View More View Less
  • 1 Budapesti Gazdasági Egyetem, Kereskedelmi, Vendéglátóipari és Idegenforgalmi Kar, Budapest, Alkotmány u. 9–11., 1054

Absztrakt

Napjainkban egyre nagyobb népszerűségnek örvendenek az energiamentes édesítőszerek, amelyek a vonatkozó európai uniós jogszabály alapján kerülhetnek forgalomba, illetve lehetnek részei élelmiszereinknek. Ugyanakkor egyre-másra látnak napvilágot hírek arról, hogy bizonyos mesterséges intenzív édesítőszerek, köztük is elsősorban az aszpartám, rákkeltő hatással bírnak. Az energiamentes édesítőszerek, mint valamennyi más adalékanyag, kizárólag a közösségi jogszabályokban meghatározott – kockázatbecslést követő – engedélyezés után kerülhetnek fel az engedélyezett anyagok listájára. Ez a lista nemcsak azon élelmiszerek körét határozza meg, amelyekben az adott anyag alkalmazható, hanem a maximálisan felhasználható mennyiséget is megadja. Az Európai Unió élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos kockázatbecslését végző hivatala, az Európai Élelmiszerbiztonsági Hatóság (European Food Safety Authority) az újonnan elvégzett tudományos vizsgálatok tükrében rendszeres időközönként újraértékeli a már engedélyezett adalékanyagok biztonságosságát. Mind ez ideig az engedélyezett, intenzív édesítőszerek biztonságos alkalmazhatósága nem vált kétségessé. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Szuppl. 1.), 14–28.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1

    Marggraf: Chemical experiments made with the intention of extracting real sugar from diverse plants that grow in our lands. [Experiences chimiques faites dans le dessein de tirer un veritable sucre de diverses plantes, qui croissent dans nos contrées.] Histoire de l’académie royale des sciences et belles-lettres de Berlin, 1747. [French]

  • 2

    Cooke, D. A., Scott, R. K.: The beet sugar crop. Chapman and Hall, London, 1993.

  • 3

    Sugar Yearbook 2015. http://isosugar.wix.com/sugaryearbook2015

  • 4

    Abbott, E.: Sugar: A bittersweet history. Duckworth Overlook, London and New York, 2009.

  • 5

    Fahlberg, C., Remsen I.: Über die Oxidation des Orthotoluolsulfamids. Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. Chem. Ber., 1879, 12, 469–473.

  • 6

    Codex General Standard for Food Additives – Codex Stan 192-1995. http://www.maff.go.jp/j/shokusan/seizo/pdf/gsfa2013-01.pdf

  • 7

    Rodler, I. (ed.): Novel nutrient table. [Új tápanyagtáblázat.] Medicina Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2005. [Hungarian]

  • 8

    Sohár, P.: Chemical and toxicological hazards. In: Rodler, I. (ed.): Food safety and nutrition.) [Kémiai, toxikológiai veszélyek. In: Rodler, I. (szerk.): Élelmiszerbiztonság és táplálkozás-egészségügy.] Fodor József Országos Közegészségügyi Központ Országos Élelmezés- és Táplálkozástudományi Intézete, Budapest, 2003. [Hungarian]

  • 9

    Sohár, P.: Benefits and safety of food additives. [Az élelmiszer-adalékanyagok alkalmazásának előnyei és kockázatai.] Gyógyszerészet, 2005, 49(12), 745–750. [Hungarian]

  • 10

    Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2011, L304, 18–63.

  • 11

    9th Codex Alimentarius Commission Procedural Manual, 1995. ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/ProcManuals/Manual_09e.pdf;

  • 12

    Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, Geneve, 2004.http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42849/1/WHO_TRS_922.pdf

  • 13

    Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2002, L31, 1–41.

