If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Lesurtel M, Perrier A, Bossuyt PM, et al. An independent jury-based
consensus conference model for the development of recommendations in
medico-surgical practice. Surgery 2014; 155: 390–397.
Desolneux G, Isambert M, Mathoulin-Pelissier S, et al.
Contrast-enhanced intra-operative ultrasound as a clinical decision making tool
during surgery for colorectal liver metastases: the ULIIS study. Eur J Surg
Oncol. 2019: 1212–1218.
Floriani I, Torri V, Rulli E, et al. Performance of imaging
modalities in diagnosis of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a systematic
review and meta analysis. J Magn Reson Imaging 2010; 31: 19–31.
Moulton C-A, Gu C-S, Law CH, et al. Effect of PET before liver
resection on surgical management for colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases: a
randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014; 311: 1863–1869.
Jones O, Rees M, John T, et al. Biopsy of resectable colorectal
liver metastases causes tumour dissemination and adversely affects survival
after liver resection. Br J Surg. 2005; 92: 1165–1168.
Suo L, Chang R, Padmanabhan V, et al. For diagnosis of liver masses,
fine-needle aspiration versus needle core biopsy: which is better? Am J Clin
Pathol. 2018; 7: 46–49.
Kim JS, Won HJ, Lee SJ, et al. Utility and safety of repeated
ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of focal liver masses. J Ultrasound Med.
2018; 37: 447–452.
George A, Manghat N, Hamilton M. Comparison between a fixed-dose
contrast protocol and a weight-based contrast dosing protocol in abdominal CT.
Clin Radiol. 2016; 71: 1314. e1–1314.e9.
Beckers RC, Lambregts DM, Lahaye MJ, et al. Advanced imaging to
predict response to chemotherapy in colorectal liver metastases – a systematic
review. HPB (Oxford) 2018; 20: 120–127.
Kekelidze M, D’Errico L, Pansini M, et al. Colorectal cancer:
current imaging methods and future perspectives for the diagnosis, staging and
therapeutic response evaluation. World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19:
Eisenhauer EA, Therasse P, Bogaerts J, et al. New response
evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1).
Eur J Cancer 2009; 45: 228–247.
Oba A, Mise Y, Ito H, et al. Clinical implications of disappearing
colorectal liver metastases have changed in the era of hepatocyte-specific MRI
and contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasonography. HPB (Oxford) 2018; 20:
Tsilimigras DI, Ntanasis-Stathopoulos I, Paredes AZ, et al.
Disappearing liver metastases: a systematic review of the current evidence. Surg
Oncol. 2019; 29: 7–13.
Ferrero A, Langella S, Russolillo N, et al. Intraoperative detection
of disappearing colorectal liver metastases as a predictor of residual disease.
J Gastrointest Surg. 2012; 16: 806–814.
Bandar A, Hussain M, Kim NK. Current status and future perspectives
on treatment of liver metastasis in colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2017; 37:
Sadot E, Koerkamp BG, Leal JN, et al. Resection margin and survival
in 2368 patients undergoing hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer:
surgical technique or biologic surrogate? Ann Surg. 2015; 262:
House MG, Ito H, Gönen M, et al. Survival after hepatic resection
for metastatic colorectal cancer: trends in outcomes for 1,600 patients during
two decades at a single institution. J Am Coll Surg. 2010; 210:
Chakedis J, Schmidt CR. Surgical treatment of metastatic colorectal
cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2018; 27: 377–399.
Torzilli G, Procopio F, Botea F, et al. One-stage
ultrasonographically guided hepatectomy for multiple bilobar colorectal
metastases: a feasible and effective alternative to the 2-stage approach.
Surgery 2009; 146: 60–71.
Meijerink MR, Puijk RS, van Tilborg AA, et al. Radiofrequency and
microwave ablation compared to systemic chemotherapy and to partial hepatectomy
in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases: a systematic review and
meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2018; 41:
Mizuno T, Cloyd JM, Omichi K, et al. Two-stage hepatectomy vs
one-stage major hepatectomy with contralateral resection or ablation for
advanced bilobar colorectal liver metastases. J Am Coll Surg. 2018; 226:
Rassam F, Olthof PB, Bennink RJ, et al. Current modalities for the
assessment of future remnant liver function. Visc Med. 2017; 33:
D’Onofrio M, De Robertis R, Demozzi E, et al. Liver volumetry: is
imaging reliable? Personal experience and review of the literature. World J
Radiol. 2014; 6: 62–71.
