Authors:
Tamás Juhász Structural Diagnostics and Analyses Research Team, Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

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Yishi Lee Department of Engineering, College of Aerospace, Computing, Engineering, and Design, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA

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Rose Holtzman Department of Engineering, College of Aerospace, Computing, Engineering, and Design, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA

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Jeno Balogh Department of Engineering, College of Aerospace, Computing, Engineering, and Design, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA

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Abstract

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Miklós Iványi, who instilled in the authors an appreciation for experimental investigations, which are foundational to understanding material and structural behavior. Timber-concrete composite structures are increasingly adopted for new buildings due to their favorable sustainability parameters and the increased availability of cross laminated timber. For larger spans, however, solid timber floors lead to higher timber volumes and the use of glulam beams may become necessary for a more efficient use of wood. This paper presents laboratory tests of glulam-concrete composite beams and is the first in a series of two papers on investigating the associated failure mechanisms. Three full-scale glulam-concrete beam specimens were studied. The glulam and concrete are monolithically interconnected using a continuous layer of adhesive. Shear reinforcement was added to the glulam beams to allow for failure mode control. Static load tests to failure were conducted along with acoustic emission monitoring to track the progression of the failure. The results indicate that the shear reinforcement of the glulam layer affects the load capacity of the composite beam through shifting the failure from a shear to a tension failure mode. Similar glulam-concrete beams can enable larger span applications for buildings and bridges while maintaining an attractive sustainability performance.

Abstract

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Miklós Iványi, who instilled in the authors an appreciation for experimental investigations, which are foundational to understanding material and structural behavior. Timber-concrete composite structures are increasingly adopted for new buildings due to their favorable sustainability parameters and the increased availability of cross laminated timber. For larger spans, however, solid timber floors lead to higher timber volumes and the use of glulam beams may become necessary for a more efficient use of wood. This paper presents laboratory tests of glulam-concrete composite beams and is the first in a series of two papers on investigating the associated failure mechanisms. Three full-scale glulam-concrete beam specimens were studied. The glulam and concrete are monolithically interconnected using a continuous layer of adhesive. Shear reinforcement was added to the glulam beams to allow for failure mode control. Static load tests to failure were conducted along with acoustic emission monitoring to track the progression of the failure. The results indicate that the shear reinforcement of the glulam layer affects the load capacity of the composite beam through shifting the failure from a shear to a tension failure mode. Similar glulam-concrete beams can enable larger span applications for buildings and bridges while maintaining an attractive sustainability performance.

1 Introduction

Over the past decades several methods for interconnecting a timber and a top concrete layer in beams were developed achieving various levels of efficiency of composite action [1]. The highest composite stiffness was observed in the solutions, which used adhesives to connect the two layers. This is attributed to the high rigidity of the adhesive layer along with having a connection continuous on the full length of the beam [2–5]. In composite floors using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), adhesives can be used to connect a concrete layer on the top with no need for mechanical connectors or notches, unless a ductile behavior is desired [6, 7]. In this paper, Glulam-Concrete (G-C) beams are studied that are intended for larger span applications in which a CLT based solution would lead to an excessively massive floor. Reinforcing steel bars glued into the glulam are used for strengthening the glulam beams in shear. Papers [8, 9] report immense experience existing in using glued-in bars in the repair and strengthening of timber beams both softwood and hardwood, as well as in connecting concrete slabs to floor beams.

2 Experimental program

Laboratory investigations of G-C laminated structural beam members for floors or bridges were conducted in the Structural Laboratory at Metropolitan State University of Denver. The experimental program consisted of static load tests to failure with an array of accelerometers for Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring to track the emissions due to failure within the specimen [10–12].

2.1 Specimen design and load test setup

Three G-C beam specimens with a length of 4.877 m (192 in) were built and setup with a span of 4.623 m (182 in). The timber layer consists of an APA-The Engineered Wood Association-rated 24F-V4 glulam beam, with Douglas fir material and unbalanced layering. The nominal glulam beam width and height is 79.4 mm (3.125 in) and 381 mm (15 in), respectively. The 76.2 mm (3 in) concrete layer consists of a C40/50 (40 N mm−2, 6000 psi) basalt fiber reinforced normal weight concrete. The timber and the concrete layer are interconnected with a Dayton Superior Sure Bond J58 two component, high modulus, moisture-tolerant adhesive [9]. The adhesive was applied on the top of the glulam in two layers, 10–15 min apart then the fresh concrete was placed in the form 10–15 min later. The glulam is embedded into the concrete by 12.7 mm (0.5 in). Ten steel spikes were added to the timber layer to ensure that a tension failure mode develops instead of a shear failure, 101.6 mm (4 in) from the end of the beam and 203.2 mm (8 in) between the spikes. The main setup of the composite specimen is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