  • 14

    Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus, Regulation 1-2-89/107: Food additives authorized for use in foodstuffs intended for human consumption. [A Magyar Élelmiszerkönyv 1-2-89/107 számú előírása: Az élelmiszerekhez engedélyezett adalékanyagok általános előírásai.] http://www.omgk.hu/Mekv/1/1289107.pdf [Hungarian]

  • 15

    Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus 1-2-94/35 directive on sweeteners for use in foodstuffs. Amendment for the 152/2009 Regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture. [A Magyar Élelmiszerkönyv 1-2-94/35 számú előírása az élelmiszerekben használható édesítőszerekről. 3. melléklet a 152/2009. (XI. 12.) FVM rendelethez.] http://www.omgk.hu/Mekv/1/129435.pdf [Hungarian]

  • 16

    Regulation (EC) No 1331/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 establishing a common authorisation procedure for food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2008, L354, 1–6.

  • 17

    Regulation (EC) No 1332/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food enzymes. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2008, L354, 7–15.

  • 18

    Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2008, L354, 16–33.

  • 19

    Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2008, L354, 34–50.

  • 20

    Commission Regulation (EU) No 1129/2011 of 11 November 2011 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council by establishing a Union list of food additives. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2011, L295, 1–177.

  • 21

    Commission Regulation (EU) No 1130/2011 of 11 November 2011 amending Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on food additives by establishing a Union list of food additives approved for use in food additives, food enzymes, food flavourings and nutrients. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2008, L295, 178–204,

  • 22

    European Food Additive Database. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/sanco_foods/main/?event=substances.search&substances.pagination=1

  • 23

    Scientific Statement of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food on data requirements for the evaluation of food additives applications following a request from the European Commission. EFSA J., 2009, 1188, 1–7.

  • 24

    Commission Regulation (EU) No 234/2011 of 10 March 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1331/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a common authorisation procedure for food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2011, L64, 15–24.

  • 25

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Guidance for submission for food additive evaluations. EFSA J., 2012, 10(7), 2760–2820. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal

  • 26

    Mortensen, A.: Sweeteners permitted in the European Union: safety aspects. Scand. J. Food Nutr., 2006, 50(3), 104–116.

  • 27

    IPCS Environmental Health Criteria 70: Principles for the safety assessment of food additives and contaminants in food. World Health Organisation, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, 1987. http://www.who.int/pcs/

  • 28

    Kroes, R., Munro, I., Poulsen, E.: Workshop on the scientific evaluation of the safety factor for the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Food Addit. Contam., 1993, 10(3), 269–373.

  • 29

    Benford, D.: The acceptable daily intake. A tool for ensuring food safety. ILSI Europe Consize Monograph Series. International Life Sciences Institute, ILSI Press, Washington, 2000.

  • 30

    Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 of 25 March 2010 setting up a programme for the re-evaluation of approved food additives in accordance with regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on food additives. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2010, L80, 19–27.

  • 31

    Renwick, A. G.: The disposition of saccharin in animals and man – a review. Food Chem. Toxicol., 1985, 23(4–5), 429–435.

  • 32

    Renwick, A. G.: The metabolism of intense sweeteners. Xenobiotica, 1986, 16(10–11), 1057–1071.

  • 33

    Pearson, R. L.: Saccharin. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 34

    Sohár, P.: Food additives. [Élelmiszer-adalékanyagok.] Képzés egy életen át, 2006, 6(1), 7–12. [Hungarian]

  • 35

    Vavasour, E.: Saccharin and it’s salt. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v32je09.htm

  • 36

    Price, J. M., Biava, C. G., Oser, B. L., et al.: Bladder tumours in rats fed cyclohexylamine or high doses of a mixture of cyclamate and saccharin. Science, 1970, 167(3921), 1131–1132.

  • 37

    DuBois, G. E.: Saccharin and cyclamate. In: Mitchell, H. (ed.): Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2006.

