Authors:
Jamal Eldin F. M. IbrahimInstitute of Ceramics and Polymer Engineering, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

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Mohammed TihtihInstitute of Ceramics and Polymer Engineering, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

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Emese KurovicsInstitute of Ceramics and Polymer Engineering, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

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Ethem İlhan ŞahinAdvanced Technology Research and Application Center, Adana Alparslan Türkeş Science and Technology University, Adana, Turkey

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László A. GömzeInstitute of Ceramics and Polymer Engineering, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

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István KocserhaInstitute of Ceramics and Polymer Engineering, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

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Abstract

This study evaluated the possibility of producing innovative glass-ceramic foams from zeolite-poor rock (Tokaj, Hungary) using alkali-activation and reactive sintering techniques. The composition and morphology of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, and computed tomography techniques. The influence of various sintering temperatures on glass-ceramic foams was examined. It has been observed that zeolite-poor rock has a self-foaming capability. The heat treatment temperature affects the pore size and distribution as well as the technical characteristics of the obtained samples. The resulting glass-ceramic foams possess moderate thermal conductivity ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 W mK−1 and good compressive strength (1.5–4.4 MPa). The produced samples might be utilized for thermal insulation, which would have both economic and environmental advantages.

Abstract

This study evaluated the possibility of producing innovative glass-ceramic foams from zeolite-poor rock (Tokaj, Hungary) using alkali-activation and reactive sintering techniques. The composition and morphology of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, and computed tomography techniques. The influence of various sintering temperatures on glass-ceramic foams was examined. It has been observed that zeolite-poor rock has a self-foaming capability. The heat treatment temperature affects the pore size and distribution as well as the technical characteristics of the obtained samples. The resulting glass-ceramic foams possess moderate thermal conductivity ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 W mK−1 and good compressive strength (1.5–4.4 MPa). The produced samples might be utilized for thermal insulation, which would have both economic and environmental advantages.

1 Introduction

Global energy consumption is predicted to jump in the upcoming decades due to the rapid growth in population and urbanization [1]. Presently, 80% of the energy consumption is supplied by fossil fuels which have harmful environmental implications like CO2 emission, global warming, and climate change [2, 3]. Buildings are indeed the highest energy consumer, accounting for around 40% of the overall global energy usage. Most of this energy is used for heating and cooling the building to obtain internal thermal comfort in the buildings [4]. The energy requirement for heating or cooling in the buildings could be lowered by employing the passive thermal insulation method using materials like glass-ceramic foams [5]. Glass-ceramic foams is a heterogeneous system comprising both solid and gas phases. The solid matrix is made of ceramic material, whereas the gas fills the interior pores [6]. They are typically manufactured by fusing tiny powdered ceramics or glass and foaming agents at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1,000 °C [7]. Upon the sintering and when the temperature exceeds the glass transition temperature, the mixture starts to soften, making a viscoelastic material associated with the emission of the gas resulting from the foaming agent. As the heat treatment temperature rises, the viscosity reduces, and the volume of gas grows under the influence of increased internal pressure leading to a high degree of foam-ability [8]. However, when the pressure reaches the critical value, the gas escapes from the pores leading to emerging of neighboring pores in the bulk of the ceramic foams. Therefore, adjusting the sintering parameters (heating rate, sintering temperature, residence time), particle size, and the foaming agent is of great importance to achieve the product with the required technical properties [9]. The glass-ceramic foams normally possess fascinating characteristics, including high durability, low thermal conductivity, lightweight, high corrosion resistivity, sound insulation, and flame resistance. All these properties make glass-ceramic foams a recommended choice over other thermal insulation materials like polymeric materials [10–12]. However, manufacturing glass-ceramic foams from primary glass is a highly expensive operation since multiple heating periods are necessary in this case: Firstly, sintering at 1,450–1,500 °C is required to produce primary glass. Secondly, the glass and foaming agent mixture is sintered at 800–900 °C to achieve the desired cellular structure [13, 14]. Therefore, the manufacturing of new eco-friendly glass-ceramic foams that are both highly effective and low-cost is gaining a lot of attention lately. Cost-effective glass-ceramic foams can be obtained by either recycling waste glass or using natural materials, for instance, fly ash, red mud, natural zeolite, and other waste [15–19].

