Authors:
Muhanad Al-Jubouri Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Architecture, Civil, and Transport Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary

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Richard P. Ray Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Architecture, Civil, and Transport Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary

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Abstract

Scour is the leading cause of bridge collapse beneath any bridge pier located within the waterway. A numerical-based hydraulic model named the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System and a mathematical model of the Florida Department of Transport were implemented to investigate their performance and accuracy in estimating the maximum scour depth beneath bridge piers where large and small-scale physical prototypes are used as a benchmark. The main findings are that a hydraulic model is an effective tool when employing the Colorado State University equation, which compares well with physical prototypes irrespective of the variation in piers' size and shape. Also, it has achieved more consistent results than the Froehlich and the Florida Department of Transport methodologies.

Abstract

Scour is the leading cause of bridge collapse beneath any bridge pier located within the waterway. A numerical-based hydraulic model named the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System and a mathematical model of the Florida Department of Transport were implemented to investigate their performance and accuracy in estimating the maximum scour depth beneath bridge piers where large and small-scale physical prototypes are used as a benchmark. The main findings are that a hydraulic model is an effective tool when employing the Colorado State University equation, which compares well with physical prototypes irrespective of the variation in piers' size and shape. Also, it has achieved more consistent results than the Froehlich and the Florida Department of Transport methodologies.

1 Introduction

‘Scour' can generally be defined as sediment erosion around an obstacle in the flow field's direction [1]. Scour can significantly break down structures like bridges, spillways, and weirs when their foundations have been undermined. Reference [2] reported that there had been several relatively recent bridge structure failures as a result of local scour around piers. Furthermore, the study concentrated on understanding the causes of pier scour causes and developed new methods for protecting bridges against scour effects. In this respect, the USA has estimated that the reasons for the failure of more than 500 bridges in the region between 1989 and 2000 were identified as scouring in 53% of the cases [3]. Reference [4] concluded that local scour at bridge foundations (piers and abutments) occurs due to river flooding, which is the main reason for the bridge collapse. As a result, bridge collapse causes human fatalities, injury, and economic losses for rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Although abundant studies have been reported since 1950, it remains a challenging problem due to the difficulties in understanding complicated flow and scouring processes in conjunction with intricate geometries of bridges.

Reference [5] stated that when the equilibrium of scour depth is under-estimated, it leads to bridge failure, whereas over-estimation increases construction costs. Researchers reported many experimental and numerical investigations to determine scour depth in different soils and river conditions. Studies employing the numerical-based hydraulic model of the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for local scour prediction which was concluded that the HEC-RAS model is a practical methodology for using the Colorado State University equation (CSU) to evaluate the scour depth around bridge piers [6–8].

For contactless measurements, the scours must be assessed using short-range photogrammetry where the scours will be measured to see how practical the examined approaches are at reducing scour. A short-range photogrammetric approach was employed to capture scours in the downstream watercourse bed and banks, allowing the whole monitored region of the riverbed to be recorded [9]. This approach proved a rapid, dependable, and exact method for researching watercourse scouring on physical models. During flood flow, simulations and subsequent observations revealed that the suggested fortification significantly decreased scouring for the geometric operation in the streambed. In terms of minimizing sour depths and diameters and reducing turbulence in the riverbed, the examination of the longitudinal barrier yields the most remarkable results in contrast to the longitudinal barrier with a greater depth, which has a detrimental impact on the riverbed turbulence scours sizes. As a result, the longer the barrier, the greater the energy dissipated from the water in the riverbed, resulting in smaller sour sizes [10].

This study will calculate the maximum depth of local scour for a bridge foundation (pier) by using a one-dimensional HEC-RAS, [11] and make a comparison study with the Florida Department of Transport mathematical model based on the benchmark of the small and large physical model results. The HEC-RAS is considered the standard computer software package for local scour estimation. It is a one-dimensional hydraulic analysis program with scouring prediction modules that compute scour around bridge piers by empirical formulas. It is generally considered accurate, especially for uniform channel sections. Therefore, the model can be used in bridge studies and designs to evaluate bridge pier placement's approximate scour and depth. This study could be considered as a guide to the understanding of the scour components, fundamental and temporal developing of scouring, establishing a new methodology for accurately predict of local soil scour depth beneath piers, efficient bridge designs led to reducing rehabilitation and rebuilding fees, examining the performance of the HEC-RAS model and finally contributing to increasing the level of knowledge regarding the local scouring around bridge piers.