  • 38

    Salminen, S., Hallikainen, A.: Sweeteners. In: Branen, A. L., Davidson, P. M., Salminen, S., et al. (eds.): Food additives. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 39

    SCF. Saccharin (opinion expressed on 24 June 1977). Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (4th series). SCF, 1977. CB-AH-77-004 EN-C. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/reports/scf_reports_04.pdf

  • 40

    SCF. Sweeteners (opinion expressed on 14 September 1984). Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (16th series). SCF, 1985. EUR 10210 EN. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/reports/scf_reports_16.pdf

  • 41

    SCF. Saccharin (opinion adopted by the SCF on 2 June 1995). SCF, 1995. http://europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/outcome_en.html

  • 42

    Lásztity, R.: Artificial sweeteners and sugar subtitutes. [Mesterséges édesítőszerek és cukorhelyettesítők.] Cukoripar, 2003, 56(4), 147–150. [Hungarian]

  • 43

    Renwick, A. G., Williams, R. T.: The fate of cyclamate in man and other species. Biochem. J., 1972, 129(4), 869–879.

  • 44

    Bopp, A. B., Sonders, R. C., Kesterson, J. W.: Toxicological aspects of cyclamate and cyclohexylamine. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 1986, 16(3), 213–306.

  • 45

    SCF. Revised opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium salts (expressed on 9 March 2000). SCF, 2000. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out53_en.pdf

  • 46

    Directive 2003/115/EC of the European Parlament and of the Council of 22 December 2003 amending Directive 94/35/EC on sweeteners for use in foodstuffs. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2004, L24, 65–71.

  • 47

    Roberts, H. J.: Reactions attributed to aspartame-containing products: 551 cases. J. Appl. Nutr., 1988, 40, 85–94.

  • 48

    http://www.sweetenerbook.com/aspartame_2.html

  • 49

    SCF. Sweeteners (opinion expressed on 11 December 1987 and 10 November 1988). Reports of the Scientific Committee on Food (21st series). SCF, 1989. EUR 11617 EN. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/reports/scf_reports_21.pdf

  • 50

    SCF. Update on the safety of aspartame (opinion expressed on 4 December 2002). SCF, 2000. http://europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/outcome_en.html

  • 51

    EFSA AFC Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) on the request from the commission related to a new long-term carcinogenicity study on aspartame. EFSA J., 2006, 356, 1–44. http://www.efsa.eu/science/afc/afc_opinions/1471_en.html

  • 52

    EFSA, 2010. Report of the meetings on aspartame with national experts. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/pub/1641

  • 53

    EFSA Statement on the scientific evaluation of two studies related to the safety of artificial sweeteners. EFSA J., 2011, 9(2), 2089. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal

  • 54

    EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive. EFSA J., 2013, 11(12), 3496–3759. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal

  • 55

    Mallikarjun, S., McNeill, A., Sieburth, R.: Aspartame and risk of cancer: A meta-analytic review. Arch. Environm. Occup. Health, 2015, 70(3), 133–141.

  • 56

    Shankar, P., Ahuja, S., Sriram, K.: Non-nutritive sweeteners: Review and update. Nutrition, 2013, 29(11–12), 1293–1299.

  • 57

    Butchko, H. H., Stargel, W. W.: Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the post marketing period. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2001, 34(3), 221–233.

  • 58

    Butchko, H. H., Stargel, W. W., Comer, C. P., et al.: Introduction to aspartame: review of safety. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2002, 35(2 Pt 2), S1–S93.

  • 59

    Soffritti, M., Belpoggi, F., Esposti, D. D., et al.: Aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats. Eur. J. Oncol., 2005, 10(2), 107–116.

  • 60

    Soffritti, M., Belpoggi, F., Esposti, D. D., et al.: First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ. Health Perspect., 2006, 114(3), 379–385.

  • 61

    Von Rymon Lipinsk, G. W., Hanger, L. Y.: Acesulfame K. In: O’Brien Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 62

    SCF. Re-evaluation of acesulfame K with reference to the previous SCF opinion of 1991 (opinion expressed on 9 March 2000). SCF, 2000. http:// europa.eu/comm/food/fs/scf/out52_en.pdf

  • 63

    Molinary, S. Y., Quinlan, M. E.: Sucralose. In: Mitchell, H. (ed.): Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2006.