Zeolite-poor rocks are volcanic rocks that comprise a low proportion of zeolite (less than 10%) and additional components like cristobalite, quartz, montmorillonite, and possibly feldspar [20]. However, the low zeolite content of these minerals limits their classical uses. Yet, zeolite-poor rocks are great construction materials that may be utilized to make bricks due to their good mechanical qualities [21–23]. Furthermore, it is a great alternative for making glass-ceramic foam as it is readily available, offers a high silica concentration, and is easy to mine. According to the literature, only a few research explored making glass-ceramic foam exclusively from zeolite rocks. The majority of these researchers, however, employed zeolite-rich rocks, which possess lower silica content [17, 24]. The availability of large zeolite-poor rock resources in Hungary (Tokaj) prompted this study to look into the possibility of using zeolite-poor rocks to make glass-ceramic foams. As far as we can tell, no previous work has been done on the production of glass-ceramic foams using Tokaj zeolite poor-rock. It is highly believed that the results of this paper will have a value-added to the literature.

The goal of this study is to evaluate the possibilities of making glass-ceramic foams entirely from zeolite-poor rock (Tokaj) through alkali-activation and reactive sintering techniques. The alkali-activated samples were sintered at a temperature range of 850–950 °C and examined for their mechanical, physical, and thermal properties. The ability to produce glass-ceramic foams at a lower cost while still meeting quality standards is especially compelling. This might lower manufacturing costs and boost competitiveness.

2 Materials and methodologies

2.1 Characterization methods

Zeolite-poor rock is mined from Tokaj Hill in northeastern Hungary, which is utilized as a basic material for the manufacturing of glass-ceramic foam. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical constitution. The X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, Rigaku, Miniflex II, Japan, 150 mA and 40 kV, CuKα radiation with wavelength 1.5418 Å, step size of 0.01°) was utilized to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phases composition of the basic raw material and the manufactured glass ceramic foams at 2θ = 5–90° and scan speed of 10° min−1. X'Pert HighScore Plus software was employed for the computer-aided phase evaluation. The thermal characteristics of alkali-activated zeolite-poor rock were studied using ThermoGravimetry/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA), (1750 SETARAM, Sestys evolution) from ambient temperature to 1,200 °C with a heating speed of 5 °C min−1 at oxygen environment. The foaming capability of the alkali-activated samples was examined using a heating microscope (Camar Elettronica). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EVO MA10, Carl Zeiss) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-Ray (EDAX Genesis) were used to investigate the microstructure and elemental content of the fracture surface of the prepared glass-ceramic foams. Moreover, the pore structure of the produced sample was determined using X-ray computed tomography (CT, YXLON FF35, Geminy). The densities of the produced sample were calculated using Archimedes approach. The thermal conductivity is evaluated using a thermal conductivity analyzer (C-Therm TCi), and the compressive strength is determined using a hydraulic testing machine (INSTRON 5566).

2.2 Preparation method of the glass-ceramic foams

Glass-ceramic foams were made entirely from zeolite-poor rock by means of the alkali activation and reactive sintering procedures. Zeolite-poor rock powder was mixed with 15 wt% NaOH dissolved in distilled water and oven-dried at 200 °C for 2 days. Next, the alkali-activated material was milled for 20 min at 150 rpm in a planetary ball mill. The milled powders were then compressed using uniaxial compacting equipment under 18 MPa pressure to produce cylindrical discs having a diameter of around 20 mm and a height of around 10 mm. The manufactured pellets were fired in a high-temperature controlled kiln for 10 min at temperatures ranging from 850 to 950 °C and 5 °C min−1 heating rate. The kiln was then switched off, and the sample inside the kiln was left to cool to room temperature.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Characterization findings of the raw materials

3.1.1 XRD and XRF investigations

The XRD pattern of zeolite-poor rock powder is shown in Fig. 1. Different minerals like cristobalite, quartz, montmorillonite, calcite, and clinoptilolite are found in zeolite-poor rock powder (Tokaj), as confirmed in Fig. 1. The quantitative phase composition of the samples was determined by the full profile fitting method.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD diffraction spectra of zeolite-poor rock

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

Tables 1 and 2 indicate the phase constituent and oxide compositions of zeolite-poor rock resulted from XRD and XRF, respectively. Silica is found to be the basic oxide with alumina and other oxides in small amounts.

