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Blendi LleshiMarcel Breuer Doctoral School, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

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Rineta JashariUniversity for Business and Technology, Prishtine, Kosovo Region

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Zsuzsanna FáczányiYbl Miklós Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Óbuda University, Budapest, Hungary

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Abstract

Public green spaces are very important in the urban structure, both on environmental and social level. Renovation may be necessary, but the process must involve complexity.

The objective of this research is to define the main criteria of a successful renovation process, using two case studies - the Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz in Kassel, Germany, and the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in the city of Peja, Kosovo, where the recent intervention had rather negative effects. The paper considered aspects as community activity, key functions, visual elements, accessibility, safety, well-being and maintenance.

The transformation of these spontaneously developed, liveable spaces into renewed but abandoned parks was explained by the lack of correlation between the analysis of function, public needs, and the dominance of aesthetics.

Abstract

Public green spaces are very important in the urban structure, both on environmental and social level. Renovation may be necessary, but the process must involve complexity.

The objective of this research is to define the main criteria of a successful renovation process, using two case studies - the Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz in Kassel, Germany, and the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in the city of Peja, Kosovo, where the recent intervention had rather negative effects. The paper considered aspects as community activity, key functions, visual elements, accessibility, safety, well-being and maintenance.

The transformation of these spontaneously developed, liveable spaces into renewed but abandoned parks was explained by the lack of correlation between the analysis of function, public needs, and the dominance of aesthetics.

1 Introduction

Open public spaces are present in various forms, as city parks, neighborhood parks, mini-parks, squares or plazas, pedestrian sidewalks, greenways, playgrounds, waterfronts or beaches. Many open spaces are used and developed spontaneously, thus making them functional and by the need and desires of the neighborhood. In the most situations, people can find spaces and locations that are developed spontaneously as a result of human needs [1].

Intervening in public spaces is sometimes needed, but should be taken into consideration many elements and factors during the design process, especially in spaces that are functional and well used. According to C. Ren and G. Medvegy [2] their article explains clearly how a location is more than just a physical space because it has a history, feeling, experience, and meaning for those who are connected with it [2].

Referring to the book of M. Ganis [3] about the redevelopment of inner city spaces, in which people have invested emotionally, psychologically or symbolic value can stir the passions of communities and also create expensive development crises [3].

There are a lot of interventions in public spaces which witness that they are mainly focused on visual appearance rather than functional elements and the finished projects are more a visual experience and not touched or felt by the users. Talking about the public space or its own character one of the keys is to provide people with a safe and welcoming place referring to S. J. Alamoush, N. H. Ja'afar, and A. Kertész [4].

According to the nonprofit organization Project for Public Spaces, [5], which is dedicated to create and sustain, public spaces are frequently connected with the term place making. When public space is empty, vandalized and misused this is generally a sign that something is mistaken either along its design, its management, or both [5].

Various examples show how open urban spaces developed and used spontaneously have been transformed into dysfunctional spaces as a result of ignoring various elements mentioned above, as well as additional weak design qualities, lack of access to the site, materialized surfaces, ignoring previous functions, lack of gathering points, and reduction of green spaces, explained by M. Francis [6] where most of the time's user conflicts come where their criteria and need are not met, lack of access, or over-design [6].

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Theoretical overview

To understand the potential negative effects of interventions in public spaces this paper is leaning on the overview of the relevant studies. In this relation certain research topics were defined as significant, which are the measurement of the quality of urban design, the livability assessment of public spaces and the analysis of public needs, on which the community use is based on.

2.2 Two case studies with different perspectives

Based on the overview this study introduces two public parks developed spontaneously but abandoned after a local urban intervention - the Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz in Kassel, Germany, and the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in Peja, Kosovo. The perspective in time as the source of data is different.

Analyzing the situation of Lucius Burckhardt Platz the study integrates previous research, especially an article from the suburban introducing the history and the impact of the intervention [7], also publications at that time, and a 2017 study edited by researchers of the University Kassel about the appropriation of open space [8]. Analysis of accessibility, green infrastructure and their quantity before and after the intervention, and the use of this space were carried out.

