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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Fogorvostudományi Kar Arc-Állcsont-Szájsebészeti és Fogászati Klinika, Orálpatológiai Részleg Budapest Mária u. 52. 1085
  • 2 Semmelweis Egyetem, Fogorvostudományi Kar Oktatási Centrum, Dentoalveoláris Sebészeti Osztály Budapest
Open access

Az orális carcinoma (OC) esetek körében igen magas a férfi:nő arány. A nők alacsony száma a férfiakhoz viszonyítva arra utal, hogy endokrin tényezők is szerepet játszhatnak a daganat kialakulásában. Jelen vizsgálataink célja, hogy tisztázzuk, milyen különbségek vannak férfiak és nők között az OC rizikófaktoraira vonatkozóan. A Semmelweis Egyetem Arc-Állcsont-Szájsebészeti és Fogászati Klinikáján jelentkező 2660 beteget (2130 férfi és 530 nő) vontuk be a vizsgálatba. Regisztráltuk a dohányzást és az alkoholfogyasztást, az emelkedett szérumglükózszintet és a nőbetegek menopauzára vonatkozó adatait. A dohányzás és a túlzott alkoholfogyasztás, az irodalmi adatokkal megegyezően, fontos rizikófaktornak bizonyult az OC-esetekben férfiak és nők körében egyaránt. A mérsékelt alkoholfogyasztás viszont gyenge rizikófaktornak bizonyult férfiak körében, és egyáltalán nem jelentett kockázatot a nők számára. Az emelkedett éhomi glükózszint nem volt kimutatható OC-kockázat a férfi betegek körében, ugyanakkor a nők esetében jelentős rizikófaktornak bizonyult, különös tekintettel a gingivacarcinomára. A női OC-betegek csaknem valamennyien posztmenopauzálisak voltak, továbbá a menopauza és az OC diagnózisa között meglehetősen hosszú idő telt el (átlagosan 17 év). Ezek a vizsgálati leletek arra utalnak, hogy az ösztrogénhiány szerepet játszhat az OC iniciációjában. A női OC-esetekben szignifikánsan fiatalabb korban jelentkezett a menopauza, és a hysterectomia aránya is jóval magasabb volt a tumormentes kontrollokkal összehasonlítva, ami szintén alátámasztja az ösztrogénhiány-elméletet. Posztmenopauzális nőbetegekben mind az ösztrogénhiány, mind az emelkedett éhomi glükózszint OC-rizikófaktornak tűnik. Ezek az eredmények új megvilágításba helyezik az orális carcinomák etiológiáját, és magyarázatot adnak arra vonatkozóan, hogy hogyan alakulhatnak ki dohányzásfüggő tumorok dohányzás nélkül.

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