Vauthey JN, Chaoui A, Do KA, et al. Standardized measurement of the
future liver remnant prior to extended liver resection: methodology and clinical
associations. Surgery 2000; 127: 512–519.
Shindoh J, Tzeng CW, Aloia TA, et al. Optimal future liver remnant
in patients treated with extensive preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal
liver metastases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013; 20: 2493–2500.
Adams RB, Aloia TA, Loyer E, et al. Selection for hepatic resection
of colorectal liver metastases: expert consensus statement. HPB (Oxford) 2013;
Kishi Y, Abdalla EK, Chun YS, et al. Three hundred and one
consecutive extended right hepatectomies: evaluation of outcome based on
systematic liver volumetry. Ann Surg. 2009; 250: 540–548.
De Graaf W, Van Lienden KP, Dinant S, et al. Assessment of future
remnant liver function using hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients undergoing
major liver resection. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010; 14: 369–378.
Chapelle T, De Beeck BO, Huyghe I, et al. Future remnant liver
function estimated by combining liver volumetry on magnetic resonance imaging
with total liver function on 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy: can
this tool predict post-hepatectomy liver failure? HPB (Oxford) 2016; 18:
Schroeder RA, Marroquin CE, Bute BP, et al. Predictive indices of
morbidity and mortality after liver resection. Ann Surg. 2006; 243:
Margonis GA, Sergentanis TN, Ntanasis-Stathopoulos I, et al. Impact
of surgical margin width on recurrence and overall survival following R0 hepatic
resection of colorectal metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann
Surg. 2018; 267: 1047–1055.
Liu W, Sun Y, Zhang L, et al. Negative surgical margin improved
long-term survival of colorectal cancer liver metastases after hepatic
resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2015;
Ardito F, Panettieri E, Vellone M, et al. The impact of R1 resection
for colorectal liver metastases on local recurrence and overall survival in the
era of modern chemotherapy: an analysis of 1,428 resection areas. Surgery 2019;
Viganò L, Procopio F, Cimino MM, et al. Is tumor detachment from
vascular structures equivalent to R0 resection in surgery for colorectal liver
metastases? An observational cohort. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016; 23:
de Haas RJ, Wicherts DA, Flores E, et al. R1 resection by necessity
for colorectal liver metastases: is it still a contraindication to surgery? Ann
Surg. 2008; 248: 626–637.
Margonis GA, Spolverato G, Kim Y, et al. Intraoperative surgical
margin re-resection for colorectal liver metastasis: is it worth the effort? J
Gastrointest Surg. 2015; 19: 699–707.
Moris D, Ronnekleiv-Kelly S, Rahnemai-Azar AA, et al.
Parenchymal-sparing versus anatomic liver resection for colorectal liver
metastases: a systematic review. J Gastrointest Surg. 2017; 21:
Luo L, Yu Z, Huang J, et al. Selecting patients for a second
hepatectomy for colorectal metastases: an systemic review and meta-analysis. Eur
J Surg Oncol. 2014; 40: 1036–1048.
Giglio MC, Giakoustidis A, Draz A, et al. Oncological outcomes of
major liver resection following portal vein embolization: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016; 23: 3709–3717.
Isfordink C, Samim M, Braat M, et al. Portal vein ligation versus
portal vein embolization for induction of hypertrophy of the future liver
remnant: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surg Oncol. 2017; 26:
De Graaf W, Van Lienden K, Van Den Esschert J, et al. Increase in
future remnant liver function after preoperative portal vein embolization. Br J
Surg. 2011; 98: 825–834.
Cieslak KP, Bennink RJ, de Graaf W, et al. Measurement of liver
function using hepatobiliary scintigraphy improves risk assessment in patients
undergoing major liver resection. HPB (Oxford) 2016; 18:
Van Lienden K, Van Den Esschert J, De Graaf W, et al. Portal vein
embolization before liver resection: a systematic review. Cardiovasc Intervent
Radiol. 2013; 36: 25–34.
Pommier R, Ronot M, Cauchy F, et al. Colorectal liver metastases
growth in the embolized and non-embolized liver after portal vein embolization:
influence of initial response to induction chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;
Spelt L, Sparrelid E, Isaksson B, et al. Tumour growth after portal
vein embolization with pre-procedural chemotherapy for colorectal liver
metastases. HPB (Oxford) 2015; 17: 529–535.