Understanding of the situation of the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in the city of Peja, is carried out as ethnographic research (since the 1990th), in which the possibility of observing and explaining an urban space as a resident from early childhood to the present day, later becoming an architect, was given. Analysis of accessibility, functionality, and relocation of previous elements, the addition of new functions, green infrastructure, and the use of this space was carried out.

2.3 Interpreting results in the light of the theory

Reconciling previous studies, achieved theories and the results of the case studies highlight the criteria of importance, which all design processes should consider. The comparison of analyzing methods and the evaluation based on own experience helps to emphasize basic aspects.

3 Theoretical overview of the context

3.1 Livability assessments of public spaces

The academic literature related to livability, and evaluation of public spaces according to the preferences and perceptions of the citizens is extensive. What can be considered an important milestone for urban studies is Jan Gehl's book [9] with its main goal to contribute to achieving the envisioned lively, safe, sustainable and healthy city. Obvious aspects are defined, which are contributing to develop own criteria for the analysis [9]. In the last decade, several studies dealt with the assessment of the qualities of urban spaces. An overview about the different methods used in L. M. Farahani and C. Maller's [10] study, giving a framework for understanding perceptions of and preferences for green spaces [10].

3.2 Measuring the quality of planning

An interesting research field is aiming the measuring of the quality of urban design, often related to walkability, also to quality of public spaces. The research of Clemente and Ewing [11] operationalized the urban design qualities in their book as imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency and complexity [11], in accordance with Gehl's aspects [9]. Although the study is focusing on walkability, the criteria are easily implemented in public spaces. The most obvious indicator for a well-designed public space can be pointed out as the increasing, or constant use, which can be connected to the local community or visitors also.

3.3 Appropriation of urban places – a study of University Kassel

Various forms of urban use have been witnessed throughout the last few decades, also in the context of the so-called community urbanism. Impressive examples of civil initiatives were collected at the United States pavilion at the 2012 Venice Architecture Biennale. The exhibition material is available as an archive of actions, the interest and impact of communities are impressive, because they were optimistic and open to use new tactics and new ways to create livable, sustainable and accessible cities [12].

Related to Lucius Burckhardt Platz - one of the case studies - researcher of the University Kassel edited a book [8] about the different ways of appropriation of urban places. They defined three different types of appropriation, through three different ways of interpretation of the Kassel process. One would be the appropriation moved by the daily needs connected to this place, as second the appropriation based on design and finally the appropriation as a protest. The types can be related to the case studies and bring interesting aspects for evaluation [8].

4 Case studies – analysis and results

4.1 Case study 1 – Lucius Burckhardt Platz in Kassel, Germany

The source of data for this case study was a detailed description of a group of authors from the initiative ‘Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz bleibt!’ the story about the struggle for legitimacy and sovereignty during the redesigning process of the campus of the University of Kassel [7].

4.1.1 History of the place

By 2011 the public space between the old and new campus of the University Kassel was developed spontaneously. It is located next to the canteen, university apartments, offices, and lecture rooms, as well as a cafeteria and parking lot. A bike repair station was established, designed, and built by students of architecture, urban planning and landscape architecture of the university. This open public space served numerous interests, with trees and green, well divided into easily understandable zones, mobile benches, and chairs, following the course of the day - a place to slow down (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

University café and the bike station around 2005 (Source: with the permission of Archive Initiative Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz bleibt, Kassel, [7])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

In 2008 among others the University Kassel gained the opportunity for significant campus development. A design competition was announced without involving the neighborhood; the results were short-presented and made clear, that the place is foreseeing significant changes. To strengthen the local connection, local activists organized civil interests - and the place was named after Lucius Burckhardt, a former professor of the University Kassel. Lucius Burckhardt (1925–2003) was a Swiss sociologist and economist. He was an important thinker of architectural theory and design theory, and the founder of strollogy or promenadology – the science of strolling as a method in the field of aesthetics and cultural studies to become aware of the conditions of perception of the environment and enhancement of environmental perception itself.

