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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Szentkirályi u. 46., 1088
  • 2 Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest
  • 3 Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
  • 4 Kísérleti Orvostudományi Kutatóintézet, Budapest
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Absztrakt:

A colorectalis carcinoma (CRC) az egyik leggyakrabban előforduló daganatos megbetegedés világszerte. A sporadikus vastagbélrák incidenciája ötvenéves kor alatt alacsonyabb, majd az életkor előrehaladtával nő, továbbá jellegzetes klinikai, lokalizáció szerinti és molekuláris eltérést mutathat a nők és a férfiak között. Epidemiológiai és molekuláris biológiai kutatások eredményei szerint az ösztradiol (E2) által szabályozott jelútrendszer meghatározó szerepet játszik a CRC kialakulásában és prognosztikájában, döntően a vastagbélhámban domináns ösztrogénreceptor-bétán (ERβ) keresztül. Az ösztradiol emésztőrendszeri hatásai igen sokrétűek, az ép és tumoros vastagbélhámsejtekre gyakorolt hatását in vitro és in vivo vizsgálatok egyaránt igazolták. Az ösztrogénreceptor-alfával (ERα) ellentétben az ERβ aktivációja a sejtosztódást gátolja és az apoptózist fokozza, a béta-receptor kifejeződése ugyanakkor mind az élettani öregedés, mind a vastagbél kórállapotaiban megváltozhat. Az ösztradiol ERβ által közvetített daganatellenes hatása a sejtproliferáció gátlása, az apoptózis serkentése, az áttétképzés gátlása és gyulladáscsökkentő hatása révén valósulhat meg. Sejtkultúra- és állatkísérletes kutatások eredményei alapján az ösztrogénreceptor-bétára szelektíven ható receptormodulátorok (szelektív ösztrogénreceptor-modulátor [SERM]) és a fitoösztrogének új, hozzáadott kezelési lehetőséget jelenthetnek az idült gyulladással és a kóros sejtproliferációval jellemezhető colorectalis megbetegedésekben. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(14): 532–543.

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