Table 1.

Phases constituent of Tokaj's zeolite-poor rock as determined by XRD examination

Raw materialPhase compositionTotal
ClinoptiloliteCristobaliteMontmorilloniteQuartzCalcite
Zeolite-poor rock10.0050.0030.008.002.00100
Table 2.

Oxide composition of zeolite-poor rock acquired from XRF analysis

Raw materialOxide contentTotal
SiO2Al2O3MgONa2OCaOCO2H2OLOI
Zeolite-poor rock82.925.953.211.311.120.884.475.50100

3.1.2 Thermal characteristics of alkali activated zeolite-poor rock

Figure 2 shows the ThermoGravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA) experimental investigation of alkali-activated materials. A total weight loss of 14.88% was detected that might be broken into three weight loss periods. The first weight loss in the temperature 40–192 °C was 6.9% is coincided with the DTA curve's endothermic peak at 121 °C. The elimination of free water from montmorillonite and adsorbed water from zeolite are connected to this weight loss. At a temperature range of 190–385.2 °C, a second weight loss of 5.12 is recorded, which can be attributed to the vaporization of the combined water in the alkali-activated material. Finally, at temperatures ranging from 380 to 803 °C, a weight reduction of 3.66% is achieved, which may be ascribed to the combustion of organic content and disintegration of the aluminosilicate framework.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DTA/TG profile of alkali-activated zeolite-poor rock

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

Figure 3 show the foaming capability of alkali-activated zeolite-poor rock, which is carried out via heating microscope in a temperature range of 25–950 °C. The maximum expansion of the samples was inspected in the temperatures between 850 and 950 °C. At this temperature, the alkali-activated materials decompose, corresponding to a low-viscosity state, and are transferred into a semi-liquid phase associated with the decomposition of calcite that produces gas. The emitted gas pushed the viscous material and resulted in the formation of cellular porous ceramics with lightweight and good thermal insulation properties.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Heating microscope photos of the alkali-activated zeolite-poor rock before sintering and after sintering at different temperatures

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

3.2 Characterization findings of the sintered glass-ceramic foams

3.2.1 Dimensional behavior after heat treatment

The dimensional variations of the several samples burnt at various temperatures are depicted in Fig. 4. As the sintering temperature rises from 850 to 950 °C, the pores expand and merge with the microscopic pores that surround them, lowering the surface energy of the system. The increase in the pore size could affect the technical characteristics of the samples.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Glass-ceramic foams showing the samples before sintering and after sintering at different temperatures

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

3.2.2 XRD investigations

Figure 5 shows the XRD spectra of samples heated at different temperatures. The reaction of zeolite-poor rock components with NaOH resulted in the creation of heulandite (Si36Al1.21Na1.52O97.84, PDF# 96-900-2185) after alkali activation. Firing at 850 °C produced an amorphous phase and anorthite (Na1.92Ca2.08Si10Al6O32, PDF# 96-100-8758). At a temperature of 950 °C, anorthite decomposes into a completely amorphous phase.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

XRD analysis of zeolite-poor rock powder, alkali-activated powder, and sintered samples (Z: zeolite-poor rock, ZS: zeolite-poor + sodium hydroxide, M: montmorillonite; CL: clinoptilolite; C: cristobalite; Q: quartz; CA: calcite; H: heulandite A: anorthite)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

3.2.3 SEM investigation

SEM images of the alkali-activated and sintered samples are shown in Fig. 6. The alkali-activated samples confirm the formation of a whiskers-like structure. All heat-treated samples demonstrate porosity, which is uneven in size and distribution. The pores seen are essentially round-like in form and depicted in the photos by various color differences. The detected different pore size and distribution is thought to be caused by interconnected cells. In general, porosity becomes larger with increasing temperature. This happens due to the reduction in viscosity and increase in the internal pressure of the produced gas that induces the pore coalescence.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM images of the fracture surface of a) alkali-activated, and sintered samples at b) 850 °C, c) 900 °C and d) 950 °C