2 Localized scour

2.1 Local scour

In local scour, the erosion action of sediments in the base of bridge piers occurs due to interfering with the flowing water. These obstacles lead to accelerating flow and making lots of vortices. These vortices are responsible for removing bed material around bridge piers or abutments. Local scour also divided into clear-water or live-bed scour [12]. Figure 1 shows the typical shape of local scour around bridge piers.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The local scouring formulate around cylindrical piers (Source: Authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

When the structure is placed in a current, the flow accelerates around this obstacle, and the vertical velocity gradient is converted to a pressure gradient acting on the structure surface. This pressure causes a downward flow, which impacts the bed. The downward flow velocity at the nose of bridge piers and vortex system is considered a basic module of flow fields. Indeed, at the bed of the structure, this flow produces vortices horseshoe and wake vortices and surface roller around and downstream of piers Fig. 2. The horseshoe vortexes tend to eliminate the soil around the foundation of piers, known as local bed scours. The transportation rate of bed materials away from the foundation of piers is more than the transportation rate to piers place.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of local scour showing horseshoe and wake vortices around cylindrical piers (Source: Authors)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

As a consequence, scour depth increases. As the scour depth develops, the horseshoe vortex power decreases, decreasing the transportation level away from this region. Additionally, vertical vortices downstream of the bridge are known as the wake vortex. The power of wake vortices reduces quickly when the distance downstream of the pier increases. Then, there is often deposition of material nearly downstream of long piers (Fig. 2).

Reference [13] demonstrated that as the down-flow weakens, the vortex shedding (movement) of the large-scale convective structures (Horseshoe vortex) affiliated with more or more minor side to side in the pier flow field weakens, and the vertical alignment of unsteady flow structures (wake vortices) also destabilize due to the higher importance of bed contact pressure in a shallower flow. The vortices power per unit weight in the presence of piers depends on the mean velocity of the vortex, v , which can be expressed in the following form [14]:
p o w e r = d v 2 d t = A P v 3 l v ,
where v is the mean velocity of the vortex; l v is the length defined as the vortex size; A P is the constant of the order one independent of the Reynolds number.
Around pier shape, the relationship between the vortex velocity and the flow velocity is practically constant. Therefore, the mean velocity U of the flow can be expressed as:
U = q y 0 + d s e ,
where y 0 is the water depth, m; d s e is the equilibrium scour depth calculated from the bed surface, m; q is the unit flow discharge, m3 s−1.

3 Scour prediction

Three methods to estimate the maximum depth of local scour are described below. The first is a “stand-alone” empirical method that requires more miniature input modeling. The second two methods use the HEC-RAS for initial values and then apply empirical equations to estimate maximum depth. While most bridge engineers understand the nature and distribution of scouring “holes” around foundations, their formation and evolutions are very complex, dependent on local flow patterns around the foundation. These patterns change depending on the depth and velocity of channel flow, soil type and particle size of the riverbed materials, foundation geometry and streamlining, and the presence or absence of rip-rap and other armoring materials. A single equation will not capture all the nuances of scouring, but it will estimate the probable maximum depth.

