, University of Pecs, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    J. Etlinger , O. Rák , M. B. Zagorácz , and P. M. Máder , “Revit add-on modification with simple graphical parameters,” Pollack Period., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 7381, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    M. Zagorácz , D. Kócsó , and P. M. Máder , “The necessity of defining BIM contractual documents in Construction Industry,” in 13th Miklós Iványi International PhD & DLA Symposium, Abstract Book: Architectural, Engineering and Information Sciences, A. Fülöp and P. Iványi , Eds, Pécs, Hungary, Nov. 3–4, 2017, p. 142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    R. Sárközi , P. Iványi , and A. B. Széll , “Formex algebra adaptation into parametric design tools and rotational grids,” Pollack Period., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 152165, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    D. Kócsó , and M. Zagorácz , “Key aspects of integrating a BIM project into the contractual environment,” in 13th Miklós Iványi International PhD & DLA Symposium, Abstract Book: Architectural, Engineering and Information Sciences, A. Fülöp and P. Iványi , Eds, Pécs, Hungary, Nov. 3–4, 2017, p. 72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    BS EN ISO 19650-1:2018 , Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM). Information management using building information modelling Concepts and principles, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.iso.org/search.html?q=ISO%2019650&hPP=10&idx=all_en&p=0&hFR%5Bcategory%5D%5B0%5D=standard. Accessed: Aug. 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    Z. P. Lee , R. A. Rahman , and S. I. Doh , “Key drivers for adopting design build: A comparative study between project stakeholders,” Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 120, 2020, Paper no. 102945.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Amália

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Editorial Board

  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Ján Bujňák (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

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2020  
Scimago
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11
Scimago
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0,257
Scimago
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Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
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340/243=1,4
Scopus
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Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
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1,09
Scopus
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321
Scopus
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67
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2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
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0,262
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Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
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Software Q3
Scopus
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269/220=1,2
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Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
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290
Scopus
Documents
68
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67%

 

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Pollack Periodica
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