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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar I. Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Klinika Budapest Baross u. 27. 1088
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Az endometriosis korszerű sebészi kezelésének célja a károsodott kismedencei anatómia helyreállításával az endometriosishoz társuló fájdalomtünetek csökkentése, illetve a teherbe esési esélyek javítása. Cikkünkben a különböző elhelyezkedésű kismedencei endometriosislaesiók eltávolításának műtéti lehetőségeit elemezzük. Az endometriosis sebészi kezelése döntően laparoszkópia útján valósul meg, míg a laparotomia alkalmazási köre egyre inkább beszűkült és csak speciális esetekre korlátozódik. A peritonealis endometriosis laesiói reszekció, elektrokoaguláció vagy lézervaporizáció segítségével kezelhetők, amelyek azonos mértékben csökkentik az endometriosishoz társuló fájdalomtüneteket, illetve javítják a teherbe esési esélyeket. Az endometrioma kezelésében hosszú éveken át kétféle műtéti megoldás terjedt el; a cisztatok eltávolítása az úgynevezett strippingtechnika segítségével, valamint a cisztatok megszüntetése az ablatiós műtéti technikával. Napjainkra egyértelműen bebizonyosodott, hogy a stripping előnyösebb az endometrioma ablatiójával szemben mind a fájdalomtünetek csökkenése, mind a reproduktív funkciók szempontjából. A mélyen infiltráló endometriosis kezelése jelenti a legnagyobb kihívást az endometriosis sebészetében. A mélyen infiltráló laesiók eltávolításában a lézertechnika alkalmazásának jut főszerep. A rectovaginalis septum endometriosisa esetén lézer segítségével a mélyen infiltráló laesio biztonsággal és maradéktalanul eltávolítható. Bélendometriosis esetén az érintett bélszakaszt szegmentális reszekcióval, discreszekcióval vagy az úgynevezett shavingtechnikával távolíthatjuk el. Leggyakrabban a szegmentális reszekciót alkalmazzuk, mivel egyedül ez esetben biztosítható a reszekciós szél biztos épsége. Az ureter endometriosisa esetén kisfokú érintettség mellett ureterolysis, míg obstruktív uropathia fennállásakor az ureter reszekciója javasolható. Az endometriosishoz társuló fájdalom hatékonyabb csökkentését célozza a praesacralis neurectomia és az uterusidegrost-ablatio. Ezen beavatkozások klinikai eredményessége azonban nem egyértelmű, az endometriosis kezelésében betöltött pontos szerepük tisztázása további vizsgálatokat igényel. Az endometriosis sebészetében a folyamatosan fejlődő műtéti technikák az endometriosislaesiók egyre teljesebb és hatékonyabb eltávolítását teszik lehetővé, amelynek köszönhetően egyre eredményesebben kezelhetők az endometriosishoz társuló klinikai tünetek és csökkenthető a betegség kiújulásának veszélye.

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