3.1 Calculating pier scour with the Florida Department of Transport equation

Florida Department Of Transport (FDOT) equation [15] was established and improved over many years and by many researchers. For example, [16] considered more information about the local scour flow field and the size of bed materials. A National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) study assessed around 30 local scour equations and established that, despite the Colorado State University (CSU) equation being considered the best, the FDOT equation achieved a good result compared to laboratory and field observation data. The FDOT equation comprises flow depth and velocity, pier size and shape, and the angle of attack and particle size. The NCHRP study slightly adjusted the FDOT equation to increase the performance in local scour prediction, which was linked to pier geometry, shape, and angle of attack to calculate an effective pier width (a*) and differentiate between clear-water and live-bed flow conditions. This method was based on dimensional analysis more extensively than the CSU equation. Despite the CSU equation achieving accurate results in all conditions, the FDOT is an alternative method to predict local scour, especially for wide piers. The FDOT equation is expressed functionally as:
y s a * = f n ( y 0 a * , V 0 g y 0 , ρ s ρ , V 0 a * ρ μ , V 0 V c , D 50 a * σ , θ ) ,
where y s is the equilibrium scour depth (maximum local scour depth after the flow duration is similar to the depth is no longer changing); ρ, ρ s are the density of water and sediment, respectively; μ is the dynamic viscosity of water (depends primarily on temperature); g is the acceleration of gravity; D 50 is the median diameter of the sediment; σ is the gradation of sediment; y 0 is the depth of flow upstream of the structure; V 0 is the average depth velocity upstream of the structure; a* is the effective diameter of the structure; Θ is the parameter quantifying the concentration of fine sediments in suspension. The equations generated may be solved on a spreadsheet. However, different empirical factors are applied for different conditions of some parameters. Therefore, the full description would require several pages.

3.2 HEC-RAS method to predict scour

The HEC-RAS has two options to compute scour depth: (1) maximum velocity and flow depth at the bridge cross-section, or (2) compute scour around each pier separately by using the local flow conditions of each pier. Choice (1) was used in this study. Once flow conditions are computed, the CSU equation may be applied. It has a form similar to Eq. (1),
y s y 0 = 2.0 K 1 K 2 K 3 K 4 a * y 0 0.65 F r 0.43 ,
where K 1K 4 are the correction factors; F r is the Froude number approaching a pier.
The Froehlich (FRO) equation may also be applied as alternativel. It has a form similar to that of the previous equations
y s y 0 = 2.27 K 5 K 6 a * y 0 0.43 F r 0.61 + 1 .

HEC-RAS software will compute the scour depth for Eqs (4) and (5) as routine output. Typical inputs for HEC-RAS would include, pier shape (circular cylinder, round nose, and square), number (single or double or triple) and dimensions (a and L), flow depth upstream of bridge section (y 0), velocity (v), and discharge (Q) or river channel cross-sections and bottom slopes.

4 Small and large-scale physical

The small-scale model consisted of a rectangular flume of 30 cm in width, 25 cm deep, and 7.5 m long with a 5 cm layer of fine sand with the mean grain size, D 50 = 0.27 mm, [17], as it is shown in Fig. 3. The velocity and the discharge of the water flow were calculated using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) and a Moulinet. One or two piers with different cross-sections, shapes, and sizes were fixed on the flume base. Two circular-shaped piers and two oval cross-sections were tested. All piers were made of metal. The pertinent dimensions describe the pier shape and the diameter D for the circular piers and the parameters E and F for the oval cross-section piers. The circular had diameters D = 4.0 cm and D = 2.0 cm. The oval-shaped piers were E = 9.5 cm and F = 4.0 cm for the large piers, and E = 5.8 cm and F = 2.0 cm for the small piers. The flume was filled to 8 cm depth then the pump was turned on to start flow. Two different flow depths were applied. Furthermore, experiments were carried out using dual piers to study the impact of adjacent piers [15]. Finally, twelve experiments were conducted in this study, and the measured scour results are shown later.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Small-scale flume for scour study (Source: Author modified from [17])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

The large-scale model (Fig. 4) was intended to study the problem of sediment accumulation and evaluate local scour around piers [18]. A rectangular flume with a width of 3.8 6 m, depth of 0.76 m, and straight length of 8 m, representing a scale of H 1:150 and V 1:30 and scale discharge 300–1,500 m3 s−1. An upstream stilling basin allowed for flow control and the channel could simulate flow and estimate scour depth around a bridge pier. Three square steel piers, 20 × 20 cm, and 80 cm in length were fabricated for the testing program. Pier dimensions represented transitional pier conditions. The piers were arranged and projected 52 cm above the sand surface. The 28 cm-thick bed was composed of medium sand with D 50 = 0.5 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Large-scale flume for scour study modified from (Source: Author modified from [18])

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

5 Results and comparisons

The results data of the small and large-scale physical models fabricated by [17] and [18] are used as the input data for the numerical HEC-RAS and mathematical model FDOT. The small model estimates are shown in Fig. 5 and Table 1, where the three empirical predictions are presented directly below the measured scouring depth. The FDOT equation consistently under-predicts depth by 50% or more, while the HEC-RAS methods use the CSU and FRO equations over-predict by 30–50%. The CSU equation estimates were closest to the measured values for nearly every test.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The measured and estimated depth of scour small scale model

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

Table 1.

