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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest

A diabetes mellitus incidenciája és prevalenciája világszerte növekszik. Míg a 2-es típus esetében a háttérben álló okok viszonylag egyértelműek, az 1-es típus esetében egyre növekvő mennyiségű, de csak töredékes információval rendelkezünk. A genetikai kockázati tényezők megléte – különösen az MHC-gének vonatkozásában – egyértelmű, de egyre bővül a nem MHC-génpolimorfizmusok szerepét alátámasztó adatok mennyisége. A jövő egyik fontos kérdése, hogy a genetikai adatok bővülő tárháza mikor és hogyan vihet közelebb megbízhatóbb diagnosztikus, idővel talán terápiás lehetőségekhez. A patomechanizmus oldaláról is egyre többet tudunk mind az immunológiai sebezhetőségről (az autotolerancia kényes egyensúlya, a regulátoros T-sejtek szerepe), mind a környezetből jövő triggerek potenciális szerepéről (idegen tápanyagok korai bevezetése, vírusfertőzések). Az enteroinsularis tengelynek, az inkretin hormonok β-sejtekre gyakorolt protektív hatásának pontosabb megismerése már talán új terápiás lehetőségek felé mutat. Jelen közleményben a szerzők kísérletet tesznek a patomechanizmus körvonalazódó összefüggéseinek, egyben lehetséges terápiás szerepüknek ismertetésére. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1047–1056.

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