Fischer C, Melstrom LG, Arnaoutakis D, et al. Chemotherapy after
portal vein embolization to protect against tumor growth during liver
hypertrophy before hepatectomy. JAMA Surg. 2013; 148:
Wicherts DA, de Haas RJ, Sebagh M, et al. Impact of bevacizumab on
functional recovery and histology of the liver after resection of colorectal
metastases. Br J Surg. 2011; 98: 399–407.
D’Angelica M, Kornprat P, Gonen M, et al. Lack of evidence for
increased operative morbidity after hepatectomy with perioperative use of
bevacizumab: a matched case-control study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007; 14:
Enne M, Schadde E, Björnsson B, et al. ALPPS as a salvage procedure
after insufficient future liver remnant hypertrophy following portal vein
occlusion. HPB (Oxford) 2017; 19: 1126–1129.
Sandström P, Røsok BI, Sparrelid E, et al. ALPPS improves
resectability compared with conventional two-stage hepatectomy in patients with
advanced colorectal liver metastasis: results from a Scandinavian multicenter
randomized controlled trial (LIGRO trial). Ann Surg. 2018; 267:
Linecker M, Stavrou GA, Oldhafer KJ, et al. The ALPPS risk score.
Ann Surg. 2016; 264: 763–771.
Serenari M, Collaud C, Alvarez FA, et al. Interstage assessment of
remnant liver function in ALPPS using hepatobiliary scintigraphy: prediction of
posthepatectomy liver failure and introduction of the HIBA index. Ann Surg.
2018; 267: 1141–1147.
Oldhafer KJ, Stavrou GA, van Gulik TM. ALPPS – where do we stand,
where do we go? Eight recommendations from the first international expert
meeting. Ann Surg. 2016; 263: 839–841.
de Santibañes E, Alvarez FA, Ardiles V, et al. Inverting the ALPPS
paradigm by minimizing first stage impact: the Mini-ALPPS technique. Langenbecks
Arch Surg. 2016; 401: 557–563.
Machado MAC, Makdissi FF, Surjan RC. Totally laparoscopic ALPPS is
feasible and may be worthwhile. Ann Surg. 2012; 256: e13.
Machado MA, Makdissi FF, Surjan RC, et al. Transition from open to
laparoscopic ALPPS for patients with very small FLR: the initial experience. HPB
(Oxford) 2017; 19: 59–66.
Linecker M, Kuemmerli C, Kambakamba P, et al. Performance validation
of the ALPPS risk model. HPB (Oxford) 2019; 21: 711–721.
Schadde E, Raptis DA, Schnitzbauer AA, et al. Prediction of
mortality after ALPPS Stage-1. Ann Surg. 2015; 262: 780–786.
Wakabayashi G, Cherqui D, Geller DA, et al. Recommendations for
laparoscopic liver resection: a report from the second international consensus
conference held in Morioka. Ann Surg. 2015; 261: 619–629.
Hilal MA, Aldrighetti L, Dagher I, et al. The Southampton consensus
guidelines for laparoscopic liver surgery: from indication to implementation.
Ann Surg. 2018; 268: 11–18.
Lupinacci R, Andraus W, Haddad LDP, et al. Simultaneous laparoscopic
resection of primary colorectal cancer and associated liver metastases: a
systematic review. Tech Coloproctol. 2014; 18: 129–135.
Shelat V, Serin K, Samim M, et al. Outcomes of repeat laparoscopic
liver resection compared to the primary resection. World J Surg. 2014; 38:
Fuks D, Nomi T, Ogiso S, et al. Laparoscopic two-stage hepatectomy
for bilobar colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg. 2015; 102:
Ciria R, Cherqui D, Geller DA, et al. Comparative short-term
benefits of laparoscopic liver resection: 9000 cases and climbing. Ann Surg.
2016; 263: 761–777.
Scuderi V, Barkhatov L, Montalti R, et al. Outcome after
laparoscopic and open resections of posterosuperior segments of the liver. Br J
Surg. 2017; 104: 751–759.
Vigano L, Laurent A, Tayar C, et al. The learning curve in
laparoscopic liver resection: improved feasibility and reproducibility. Ann
Surg. 2009; 250: 772–782.
Veit P, Antoch G, Stergar H, et al. Detection of residual tumor
after radiofrequency ablation of liver metastasis with dual-modality PET/CT:
initial results. Eur Radiol. 2006; 16: 80–87.
