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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar II. Patológiai Intézet Budapest Üllői út 93. 1091
  • | 2 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar I. Patológiai és Kísérleti Rákkutató Intézet Budapest
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Az utóbbi években egyre nagyobb érdeklődés övezi a mikro-RNS-eket, a génexpressziót többnyire negatívan szabályozó rövid RNS-molekulákat, amelyekből mintegy 1000-féle ismert jelenleg. Kimutatták, hogy a mikro-RNS-ek expressziója patológiás állapotokban megváltozik a normális szinthez képest, ezért ezt eredményesen lehetne alkalmazni a betegségek pontosabb diagnosztizálásában. Májban azonosítottak egy májszövetre igen karakterisztikus, a hepatocyták működéséhez szükséges mikro-RNS-típust (miR-122), amelynek expressziós szintje májsérülés következtében általában csökken. Biomarkerként való alkalmazása is felvetődik, mivel acetaminofen indukálta toxicitás során a miR-122 szintje csökken a májszövetben, ugyanakkor növekszik a plazmában, sőt, plazmából a hagyományos májfunkciós enzimteszteknél érzékenyebb kimutatást tesz lehetővé. A miR-122-expresszió szintén csökkenő tendenciát mutat a karcinogenezis progressziójával. Emellett stimulálja a hepatitis C-vírus replikációját és transzlációját, valamint befolyásolja az interferonterápia eredményességét. Újabban számos olyan további mikro-RNS vált ismertté, amelyek speciális mintázatának jellegzetes változása úgy tűnik, hogy jellemez egyes kóros folyamatokat. A cikk összefoglalja a gyógyszer és alkohol indukálta, a nem alkoholos eredetű májbetegségek, fibrosis, hepatitisvírus-fertőzések, cirrhosis és hepatocellularis carcinoma során tapasztalt jelentősebb miRNS-változásokat. Orv. Hetil, 45, 1843–1853.

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