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

3.2.4 CT scan analysis and pore structure characteristics

Figure 7 shows the CT scan images of the glass-ceramic foam sintered at 850 °C. The 3D picture was created by overlaying 1,000 binary photos along the z-axis. Because X-rays are absorbed differently by materials of various densities, the darker area in the 3D image represents the solid portion of the sample, whereas the bright spots indicate the pores. In contrary, the darker area in the top view image represents the pores, while the lighter areas indicate the solid material. It can be seen clearly the formation of semi-spherical pores of different sizes. Most of the large pores are surrounded by smaller pores, and the cell walls can be identified. Pore size and wall thickness have a substantial influence on mechanical properties; smaller pore sizes and broader cell walls are desirable for greater mechanical strength.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

CT scan images of the foam heat-treated at 850 °C a) top view image and b) 3D image

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

3.2.5 Technical properties

The connection among compressive strength, density, and thermal conductivity of the generated foams is depicted in Fig. 8. Because the compact material has fewer pores, increasing the density increases thermal conductivity and compressive strength. In contrast, increasing the porosity decreases thermal conductivity since the gaps are generally filled with gases that function as thermal insulators.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The correlation between bulk density, thermal conductivity and compressive strength of the glass-ceramic foams sintered at variable temperatures

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2023; 10.1556/606.2022.00641

4 Conclusion

This research revealed that zeolite-poor rock (Tokaj) might be used as raw material to make glass-ceramic foams through alkali-activation and reactive sintering process. The calcite that exists in zeolite-poor rock composition acts as a foaming agent, which decomposes at higher temperatures and produces gas leading to cellular structure formation. The alkali-activation leads to the formation of low-temperature melting compounds. The XRD and SEM analysis confirmed the formation of heulandite in a whiskers-like structure. The sintered samples showed good foamability in the temperature range of 850–950 °C. Increasing the sintering temperature resulted in large pores formation and transformation of crystalline phases to completely amorphous structure, which lowered the compressive strength. The obtained samples have a low density (0.6–0.7 g cm−3), moderate thermal conductivity (0.11–0.17 W mK−1), and good compressive strength (1.5–4.4 MPa). These satisfying technical characteristics confirm the potential use of the produced glass-ceramic foams for thermal and sound insulation.

Acknowledgments

The described study was carried out as part of the EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00011 “Younger and Renewing University – Innovative Knowledge City – institutional development of the University of Miskolc aiming at intelligent specialisation” project implemented in the framework of the Szechenyi 2020 program. The realization of this project is supported by the European Union, co-financed by the European Social Fund.

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  • [1]