G-C specimen setup

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

An MTS computer controlled hydraulic loading system was used to conduct the static load tests. A point load at the midpoint using a 445 kN (100 kip) actuator was applied using stroke control with 2.54 mm min−1 (0.1 in/min) loading speed. The loading frame is attached to a strong-floor on which the support fixtures were setup as rollers at each end of the beam. To prevent lateral-torsional buckling, lateral restraining blocks were placed 1.702 m (67 in) from the axis of the vertical supports, with Teflon sheeting added to reduce any friction on the specimen during testing.

For the AE monitoring, seven Brüel & Kjær accelerometer sensors were placed evenly along the beam specimens, as it is shown in Fig. 2. The placements of sensors 2 to 7 are to provide sufficient temporal separation of initial arrival stress waves. The even spatial separation allows triangulation to estimate the location (x, y and z coordinates) of the emission in future studies. Sensor 1, positioned in the middle, is used as a trigger to initiate signal recording. The placement of the triggering signal is largely due to the following two reasons:

  1. Sensors placed in the middle should have a shorter average time of flight compared to other sensors.

  2. The concentrated load is placed in the middle section of the beam, and hence, it is also the region of interest where most emission events are expected to occur.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sensory placement

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

2.2 Acoustic emission signal feasibility analysis

The resultant AE signals are depicted in Fig. 3. From the selected samples, the feasibility analysis of AE emission signal uses the following criteria.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Event 1 signal captured by sensors

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR): The ambient noise level from each sensor appears to be stationary white noise within the acceptable strength limit. All sensors picked up a certain level of signal. These two results indicate the sensors and the acquisition device are performing nominally.

Sufficient time delay in data recording: All signals are recorded with a specific time delay of 2 ms, even with sensor 1 being the triggering sensor. This setting is validated in Fig. 4. The strong initial amplitude of sensor 4 indicates the emission occurs near the sensor. The emission propagates to sensor 7 with an initial peak of around 0 ms. This result suggests that the AE takes about 1 ms to travel from one end of the beam to the other.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Event 2 signal captured by sensors

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

Time Of Flight (TOF) vs. energy response: Energy attenuation is a function of 1/r2. A shorter arrival time is expected to correlate with a stronger signal. From Fig. 4, roughly estimated arrival times of different sensors correlate with the associated energy response. Sensor 5 shows the highest amplitude with the shortest arrival time of all.

This result suggests the emission might have originated from the area near sensor 5. Sensor 4, positioned the furthest from the source, has the longest arrival time and lowest energy response. This result also suggests that the amplitudes of the sensory impulse responses are very similar.

TOF determination: The time of flight determination is crucial to infer the location of the emission. This study employs accelerometers which are wide-band transducers. Hence, the time of flight will be frequency-dependent. Based on the strong SNRs the spectrogram analysis is quite feasible.

Source determination: Based on the result from Figs 3 and 4, all seven sensors perform well, with relevant signal processing techniques for obtained TOF. It is possible to determine both x and z directions and the corresponding propagation speed velocities vx and vz. Simple triangulation should be sufficient to infer AE source location with proper assumptions.

Experiment setup: The bee wax used for the test was not strong enough to hold the sensors in position during the final AE event with much higher amplitude, however a stronger adhesive material would be recommended for future testing. Table 1 shows the results of the signal feasibility analysis.

Table 1.

Signal feasibility analysis results

Signal criteriaCondition
Signal-to-NoiseGood
Sufficient time delay in data recording:Good
Time of flight (TOF) vs. energy responseGood
TOF determinationGood
Source determinationFeasible
Experiment setupGood

3 Results

Single-span, simply supported beams may fail either due to bending at midspan or shear at the supports. It is difficult to predict, which failure would occur first, given the inhomogeneity of the composite beam. While increasing the cross-section height of a beam can enhance its bending resistance, it may not necessarily result in a sufficiently larger shear capacity. It is worth noting that bending failure is usually associated with relatively large deflections. On the other hand, transverse shear can cause splitting and delamination of a timber member near the flexural neutral axis, which can happen suddenly without any warning signs of deformation.