The measured and estimated depth of scouring, C = circular, O = oval piers

Cases Pier cross-section (cm) Exp. CSU (HEC-RAS) FRO(HEC-RAS) FDOT (Mathematical)
1 C 1.80 4.29 4.99 0.32
2 C4 3.00 4.54 5.03 1.59
3 C2 1.90 2.74 2.65 0.19
4 C2 2.40 2.89 2.71 0.93
5 C2 2.80 2.86 2.68 0.73
6 C2 3.20 2.99 2.75 1.54
7 O4 × 9.5 3.05 4.50 5.02 1.25
8 O4 × 9.5 3.40 4.69 5.05 2.65
9 O4 × 9.5 3.50 4.53 5.03 1.59
10 O2 × 5.8 2.45 2.89 2.71 0.93
11 O2 × 5.8 2.90 3.13 2.85 2.30
12 O2 × 5.8 3.30 3.20 2.91 2.29

Figures 6 8 show the error value in calculating scour depth using the HEC-RAS equations to compare the experimental and the empirical results concerning dimensionless (D/y 1). The HEC RAS software gives an over-estimated value, as mentioned before, with a maximum absolute error value equal to 3.3 cm corresponding to the circular pier with D = 4 cm, measured by the Froehlich equation while it was about 2.5 cm regarding the CSU equation. However, in some cases, the HEC-RAS equations recorded scour depth at almost the experimental value with the error below 1 cm, especially when pier diameter equals 2 cm for circular and oval shapes. To sum up, it can be concluded that all piers (circular and oval) with pier width equal to 4 cm give over-estimated scour depth more than those with a width equal to 2 cm. Finally, the FDOT method, generally, gives an under-estimated value with a maximum absolute value equal to 2 cm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Error value of CSU base HEC-RAS model with different pier shapes

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Error value of FRO-based HEC-RAS model with different pier shapes

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Error value of the FDOT method with different pier shapes

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

The FDOT equation consistently over-estimated scour depths by a large margin (>100%) for the large-scale model. However, the HEC-RAS estimates were closer, with the CSU equation performing better than the Froehlich equation (30–40% vs., 60–90%, respectively) (Fig. 9 and Table 2). Figure 10 shows the error value in calculating scour depth using the HEC-RAS equations to compare the experimental and the empirical results concerning dimensionless of (D/y 1), which shows that HEC RAS equations give an over-estimated value where the maximum absolute error is 12.6 cm corresponding to the Froehlich equation. Furthermore, the CSU equation recorded scour depth almost to the experimental value with an error equal to 4.5 cm. Finally, the FDOT method, generally, gives a huge-estimated value with the maximum absolute error value of 17.7 cm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The measured and estimated depth of scouring for the large-scale model

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

Table 2.

The measured and estimated scouring depth for the large-scale model S, for the square nose pier

Cases Pier cross section Exp. CSU (HEC-RAS) FRO (HEC-RAS) FDOT (Mathematical)
1 20 × 20 cm S 12.9 18.84 25.58 30.51
2 20 × 20 cm S 15.5 20.17 26.12 31.54
3 20 × 20 cm S 13.2 19.6 25.75 30.82
15.4 19.85 25.804 30.82
12.9 19.65 25.7 30.82
4 20 × 20 cm S 15.5 21.1 26.1 31.68
17 21.21 26.25 31.68
15.5 21.03 26.15 31.68
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Error value of the three prediction methods (FDOT, CSU, FRO)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2022; 10.1556/606.2022.00649

6 Conclusions

An accurate, safe and efficient bridge pier design is associated directly with calculating the local scour depth around bridge piers. Therefore, this project compares the bridge scour depth calculation results with a one-dimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS and the mathematical model FDOT employing the large and small-scale physical models as a benchmark data input. The close agreement between the calculated and measured methods confirms that the HEC-RAS software is an effective technique for calculating scour depth around bridge piers which can be used to estimate pier scour with different shapes, dimensions, geometries, and different flow regime conditions, especially when employing the CSU equation because it infrequently predicts under-estimation of the scour depth. The FDOT methodology obtains under-estimation scour depth when the small-scale model data is employed while achieving over-estimation scour depth values corresponding to the extensive model input data. In contrast, the FRO equation obtains higher results, mainly when applied to large pier cross-sections.