Liang P, Yu J, Lu M-D, et al. Practice guidelines for
ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for hepatic malignancy. World
J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19: 5430–5438.
Crocetti L, De Baere T, Lencioni R. Quality improvement guidelines
for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010;
Stang A, Oldhafer KJ, Weilert H, et al. Selection criteria for
radiofrequency ablation for colorectal liver metastases in the era of effective
systemic therapy: a clinical score based proposal. BMC Cancer 2014; 14:
Laursen T, Hagemann CA, Wei C, et al. Bariatric surgery in patients
with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – from pathophysiology to clinical
effects. World J Hepatol. 2019; 11: 138–149.
Sasaki K, Margonis GA, Andreatos N, et al. Combined resection and
RFA in colorectal liver metastases: stratification of long-term outcomes. J Surg
Res. 2016; 206: 182–189.
Han Y, Yan D, Xu F, et al. Radiofrequency ablation versus liver
resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis: an updated systematic review
and meta-analysis. Chin Med J. 2016; 129: 2983–2990.
Tsitskari M, Filippiadis D, Kostantos C, et al. The role of
interventional oncology in the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases.
Ann Gastroenterol. 2019; 32: 147–155.
Gillams A, Goldberg N, Ahmed M, et al. Thermal ablation of
colorectal liver metastases: a position paper by an international panel of
ablation experts, The Interventional Oncology Sans Frontières meeting 2013. Eur
Radiol. 2015; 25: 3438–3454.
Wang X, Sofocleous CT, Erinjeri JP, et al. Margin size is an
independent predictor of local tumor progression after ablation of colon cancer
liver metastases. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2013; 36:
Shady W, Petre EN, Do KG, et al. Percutaneous microwave versus
radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases: ablation with clear
margins (A0) provides the best local tumor control. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018;
Kaye EA, Cornelis FH, Petre EN, et al. Volumetric 3D assessment of
ablation zones after thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases to improve
prediction of local tumor progression. Eur Radiol. 2019; 29:
Sainani NI, Gervais DA, Mueller PR, et al. Imaging after
percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors: Part 1, Normal findings.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013; 200: 184–193.
Dupré A, Jones RP, Diaz-Nieto R, et al. Curative-intent treatment of
recurrent colorectal liver metastases: a comparison between ablation and
resection. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017; 43: 1901–1907.
Lencioni R, De Baere T, Martin RC, et al. Image-guided ablation of
malignant liver tumors: recommendations for clinical validation of novel thermal
and non-thermal technologies – a western perspective. Liver Cancer 2015; 4:
Venkat SR, Mohan PP, Gandhi RT. Colorectal liver metastasis:
overview of treatment paradigm highlighting the role of ablation. AJR Am J
Roentgenol. 2018; 210: 883–890.
van Amerongen MJ, Jenniskens SF, van den Boezem PB, et al.
Radiofrequency ablation compared to surgical resection for curative treatment of
patients with colorectal liver metastases – a meta-analysis. HPB (Oxford) 2017;
Ravaioli M, Ercolani G, Neri F, et al. Liver transplantation for
hepatic tumors: a systematic review. World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20:
Herrero A, Nadalin S, Panaro F. Liver transplantation for
irresectable colorectal liver metastases: still a contraindication?
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2018; 7: 475–478.
Hagness M, Foss A, Line P-D, et al. Liver transplantation for
nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Ann Surg. 2013; 257:
Gorgen A, Muaddi H, Zhang W, et al. The new era of transplant
oncology: liver transplantation for nonresectable colorectal cancer liver
metastases. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 2018: 9531925.
Line P-D, Hagness M, Berstad AE, et al. A novel concept for partial
liver transplantation in nonresectable colorectal liver metastases: the RAPID
concept. Ann Surg. 2015; 262: e5–e9.
Engstrand J, Nilsson H, Strömberg C, et al. Colorectal cancer liver
metastases – a population-based study on incidence, management and survival. BMC
Cancer 2018; 18: 78.
Makowiec F, Menzel M, Bronsert P, et al. Does the site of primary
colorectal cancer influence the outcome after resection of isolated liver
metastases? Dig Liver Dis. 2018; 50: 1088–1092.
Petrelli F, Coinu A, Zaniboni A, et al. Prognostic factors after R0
resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases: a systematic review and
pooled-analysis. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2016; 11: 56–62.
Slesser AA, Chand M, Goldin R, et al. Outcomes of simultaneous
resections for patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases. Eur J Surg
Oncol. 2013; 39: 1384–1393.