Vertical reinforcing steel bars embedded into concrete beams have been effectively used to prevent shear failure. Likewise in the test, under service loads, the shear rapidly declines and theoretically ceases at midspan, similar reinforcement is required in the vicinity of the supports. The laboratory tests were intended to show that the glued-in spikes would effectively stop the propagation of shear cracks from developing in the glulam, starting from the supports, and may result in the splitting of the timber member. Glulam beams can lose strength due to cracks, which can vary in depth, length, and location. These cracks affect the shear strength because they typically run along the grain and glue lines of the beams.

The goal of the test was not to increase the bearing capacity but to be able to control the failure mechanism.

The measured load-displacement diagrams for the three specimens are shown in Fig. 5. Specimens S1 and S4 exhibited tension failure, see Fig. 6, while specimen S3 failed in shear, see Fig. 7.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured load-displacement diagrams in imperial and converted SI units (1 in = 25.4 mm; 10 lb = 4.448 kN)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Tension failure mode

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Shear failure mode (S3)

Citation: Pollack Periodica 2024; 10.1556/606.2023.00946

4 Conclusions

The load test results indicate that the shear spikes presumably contained the shear failure in two of the three beams, allowing for a tension failure mode. The tension failure observed appeared to originate from finger-joints present in the bottom layers of the glulam. The sensitivity of accelerometers provides acceptable level of SNR and the placements of them allow for future analyses in failure model determination and proximity estimation. The AE findings will be presented in an upcoming second paper. Instead of using the standard unbalanced glulam configuration developed for members in bending, a different glulam layering can be adopted, optimized for the mostly tension loading in such G-C composite beams.

Acknowledgements

The research was performed within the framework of the institutional cooperation between the Authors' universities. The authors are grateful to the students who assisted with the laboratory specimen construction and experimental setup.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
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    J. Negrão, C. D. Oliveira, F. M. M. de Oliveira, and P. Cachim, “Glued composite timber-concrete beams, I: Interlayer connection specimen tests,” ASCE, J. Struct. Eng., vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 12361245, 2010.

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    J. H. J. O. Negrao, F. M. M. de Oliveira, C. Oliveira, and P. Cachim, “Glued composite timber-concrete beams, II: Analysis and tests of beam specimens,” ASCE, J. Struct. Eng., vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 12451254, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    P. L. Clouston and C. P. Quaglia, “Experimental evaluation of epoxy based wood-concrete composite floor systems for mill building renovations,” Int. J. Construct. Environ., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 6374, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    J. Balogh, “Laminated wood-concrete structural members,” Pollack Period., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 7986, 2013.

  • [6]

    P. Clouston, L. A. Bathon, and A. Schreyer, “Shear and bending performance of a novel wood–concrete composite system,” J. Struct. Eng., vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 14041412, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    S. Lamothe, L. Sorelli, P. Blanchet, and P. Galimard, “Engineering ductile notch connections for composite floors made of laminated timber and high or ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete,” Eng. Struct., vol. 211, 2020, Art no. 110415.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    R. Steiger, E. Serrano, M. Stepinac, V. Rajčić, C. O’Neill, D. McPolin, and R. Widmann, “Strengthening of timber structures with glued-in rods,” Construct. Build. Mater., vol. 97, pp. 90105, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    Dayton Superior, Sure Bond,TM, J58, Technical Data Sheet, 2015.

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    H. R. Hardy, Jr., Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Activity. vol. 1, Taylor & Francis, 2003.

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    I. Szucs, Z. Balogh, and R. Holtzman, “Acoustic emission at failure of steel-timber-concrete composite beams,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 193200, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    V. Nasir, S. Ayanleye, S. Kazemirad, F. Sassani, and S. Adamopoulos, “Acoustic emission monitoring of wood materials and timber structures: A critical review,” Construct. Build. Mater., vol. 350, 2022, Art no. 128877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [1]

    A. Jutila, “Wood concrete composite bridges, Finnish speciality in the Nordic Countries,” in Proceedings of the International Conference Timber Bridges, Lillehammer, Norway, September 12–15, 2010, pp. 383–392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    J. Negrão, C. D. Oliveira, F. M. M. de Oliveira, and P. Cachim, “Glued composite timber-concrete beams, I: Interlayer connection specimen tests,” ASCE, J. Struct. Eng., vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 12361245, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    J. H. J. O. Negrao, F. M. M. de Oliveira, C. Oliveira, and P. Cachim, “Glued composite timber-concrete beams, II: Analysis and tests of beam specimens,” ASCE, J. Struct. Eng., vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 12451254, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    P. L. Clouston and C. P. Quaglia, “Experimental evaluation of epoxy based wood-concrete composite floor systems for mill building renovations,” Int. J. Construct. Environ., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 6374, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    J. Balogh, “Laminated wood-concrete structural members,” Pollack Period., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 7986, 2013.