Acknowledgement

This paper and its research would not have been possible without the exceptional support of Professor Mahmoud Al-khafaji, at Al-Nahrian University.

References

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    K. Wardhana and F. C. Hadipriono , “Analysis of recent bridge failures in the United States,” J. Perform. Constructed Facil., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 144150, 2003.

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    F. C. K. Ting , J. L. Briaud , H. C. Chen , R. Gudavalli , S. Perugu , and G. Wei , “Flume tests for scour in clay at circular piers,” J. Hydraulic Eng., vol. 127, no. 11, pp. 969978, 2001.

    • Crossref
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    P. D. Dahe and S. B. Kharode , “Evaluation of scour depth around bridge piers with various geometrical shapes,” Int. J. Innovative Res. Adv. Eng., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 4148, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    A. Ghaderi , R. Daneshfaraz , and M. Dasineh , “Evaluation and prediction of the scour depth of bridge foundations with HEC-RAS numerical model and empirical equations, Case Study: Bridge of Simineh Rood Miandoab, Iran,” Eng. J., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 279297, 2019.

    • Crossref
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    N. W. K. Rustawa and B. S. Budianto , “Modeling local scour characteristics on the Batujajar Bridge pillar using HEC-RAS software,” Proceedings of the International Seminar of Science and Applied Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, November 24–25, 2020, pp. 290295.

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    M. Pavúček , J. Rumann , and P. Dušička , “Investigation of scours on a physical model of the Hričov weir using photogrammetry,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 105110, 2022.

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    M. Pavúček , J. Rumann , and P. Dušička , “Experimental assessment of secondary stilling basin at the Hričov weir,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 6772, 2021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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    HEC-RAS River analysis system user's manual, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydraulic Engineering Centre: New York, 2010.

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    E. V. Richardson and S. R. Davies , “Evaluating scour at bridges,” Tech. rep. FHWAIP-90-017 (HEC 18), Federal Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, Publication No. FHWA NHI 01–001, 1995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    R. Ettema , B. W. Melville , and G. Constantinescu , Evaluation of Bridge Scour Research: Pier scour Processes and Predictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    M. Muzzammil , and T. Gangadhariah , “The mean characteristics of horseshoe vortex at a cylindrical pier,” J. Hydraulic Res., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 285297, 2003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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    Bridge Scour Manual, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, Florida, 2021.

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    D. M. Sheppard and W. Miller Jr , “Live-bed local pier scour experiments,” J. Hydraulic Eng., vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 635642, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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    J. A. do Carmo , “Experimental study on local scour around bridge piers in rivers,” WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. , vol. 83, pp. 313, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    M. S. Al-Khafaji , A. S. Abbas , and R. I. Abdulridha , “Effect of floating debris on local scour at bridge piers,” Eng. Tech. J., vol. 34, Part A, no. 2, pp. 356367. 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [1]

    H. H. Chang , Fluvial Processes in River Engineering. Willey, 1988.

  • [2]

    K. Wardhana and F. C. Hadipriono , “Analysis of recent bridge failures in the United States,” J. Perform. Constructed Facil., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 144150, 2003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    P. F. Lagasse and E. V. Richardson , “ASCE compendium of stream stability and bridge scour papers,” J. Hydraulic Eng., vol. 127, no. 7, pp. 531533, 2001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    G. J. C. M. Hoffmans and H. J. Verheij , Scour Manual. CRC Press, 1997.