Reddy SK, Pawlik TM, Zorzi D, et al. Simultaneous resections of
colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases: a multi-institutional
analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007; 14: 3481–3491.
Feng Q, Wei Y, Zhu D, et al. Timing of hepatectomy for resectable
synchronous colorectal liver metastases: for whom simultaneous resection is more
suitable – a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e104348.
Ihnát P, Vávra P, Zonča P. Treatment strategies for colorectal
carcinoma with synchronous liver metastases: which way to go? World J
Gastroenterol. 2015; 21: 7014–7021.
Karoui M, Penna C, Amin-Hashem M, et al. Influence of preoperative
chemotherapy on the risk of major hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases.
Ann Surg. 2006; 243: 1–7.
Adam R, de Gramont A, Figueras J, et al. Managing synchronous liver
metastases from colorectal cancer: a multidisciplinary international consensus.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2015; 41: 729–741.
Mentha G, Majno P, Andres A, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and
resection of advanced synchronous liver metastases before treatment of the
colorectal primary. Br J Surg. 2006; 93: 872–878.
Nordlinger B, Vauthey J-N, Poston G, et al. The timing of
chemotherapy and surgery for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases. Clin
Colorectal Cancer 2010; 9: 212–218.
Basso M, Dadduzio V, Ardito F, et al. Conversion chemotherapy for
technically unresectable colorectal liver metastases: a retrospective,
STROBE-compliant, single-center study comparing chemotherapy alone and
combination chemotherapy with cetuximab or bevacizumab. Medicine 2016; 95:
Takatsuki M, Tokunaga S, Uchida S, et al. Evaluation of
resectability after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary non-resectable
colorectal liver metastases: a multicenter study. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42:
Brule S, Jonker D, Karapetis C, et al. Location of colon cancer
(right-sided versus left-sided) as a prognostic factor and a predictor of
benefit from cetuximab in NCIC CO.17. Eur J Cancer 2015; 51:
Wang F, Bai L, Liu T-S, et al. Right- and left-sided colorectal
cancers respond differently to cetuximab. Chin J Cancer 2015; 34:
Overman MJ, McDermott R, Leach JL, et al. Nivolumab in patients with
metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient or microsatellite instability-high
colorectal cancer (CheckMate 142): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study.
Lancet Oncol. 2017; 18: 1182–1191.
Masi G, Loupakis F, Salvatore L, et al. Bevacizumab with FOLFOXIRI
(irinotecan, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and folinate) as first-line treatment
for metastatic colorectal cancer: a phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010; 11:
Ye LC, Liu TS, Ren L, et al. Randomized controlled trial of
cetuximab plus chemotherapy for patients with KRAS wild-type unresectable
colorectal liver-limited metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31:
Stintzing S, Modest D, Fischer von Weikersthal L, et al. LBA11
Independent radiological (AIO KRK-0306) in the final RAS evaluable population.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(Suppl 4) v1–v41. mdu438.9.
Nordlinger B, Van Cutsem E, Gruenberger T, et al. Combination of
surgery and chemotherapy and the role of targeted agents in the treatment of
patients with colorectal liver metastases: recommendations from an expert panel.
Ann Oncol. 2009; 20: 985–992.
Mansmann UR, Laubender RP, Giessen CA, et al. Validating the
prognostic relevance of initial change in tumor size using a series of
therapeutic regimens for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). J
Clin Oncol. 2012; 30: 580–580.
Haller DG, Rothenberg ML, Wong AO, et al. Oxaliplatin plus
irinotecan compared with irinotecan alone as second-line treatment after
single-agent fluoropyrimidine therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. J
Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 4544–4550.
Koopman M, Antonini NF, Douma J, et al. Sequential versus
combination chemotherapy with capecitabine, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin in
advanced colorectal cancer (CAIRO): a phase III randomised controlled trial.
Lancet 2007; 370: 135–142.
Rougier P, Van Cutsem E, Bajetta E, et al. Randomised trial of
irinotecan versus fluorouracil by continuous infusion after fluorouracil failure
in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Lancet 1998; 352:
Fong Y, Fortner J, Sun RL, et al. Clinical score for predicting
recurrence after hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer: analysis of
1001 consecutive cases. Ann Surg. 1999; 230: 309–318.