4.1.2 The intervention

Despite all interest and engagement of the neighborhood in 2016 the square was finally closed, ‘cleaned’ and for further development as open space defined (Fig. 2). The university management was not available for discussion and stated that all development plans would aim an open space representing the university and not the neighborhood; therefore they cannot involve citizens in the planning process. To avoid a tougher protest, they promised to plan and implement only slight changes in the use of the square.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Preparing for the renewal 2011 (Source: with the permission of Archive Initiative Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz bleibt! Kassel, [7])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

4.1.3 Evaluation

Following the case of Lucius Burckhardt Platz, can be noticed a complete transformation of a vivid ‘biophilic’ urban space into a contemporary square, in which the materialization, the stone as unique material prevails. It turned from a space full of life and activities to an almost empty one. The status of greenery, from a space filled with grass and unpaved ground, bushes, and tall trees where all of those created a livable atmosphere, which turned into a much less green one, an urban space without life, just to walk through, (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Former Lucius Burkhardt Platz, today Mönch K36 (Source: with the permission of Creative Commons Attribution and Share Alike [13])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

4.2 Case study 2 - ‘Parku i lodrave’ in Peja, Kosovo

‘Parku i lodrave’, which means ‘Playground park’, is located in the city of Peja, western center [14], (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Aerial view of Peja city (Source: Kosovo, Cadastral Agency [14])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

4.2.1 History of the place and before intervention

‘Parku i lodrave’ is an open public space and has existed for more than 50 years there. In the 1950th it functioned as a city stadium called ‘Pehlivon Mejdon’ in which mainly football matches were played. But later probably due to its closeness to the residential area and the city center it has been turned into a city park, which continues to be today.

The park is bordered or defined by a low stone wall and arched gates identifying the access to it. Before the recent intervention the park very actively was used (Fig. 5). Although the facilities were not well defined and even basic elements as benches, sports fields, and artificial lightening were missing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The daily use of the park (Source: with the permission of B. Lipa, 2012 [15])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

4.2.2 After intervention

In 2019 the redesign and the renewal of the park was almost finished, but the local community was not happy with the design process, for some reasons. The main elements of the intervention were the change of the materialization of the pedestrian path; new lighting; the replacement of the playground next to the main road, a private parking lot and the trash containers (Fig. 6), and the decorative water pond on the former place of the playground, connected with narrow canals from the river-canal along the south side (Fig. 7).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The playground after intervention (Source: B. Lleshi, 2021)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Water pond on the playground's previous space (Source: B. Lleshi, 2021)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

In the north the park is bounded by the main road that connects the city with several educational facilities, also the Regional Hospital, the Patriarchate of Peja, some Mosques, the Catholic Church, and the National Park ‘Bjeshket e Nemuna of Rugova’ – a very frequented connection by the city dwellers and tourists as well.

A part of the south side of the park has been given to private businesses, mainly the cafeterias for use as an additional space for their business. On the east side a new branch of the city kindergarten has been built and a part of the park is under use by the kindergarten as an outdoor playground. On the west side, a building was built, which is currently unused but it is said that it will be a community house for elderly people.

4.2.3 Evaluation

As explained there were significant changes implemented at the renewal in 2019, both in function and appearance, but it led more to a decrease in safety and functionality and the abandonment of this public space.

The replacement of the playground closer to the traffic, cars and trash containers was not an appropriate choice. The creation of the canals, which are at the intersection of the pedestrian path interferes with free movement and creates insecurity for some users, especially elderly people, young children and people with special needs (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Crossing of the water canal at the intersection with pedestrian path (Source: B. Lleshi, 2021)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

There are also maintenance problems, as the water canals are in the territory with quite large deciduous trees, where in autumn they are blocked by leaves stopping the circulation of water, resulting in a stench and a bad smell (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Pollution of the water canals (Source: with the permission of Vrojtuesit e Lagjes - Peje, 2021 [16])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

4.3 Study results

Interventions in open urban spaces mainly aim to improve the quality of life, providing spaces with appropriate designs that respond to the needs of residents and users. An important aspect is to have a public place suitable for all ages, to provide maximum access and usability also to people with special needs; to raise the level of security and sustainability of that space, and increase the use of the place to have a positive and long-lasting result.