  • [6]

    P. Clouston, L. A. Bathon, and A. Schreyer, “Shear and bending performance of a novel wood–concrete composite system,” J. Struct. Eng., vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 14041412, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    S. Lamothe, L. Sorelli, P. Blanchet, and P. Galimard, “Engineering ductile notch connections for composite floors made of laminated timber and high or ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete,” Eng. Struct., vol. 211, 2020, Art no. 110415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    R. Steiger, E. Serrano, M. Stepinac, V. Rajčić, C. O’Neill, D. McPolin, and R. Widmann, “Strengthening of timber structures with glued-in rods,” Construct. Build. Mater., vol. 97, pp. 90105, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    Dayton Superior, Sure Bond,TM, J58, Technical Data Sheet, 2015.

  • [10]

    H. R. Hardy, Jr., Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Activity. vol. 1, Taylor & Francis, 2003.

  • [11]

    I. Szucs, Z. Balogh, and R. Holtzman, “Acoustic emission at failure of steel-timber-concrete composite beams,” Pollack Period., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 193200, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    V. Nasir, S. Ayanleye, S. Kazemirad, F. Sassani, and S. Adamopoulos, “Acoustic emission monitoring of wood materials and timber structures: A critical review,” Construct. Build. Mater., vol. 350, 2022, Art no. 128877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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  • Bálint Bachmann (Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Jeno Balogh (Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA)
  • Radu Bancila (Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Terrestrial Communications Ways, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, “Politehnica” University Timisoara, Romania)
  • Charalambos C. Baniotopolous (Department of Civil Engineering, Chair of Sustainable Energy Systems, Director of Resilience Centre, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, U.K.)
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  • Matteo Bruggi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
  • Petra Bujňáková (Department of Structures and Bridges, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia)
  • Anikó Borbála Csébfalvi (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Mirjana S. Devetaković (Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Szabolcs Fischer (Department of Transport Infrastructure and Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Architerture, Civil Engineering and Transport Sciences Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Radomir Folic (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad Serbia)
  • Jana Frankovská (Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • János Gyergyák (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Kay Hameyer (Chair in Electromagnetic Energy Conversion, Institute of Electrical Machines, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
  • Elena Helerea (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania)
  • Ákos Hutter (Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technolgy, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Károly Jármai (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Teuta Jashari-Kajtazi (Department of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Prishtina, Kosovo)
  • Róbert Kersner (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Rita Kiss  (Biomechanical Cooperation Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • István Kistelegdi  (Department of Building Structures and Energy Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Stanislav Kmeť (President of University Science Park TECHNICOM, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia)
  • Imre Kocsis  (Department of Basic Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • László T. Kóczy (Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, University of Győr, Hungary)
  • Dražan Kozak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia)
  • György L. Kovács (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Balázs Géza Kövesdi (Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Engineering and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tomáš Krejčí (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Jaroslav Kruis (Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Miklós Kuczmann (Department of Automations, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary)
  • Tibor Kukai (Department of Engineering Studies, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Maria Jesus Lamela-Rey (Departamento de Construcción e Ingeniería de Fabricación, University of Oviedo, Spain)
  • János Lógó  (Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
  • Carmen Mihaela Lungoci (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Universitatea Transilvania Brasov, Romania)
  • Frédéric Magoulés (Department of Mathematics and Informatics for Complex Systems, Centrale Supélec, Université Paris Saclay, France)
  • Gabriella Medvegy (Department of Interior, Applied and Creative Design, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Tamás Molnár (Department of Visual Studies, Institute of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Orbán (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán Orbán (Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Smart Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Dmitrii Rachinskii (Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas, USA)
  • Chro Radha (Chro Ali Hamaradha) (Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Engineering, Department of City Planning, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Maurizio Repetto (Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
  • Zoltán Sári (Department of Technical Informatics, Institute of Information and Electrical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Grzegorz Sierpiński (Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland)
  • Zoltán Siménfalvi (Institute of Energy and Chemical Machinery, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics, University of Miskolc, Hungary)
  • Andrej Šoltész (Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia)
  • Zsolt Szabó (Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary)
  • Mykola Sysyn (Chair of Planning and Design of Railway Infrastructure, Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport, Technical University of Dresden, Germany)
  • András Timár (Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Barry H. V. Topping (Heriot-Watt University, UK, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Hungary)

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Pollack Periodica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2006
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-1994 (Print)
ISSN 1788-3911 (Online)

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