Nordlinger B, Sorbye H, Glimelius B, et al. Perioperative
chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 and surgery versus surgery alone for resectable liver
metastases from colorectal cancer (EORTC Intergroup trial 40983): a randomised
controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 371: 1007–1016.
Nordlinger B, Sorbye H, Glimelius B, et al. Perioperative FOLFOX4
chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone for resectable liver metastases
from colorectal cancer (EORTC 40983): long-term results of a randomised,
controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14: 1208–1215.
Adam R, Delvart V, Pascal G, et al. Rescue surgery for unresectable
colorectal liver metastases downstaged by chemotherapy: a model to predict
long-term survival. Ann Surg. 2004; 240: 644–658.
Gruenberger B, Tamandl D, Schueller J, et al. Bevacizumab,
capecitabine, and oxaliplatin as neoadjuvant therapy for patients with
potentially curable metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26:
de Gramont Ad, Figer A, Seymour M, et al. Leucovorin and
fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced
colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 2938–2947.
Ranpura V, Hapani S, Wu S. Treatment-related mortality with
bevacizumab in cancer patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2011; 305:
Robinson SM, Wilson CH, Burt AD, et al. Chemotherapy-associated
liver injury in patients with colorectal liver metastases: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19: 4287–4299.
Kishi Y, Zorzi D, Contreras CM, et al. Extended preoperative
chemotherapy does not improve pathologic response and increases postoperative
liver insufficiency after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases. Ann
Surg Oncol. 2010; 17: 2870–2876.
Welsh F, Tilney H, Tekkis P, et al. Safe liver resection following
chemotherapy for colorectal metastases is a matter of timing. Br J Cancer 2007;
Ward J, Guthrie JA, Sheridan MB, et al. Sinusoidal obstructive
syndrome diagnosed with superparamagnetic iron oxide – Enhanced magnetic
resonance imaging in patients with chemotherapy – Treated colorectal liver
metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 4304–4310.
Passot G, Soubrane O, Giuliante F, et al. Recent advances in
chemotherapy and surgery for colorectal liver metastases. Liver Cancer 2017; 6:
Van Cutsem E, Cervantes A, Adam R, et al. ESMO consensus guidelines
for the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol.
2016; 27: 1386–1422.
Cremolini C, Loupakis F, Antoniotti C, et al. FOLFOXIRI plus
bevacizumab versus FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment of patients
with metastatic colorectal cancer: updated overall survival and molecular
subgroup analyses of the open-label, phase 3 TRIBE study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;
Loupakis F, Cremolini C, Masi G, et al. Initial therapy with
FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;
Adam R, Pascal G, Castaing D, et al. Tumor progression while on
chemotherapy: a contraindication to liver resection for multiple colorectal
metastases? Ann Surg. 2004; 240: 1052.
Viganò L, Capussotti L, Barroso E, et al. Progression while
receiving preoperative chemotherapy should not be an absolute contraindication
to liver resection for colorectal metastases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19:
Benoist S, Brouquet A, Penna C, et al. Complete response of
colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: does it mean cure? J Clin Oncol.
2006; 24: 3939–3945.
Van Vledder MG, De Jong MC, Pawlik TM, et al. Disappearing
colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: should we be concerned? J
Gastrointest Surg. 2010; 14: 1691–1700.
Auer RC, White RR, Kemeny NE, et al. Predictors of a true complete
response among disappearing liver metastases from colorectal cancer after
chemotherapy. Cancer 2010; 116: 1502–1509.
Passot G, Odisio BC, Zorzi D, et al. Eradication of missing liver
metastases after fiducial placement. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016; 20:
Zalinski S, Abdalla EK, Mahvash A, et al. A marking technique for
intraoperative localization of small liver metastases before systemic
chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009; 16: 1208–1211.
Sobrero A, Damiani A. Maintenance therapy in advanced colorectal
cancer, yes or no? Ask the laboratory. Ann Oncol. 2017; 28:
Koopman M, Simkens LH, Ten Tije AJ, et al. Maintenance treatment
with capecitabine and bevacizumab versus observation after induction treatment
with chemotherapy and bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): the
phase III CAIRO3 study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG). Lancet 2015;
Zhou M, Fu L, Zhang J. Who will benefit more from maintenance
therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer? Oncotarget 2018; 9:
Hadden WJ, de Reuver PR, Brown K, et al. Resection of colorectal
liver metastases and extra-hepatic disease: a systematic review and proportional
meta-analysis of survival outcomes. HPB (Oxford) 2016; 18:
Headrick JR, Miller DL, Nagorney DM, et al. Surgical treatment of
hepatic and pulmonary metastases from colon cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001; 71:
Hammound MA, McCutcheon IE, Elsouki R, et al. Colorectal carcinoma
and brain metastasis: distribution, treatment, and survival. Ann Surg Oncol.