  • 64

    Goldsmith, L. A., Merkel, C. M.: Sucralose. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 65

    SCF. Sucralose (opinion adopted by the SCF on 7 September 2000). SCF, 2000. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out68_en.pdf

  • 66

    Lindley, M.: Other sweeteners. In: Mitchell, H. (ed.): Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2006.

  • 67

    Kinghorn, A. D., Wu, C. D., Soejarto, D. D.: Stevioside. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 68

    Kinghorn, A. D., Compadre C. M.: Less common high-potency sweeteners. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 69

    SCF. Stevioside as a sweetener (opinion adopted on 17 June 1999). http://www.europa.eu/comm/dg24/health/sc/scf/index_en.html

  • 70

    Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1991 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients. Off. J. Eur. Comm., 1997, L43, 1–6.

  • 71

    Commission Decision of 22 February 2000 refusing the placing on the market of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants and dried leaves as a novel food or novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off. J. Eur. Comm., 2000, L61, 14.

  • 72

    Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food on the safety of steviol glycosides for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J., 2010, 8(4), 1537.

  • 73

    Statement of EFSA: Revised exposure assessment for steviol glycosides for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J., 2011, 9(1), 1972.

  • 74

    Commission Regulation (EU) No 1131/2011 of 11 November 2011 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to steviol glycosides. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2008, L295, 205–211.

  • 75

    Gupta, E., Purwar, S., Sundaram, S., et al.: Nutritional and therapeutic values of Stevia rebaudiana: A review. J. Med. Plants Res., 2013, 7(46), 3343–3353.

  • 76

    Koyama, E., Kitazawa, K., Ohori, Y., et al.: In vitro metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, Stevia mixture and enzymatically modified Stevia in human intestinal microflora. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2003, 41(3), 359–374.

  • 77

    Geuns, J. M, Augustijns, P., Mols, R., et al.: Metabolism of stevioside in pigs and intestinal absorption characteristics of stevioside, rebaudioside A and steviol. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2003, 41(11), 1599–1607.

  • 78

    Geuns, J. M., Buyse, J., Vankeirsbilck, A., et al.: Metabolism of stevioside by healthy subjects. Exp. Biol. Med., 2007, 232(1), 164–173.

  • 79

    Xili, L., Chengjiany, B., Eryi, X., et al.: Chronic oral toxicity and carcinogenicity study of stevioside in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 1992, 30(11), 957–965.

  • 80

    Chan, P., Tomlinson, B., Chen, Y. J., et al.: A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness and tolerability of oral stevioside in human hypertension. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2000, 50(3), 215–220.

  • 81

    Chen, T. H., Chen, S. C., Chan, P., et al.: Mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of stevioside, a glycoside of Stevia rebaudiana. Planta Med., 2005, 71(2), 108–113.

  • 82

    Benford, D. J., DiNovi, M., Schlatter, J.: Safety evaluation of certain food additives: Steviol glycosides. WHO Food Additives Series (JECFA), 2006, 54, 140.

  • 83

    Borrego, F., Montijano, H.: Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 84

    Daniell, W. F.: Katemfe, or the miraculous fruit of Soudan. Pharm. J., 1855, 14, 158.

  • 85

    Higginbotham, J. D., Stephens, J. P.: Food uses of Thaumatococcus daniellii in West Africa. Unpublished report from Tate & Lyle PLC, Reading, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC, 1984.

  • 86

    JECFA, 1986. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Twenty-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization. Technical Report Series 733.

  • 87

    WHO Fodd additive series 20. Thaumatin. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v20je15.htm

  • 88

    Higginbotham, J. D., Snodin, D. J., Eaton, K. K., et al.: Safety evaluation of thaumatin (Talin protein). Food Chem. Toxicol., 1983, 21(6), 815–823.