  • [5]

    F. C. K. Ting , J. L. Briaud , H. C. Chen , R. Gudavalli , S. Perugu , and G. Wei , “Flume tests for scour in clay at circular piers,” J. Hydraulic Eng., vol. 127, no. 11, pp. 969978, 2001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    P. D. Dahe and S. B. Kharode , “Evaluation of scour depth around bridge piers with various geometrical shapes,” Int. J. Innovative Res. Adv. Eng., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 4148, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    A. Ghaderi , R. Daneshfaraz , and M. Dasineh , “Evaluation and prediction of the scour depth of bridge foundations with HEC-RAS numerical model and empirical equations, Case Study: Bridge of Simineh Rood Miandoab, Iran,” Eng. J., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 279297, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    N. W. K. Rustawa and B. S. Budianto , “Modeling local scour characteristics on the Batujajar Bridge pillar using HEC-RAS software,” Proceedings of the International Seminar of Science and Applied Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, November 24–25, 2020, pp. 290295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    M. Pavúček , J. Rumann , and P. Dušička , “Investigation of scours on a physical model of the Hričov weir using photogrammetry,” Pollack Period., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 105110, 2022.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    M. Pavúček , J. Rumann , and P. Dušička , “Experimental assessment of secondary stilling basin at the Hričov weir,” Pollack Period., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 6772, 2021.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    HEC-RAS River analysis system user's manual, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydraulic Engineering Centre: New York, 2010.

  • [12]

    E. V. Richardson and S. R. Davies , “Evaluating scour at bridges,” Tech. rep. FHWAIP-90-017 (HEC 18), Federal Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, Publication No. FHWA NHI 01–001, 1995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    R. Ettema , B. W. Melville , and G. Constantinescu , Evaluation of Bridge Scour Research: Pier scour Processes and Predictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    M. Muzzammil , and T. Gangadhariah , “The mean characteristics of horseshoe vortex at a cylindrical pier,” J. Hydraulic Res., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 285297, 2003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    Bridge Scour Manual, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, Florida, 2021.

  • [16]

    D. M. Sheppard and W. Miller Jr , “Live-bed local pier scour experiments,” J. Hydraulic Eng., vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 635642, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    J. A. do Carmo , “Experimental study on local scour around bridge piers in rivers,” WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. , vol. 83, pp. 313, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    M. S. Al-Khafaji , A. S. Abbas , and R. I. Abdulridha , “Effect of floating debris on local scour at bridge piers,” Eng. Tech. J., vol. 34, Part A, no. 2, pp. 356367. 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
  • Oszkar Biro (Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Austria)
  • Ágnes Borsos (Institute of Architecture, Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Petra Bujňáková (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

POLLACK PERIODICA
Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering
Institute: University of Pécs
Address: Boszorkány utca 2. H–7624 Pécs, Hungary
Phone/Fax: (36 72) 503 650

E-mail: peter.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu 

or amalia.ivanyi@mik.pte.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • SCOPUS

 

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
12
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,26
Scimago Quartile Score Civil and Structural Engineering (Q3)
Materials Science (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Computer Science Applications (Q4)
Modeling and Simulation (Q4)
Software (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 232/326 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 536/747 (Q3)
General Materials Science 329/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 228/303 (Q4)
Software 326/398 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,613

2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,257
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
340/243=1,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 219/318 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 487/693 (Q3)
General Materials Science 316/455 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 217/290 (Q4)
Software 307/389 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
1,09
Scopus
Cites
321
Scopus
Documents
67
Days from submission to acceptance 136
Days from acceptance to publication 239
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,262
Scimago
Quartile Score
Civil and Structural Engineering Q3
Computer Science Applications Q3
Materials Science (miscellaneous) Q3
Modeling and Simulation Q3
Software Q3
Scopus
Cite Score
269/220=1,2
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Civil and Structural Engineering 206/310 (Q3)
Computer Science Applications 445/636 (Q3)
General Materials Science 295/460 (Q3)
Modeling and Simulation 212/274 (Q4)
Software 304/373 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,933
Scopus
Cites
290
Scopus
Documents
68
Acceptance
Rate
67%

 

Pollack Periodica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 327 EUR / 411 USD 321
Print + online subscription: 393 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 336 EUR / 411 USD
Print + online subscription: 405 EUR / 492 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
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Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2022 0 0 0
Jul 2022 0 0 0
Aug 2022 0 0 0
Sep 2022 0 0 0
Oct 2022 0 75 50
Nov 2022 0 79 50
Dec 2022 0 5 6