1996; 3: 453–463.
Glehen O, Gilly FN, Boutitie F, et al. Toward curative treatment of
peritoneal carcinomatosis from nonovarian origin by cytoreductive surgery
combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a multi-institutional
study of 1290 patients. Cancer 2010; 116: 5608–5618.
Hong YS, Nam BH, Kim KP, et al. Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and
leucovorin versus fluorouracil and leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for
locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (ADORE): an
open-label, multicentre, phase 2, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol.
2014; 15: 1245–1253.
André T, Boni C, Navarro M, et al. Improved overall survival with
oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment in stage II or
III colon cancer in the MOSAIC trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27:
Quah HM, Chou JF, Gonen M, et al. Identification of patients with
high-risk stage II colon cancer for adjuvant therapy. Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51:
Modest DP, Ricard I, Heinemann V, et al. Outcome according to KRAS-,
NRAS- and BRAF-mutation as well as KRAS mutation variants: pooled analysis of
five randomized trials in metastatic colorectal cancer by the AIO colorectal
cancer study group. Ann Oncol. 2016; 27: 1746–1753.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Hepatobiliary Cancers
(Version 2.2019). March 6, 2019. Available from:
[accessed: July 12, 2019].
Primrose JN, Perera R, Gray A, et al. Effect of 3 to 5 years of
scheduled CEA and CT follow-up to detect recurrence of colorectal cancer: the
FACS randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014; 311: 263–270.
Thirunavukarasu P, Talati C, Munjal S, et al. Effect of
incorporation of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels into AJCC
staging for colon cancer on 5-year survival. JAMA Surg. 2015; 150:
Park IJ, Choi G-S, Lim KH, et al. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen
monitoring after curative resection for colorectal cancer: clinical significance
of the preoperative level. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009; 16: 3087–3093.
Sepulveda AR, Hamilton SR, Allegra CJ, et al. Molecular biomarkers
for the evaluation of colorectal cancer: guideline from the American Society for
Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular
Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology. Am J Clin Pathol. 2017;
Jehn C, Böning L, Kröning H, et al. Cetuximab-based therapy in
elderly comorbid patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 2012;
Seymour MT, Thompson LC, Wasan HS, et al. Chemotherapy options in
elderly and frail patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MRC FOCUS2): an
open-label, randomised factorial trial. Lancet 2011; 377:
Hurwitz HI, Tebbutt NC, Kabbinavar F, et al. Efficacy and safety of
bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer: pooled analysis from seven
randomized controlled trials. Oncologist 2013; 18: 1004–1012.
Tejpar S, Stintzing S, Ciardiello F, et al. Prognostic and
predictive relevance of primary tumor location in patients with RAS wild-type
metastatic colorectal cancer: retrospective analyses of the CRYSTAL and FIRE-3
trials. JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3: 194–201.
Stang A, Donati M, Weilert H, et al. Impact of systemic therapy and
recurrence pattern on survival outcome after radiofrequency ablation for
colorectal liver metastases. J Cancer 2016; 7: 1939–1949.
Vogl TJ, Farshid P, Naguib NN, et al. Thermal ablation of liver
metastases from colorectal cancer: radiofrequency, microwave and laser ablation
therapies. Radiol Med. 2014; 119: 451–461.
Zacharias AJ, Jayakrishnan TT, Rajeev R, et al. Comparative
effectiveness of hepatic artery based therapies for unresectable colorectal
liver metastases: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2015; 10: e0139940.
Vogl TJ, Lahrsow M, Albrecht MH, et al. Survival of patients with
non-resectable, chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer liver metastases
undergoing conventional lipiodol-based transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE)
palliatively versus neoadjuvantly prior to percutaneous thermal ablation. Eur J
Radiol. 2018; 102: 138–145.
Scorsetti M, Comito T, Tozzi A, et al. Final results of a phase II
trial for stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with inoperable liver
metastases from colorectal cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141:
Martinez-Monge R, Nag S, Nieroda CA, et al. Iodine-125 brachytherapy
in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the liver. Cancer
1999; 85: 1218–1225.