  • 89

    European Parliament and Council Directive 94/35/EC of 30 June 1994 on sweeteners for use in foodstuffs. Off. J., 1994, L237, 3.

  • 90

    European Parliament and Council Directive of 20 February 1995 on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Off. J., 1995, L61, 1.

  • 91

    Fry, J. C., Hoek, A. C.: Aspartame-acesulfame: Twinsweet. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 92

    Fry, J. C., Meyer, B. I., Mayhew, D. A.: Aspartame-acesulfam. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 4th ed. CRC Press, 2012.

  • 93

    WHO Food Additives Series 52. Neotame. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v52je08.htm

  • 94

    Mayhew, D. A., Meyer, B. I., Stargel, W. W., et al.: Neotam. In: O’Brien-Nabors, L. (ed.): Alternative sweeteners. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.

  • 95

    García-Almeida, J. M., Casado Fdez, G. M., Alemán, J. G.: A current and global review of sweeteners. Regulatory aspects. Nutr. Hosp., 2013, 28(Suppl. 4), 17–31.

  • 96

    JECFA, 2003. Summary and conclusions of the sixty-first meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives, Rome, 10–19 June 2003.

  • 97

    Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food on a request from European Commission on Neotame as a sweetener and flavour enhancer. EFSA J., 2007, 581, 1–43.

  • 98

    Commission Directive 2009/163/EU of 22 December 2009 amending Directive 94/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on sweeteners for use in foodstuffs with regard to neotame. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2009, L344, 37–40.

  • 99

    JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 2013. Summary and Conclusions, Seventy-seventh meeting, Rome, 4–13 June 2013, issued 19 June 2013. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/chem/jecfa/summaries/Summary77.pdf

  • 100

    Otabe, A., Fujieda, T., Masuyama, T., et al.: Advantame – An overview of the toxicity data. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2011, 49(S1), S2–S7.

  • 101

    Renwick, A. G. (ed.): Studies on the metabolism and safety of advantame, a novel non-caloric sweetener. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2011, 49(S1), S1–S84.

  • 102

    Warrington, S., Lee, C., Otabe, A., et al.: Acute and multiple-dose studies to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of advantame in healthy volunteers. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2011, 49(S1), S77–S83.

  • 103

    EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of advantame for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J., 2013, 11(7), 3301–3369.

  • 104

    Commission Regulation (EU) No 497/2014 of 14 May 2014 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council and the Annex to Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as regards the use of Advantame as a sweetener. Off. J. Eur. Union, 2012, L143, 6–13.

  • 105

    Antal, M.: Nutrient requirements. In: Rodler, I. (ed.): Novel nutrient table. [Tápanyagszükséglet. In: Rodler, I. (szerk.): Új tápanyagtáblázat.] Medicina Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2005.[Hungarian]

  • 106

    Sarkadi Nagy, E., Bakacs, M., Illés, É., et al.: Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey – The OTAP2009 study. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population. [Országos Táplálkozás és Tápláltsági Állapot Vizsgálat – OTÁP2009. II. A magyar lakosság energia- és makrotápanyag-bevitele.] Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153(27), 1057–1067. [Hungarian]

  • 107

    Martos, É., Kovács, V. A., Bakacs, M., et al.: Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey – The OTAP 2009 study. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian population. [Országos Táplálkozás- és Tápláltsági Állapot Vizsgálat – OTÁP2009. I. A magyar lakosság tápláltsági állapota.] Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153(26), 1023–1030. [Hungarian]

  • 108

    Lindley, M.: Bulk sweet tasting compounds in food product development. In: Spillane, W. J. (ed.): Optimising sweet taste in foods. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. & CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006.

  • 109

    Bruyère, O., Ahmed, H. S., Atlan, C., et al.: Review of the nutritional benefits and risks related to intense sweeteners. Arch. Public Health, 2015, 73, 41.

  • 110

    Miller, P. E., Perez, V.: Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2014, 100(3), 765–777.