    P. Ahmeti and I. Kistelegdi, “Energy consumption by the type of energy carrier used in residential sector in city of Pristina,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 201212, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    T. A. Nguyen, K. Nakagawa, H. P. Duong, Y. Maeda, and K. Otsuka, “Hot-spots and lessons learned from life cycle sustainability assessment of inedible vegetable-oil based biodiesel in Northern Viet Nam,” in Biofuels for a More Sustainable Future, J. Ren, A. Scipioni, A. Manzardo, and H. Liang, Eds, Elsevier Inc, chap. 6, 2019, pp. 165212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    R. Ibrahim and B. Baranyai, “Developing migrants prototypes performance through bottom-up construction method,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 127132, 2021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    M. Rais, S. Elhadad, A. Boumerzoug, and B. Baranyai, “Optimum window position in the building façade for high day-light performance: Empirical study in hot and dry climate,” Pollack Period., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 211220, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    A. M. Rashad, G. M. F. Essa, and W. M. Morsi, “Traditional cementitious materials for thermal insulation,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 79, pages 113, 2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    Z. Chen, H. Wang, R. Ji, L. Liu, C. Cheeseman, and X. Wang, “Reuse of mineral wool waste and recycled glass in ceramic foams,” Ceram. Int., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1505715064, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    A. Karamanov, E. M. A. Hamzawy, E. Karamanova, N. B. Jordanov, and H. Darwish, “Sintered glass-ceramics and foams by metallurgical slag with addition of CaF2,” Ceram. Int., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 65076516, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    D. I. Saparuddin, N. A. N. Hisham, S. A. Aziz, K. A. Matori, S. Honda, Y. Iwamoto, and M. H. M. Zaid, “Effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth, microstructure and mechanical strength of foam glass-ceramic from waste materials,” J. Mater. Res. Technol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 56405647, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    C. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Zhu, Q. Wu, Z. Hu, Z. Feng, and Z. Jia, “Preparation and properties of foam ceramic from nickel slag and waste glass powder,” Ceram. Int., vol. 46, no. 15, pp. 2362323628, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    M. Assefi, S. Maroufi, I. Mansuri, and V. Sahajwalla, “High strength glass foams recycled from LCD waste screens for insulation application,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 280, 2021, Paper no. 124311.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    S. Abdollahi and B. E. Yekta, “Prediction of foaming temperature of glass in the presence of various oxidizers via thermodynamics route,” Ceram. Int., vol. 46, no. 16, pp. 2562625632, 2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    J. König, V. Nemanič, M. Žumer, R. R. Petersen, M. B. Østergaard, Y. Yue, and D. Suvorov, “Evaluation of the contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of an open-porous-type foamed glass,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 214, pp. 337343, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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    P. Cimavilla-Román, J. Villafañe-Calvo, A. López-Gil, J. König, and M. Á. Rodríguez-Perez, “Modelling of the mechanisms of heat transfer in recycled glass foams,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 274, 2021, Paper no. 122000.

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    L. K. Kazantseva and S. V. Rashchenko, “Optimization of porous heat-insulating ceramics manufacturing from zeolitic rocks,” Ceram. Int., vol. 42, no. 16, pp. 1925019256, 2016.

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    B. Liang, M. Zhang, H. Li, M. Zhao, P. Xu, and L. Deng, “Preparation of ceramic foams from ceramic tile polishing waste and fly ash without added foaming agent,” Ceram. Int., vol. 47, no. 16, pp. 2333823349, 2021.

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    Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, H. Huang, K. Meng, K. Hu, P. Hu, X. Wang, Z. Zhang, and X, Meng, “Novel glass ceramic foams materials based on red mud,” Ceram. Int., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 66776683, 2014.

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    K. S. Ivanov, “Extrusion method for producing microgranular foam-glass ceramic from zeolite rocks,” Refract. Ind. Ceram., vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 157161, 2021.

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    M. Sassi, J. F. M. Ibrahim, and A. Simon, “Characterization of foam glass produced from waste CRT glass and aluminium dross,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1527, 2020, Paper no. 012037.

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    J. E. F. M. Ibrahim, O. B. Kotova, S. Sun, E. Kurovics, M. Tihtih, and L. A. Gömze, “Preparation of innovative eco-efficient composite bricks based on zeolite-poor rock and hen’s eggshell,” J. Build. Eng., vol. 45, 2022, Paper no. 103491.

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    J. E. F. M. Ibrahim, M. Tihtih, and L. A. Gömze, “Environmentally-friendly ceramic bricks made from zeolite-poor rock and sawdust,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 297, 2021, Paper no. 123715.

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    L. K. Kazantseva and S. V. Rashchenko, “Chemical processes during energy-saving preparation of lightweight ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 17431749, 2014.

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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Amália

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iványi, Péter

 

Scientific Secretary

Miklós M. Iványi

Editorial Board

  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Petra Bujňáková (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS
  • CABELLS Journalytics

 

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
12
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,26
Scimago Quartile Score Civil and Structural Engineering (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Computer Science Applications (Q4)
Modeling and Simulation (Q4)
Software (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 232/326 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 536/747 (Q3)
General Materials Science 329/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 228/303 (Q4)
Software 326/398 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,613

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 336 EUR / 411 USD
Print + online subscription: 405 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

 

Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2022 0 0 0
Sep 2022 0 0 0
Oct 2022 0 0 0
Nov 2022 0 0 0
Dec 2022 0 155 82
Jan 2023 0 35 12
Feb 2023 0 0 0