This research has chosen two sites in different countries and analyzed both projects after the intervention based on the results of the theoretical overview, emphasizing the main aspects as a community activity, visual elements and change, accessibility, safety, and maintenance. Figure 10 presents the results summarized, divided into columns (representing before and after), and refers to the quality of the interventions in two cases through circles expressing the results experienced in the physical environment.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Analytic diagram based on the results (Source: B. Lleshi, 2021)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00559

Significant is the decrease in community use, as the places have been functional before the interventions. Their redesign was carried out without a good understanding of the neighborhood citizens' needs.

In both cases an increased implementation of visual elements can be witnessed, although these elements led to an increasing need for maintenance (e.g., the pond in Peja, or the questions of the surface rainwater management), causing difficulties inaccessibility of the park (e.g., water canals in Peja). Aspects of use were also rewritten by the design concept's visual elements, whereas the lack of shadow places for sitting or the moving of the playground near the garbage disposals and the traffic are disadvantages of the intervention, turning functional spaces into dysfunctional ones.

5 Conclusion

The paper investigated public green spaces undergoing renovation, using two case studies where the local intervention had rather negative effects. The considered aspects of the evaluation were community activity, key functions, visual elements, accessibility, safety, well-being and maintenance. The results showed that the lack of correlation between the analysis of function, public needs, and the dominance of aesthetics and visual appearance brought the use of the parks out of balance. Local communities sometimes are prepared and would like to get involved in the planning process as much as in the maintenance of public spaces.

When the planning actors ignore this willingness and interest for any reason, which could be the lack of time, or the very strong preconception of the client or the authorities, they can miss the right understanding of the needs of the citizens. This leads to a well-meant, appearance representative designed urban space, but sadly not fulfilling the expected results.

People with different perspectives can be found in the urban community where: the older generation can have a history connected with places, middle-aged adults may have various innovative ideas and needs, and children need safe and flexible recreational places or playfields. Collaboration with the local community or interested users would contribute to a project that might benefit both the user and the investor party.

Acknowledgements

This thank is to a group of people who are known as Initiative Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz bleibt! in Kassel, Germany, for their cooperation and for permitting us to use some of the photos, which describe very well the situation before and during the intervention, and also ‘Neighborhood Observers - Peja' a non-profit group, which is very active on social networks for the problems of the city, also some photos from their official website have been used, and Mr. Blerim Lipa for cooperation and permission to use an old video of the ‘Parku i Lodrave’ in Peja, because it was very difficult to find old photos or videos. Also a thank you goes for the possibility of online access to the Kosovo Cadastral Agency webpage, which is managed by the Ministry of Economy and Environment in the use of aerial images, and measurements of the park space.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    M. Ganis, Planning Urban Places, Self-Organising Places with People in Mind. New York: Routledge, 2015.

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    S. J. Alamoush, N. H. Ja’afar, and A. Kertész, “Street character and current practices influence,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 156161, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    M. Francis, Urban Open Space: Designing for User Needs. Island Press, 2003.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    T. E. Hauck, S. Hennecke, and S. Körner, Appropriation of Urban Open Spaces (in German). Verlag, 2017.

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    J. Gehl, Citites for People. Island Press, 2010.

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    L. M. Farahani and C. J. Maller, “Perceptions and preferences of urban greenspaces: A literature review and framework for policy and practice,” Landscape Online , vol. 61, pp 122, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    O. Clemente and R. Ewing, “Measuring urban design qualities: an illustrated field manual,” Active Living Research Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Spontaneous Interventions, Design Actions for the Common Good. [Online]. Available: http://www.spontaneousinterventions.org/. Accessed: Dec. 21, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
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  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
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  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
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  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
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  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS

 

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
12
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,26
Scimago Quartile Score Civil and Structural Engineering (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Computer Science Applications (Q4)
Modeling and Simulation (Q4)
Software (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 232/326 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 536/747 (Q3)
General Materials Science 329/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 228/303 (Q4)
Software 326/398 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,613

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 327 EUR / 411 USD 321
Print + online subscription: 393 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 336 EUR / 411 USD
Print + online subscription: 405 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

 

Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2022 0 0 0
Jul 2022 0 0 0
Aug 2022 0 0 0
Sep 2022 0 0 0
Oct 2022 0 0 0
Nov 2022 0 39 15
Dec 2022 0 4 3