Authors:
Agnieszka Szarkowska Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw, ul. Dobra 55, 00-312 Warsaw, PolandPhone: +48 225526021 E-mail: a.szarkowska@uw.edu.plE-mail: olga.pilipczuk@gmail.comE-mail: lukasz.dutka@uw.edu.pl

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Izabela Krejtz Szkoła Wyższa Psychologii Społecznej ul. Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warsaw, PolandPhone: + 48 225179600 E-mail: ikrejtz@swps.edu.pl

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Olga Pilipczuk Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw, ul. Dobra 55, 00-312 Warsaw, PolandPhone: +48 225526021 E-mail: a.szarkowska@uw.edu.plE-mail: olga.pilipczuk@gmail.comE-mail: lukasz.dutka@uw.edu.pl

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Łukasz Dutka Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw, ul. Dobra 55, 00-312 Warsaw, PolandPhone: +48 225526021 E-mail: a.szarkowska@uw.edu.plE-mail: olga.pilipczuk@gmail.comE-mail: lukasz.dutka@uw.edu.pl

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Jan-Louis Kruger Macquarie University Balaclava Road, NSW 2109 Sydney, AustraliaPhone: +61 449630802 E-mail: janlouis.kruger@mq.edu.au

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In this paper we examine the influence of text editing (edited vs. verbatim subtitles) and subtitle presentation rates (12 vs. 15 characters per second) on the comprehension and reading patterns of interlingual and intralingual subtitles among a group of 44 deaf, 33 hard of hearing and 60 hearing Polish adult subjects. The results of the eyetracking study show no benefit of editing down the text of subtitles, particularly in the case of intralingual subtitling and deaf viewers. Verbatim subtitles displayed with the higher presentation rate yielded slightly better comprehension results, were skipped less often, and resulted in more effective reading patterns. Deaf and hard of hearing participants had lower comprehension than hearing people; they also had a higher number of fixations per subtitle and were found to dwell on subtitles longer than the hearing.

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  • Krejtz, I., Szarkowska, A., & Krejtz, K. 2013. Effects of Shot Changes on Eye Movements in Subtitling. Journal of Eye Movement Research Vol. 6. No. 5. 3, 1-12.

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  • Kruger, J.-L. 2013. Subtitles in the Classroom: Balancing the Benefits of Dual Coding with the Cost of Increased Cognitive Load. Journal for Language Teaching Vol. 47. No. 1. 2953.

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  • Kruger, J.-L., Szarkowska, A. & Krejtz, I. 2015. Subtitles on the Moving Image: An Overview of Eye Tracking Studies. Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol. 25. 114.

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  • Martí Ferriol, J. L. 2013. Subtitle Reading Speed. A New Tool for its Estimation. Babel Vol. 59. No. 4. 406420.

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  • Neves, J. 2008. Ten Fallacies about Subtitling for the d/Deaf and the Hard of Hearing. Journal of Specialised Translation Vol. 10. 128143.

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  • Robson, G. 2004. The Closed Captioning Handbook. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Romero

  • Fresco, P. 2009. More Haste than Speed: Edited versus Verbatim Respoken Subtitles. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics Vol. 6. 109133.

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  • Romero-Fresco, P. 2015. The Reception of Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Europe. Bern: Peter Lang.

  • Schilperoord, J., de Groot, V. & van Son, N. 2005. Nonverbatim Captioning in Dutch Television Programs: A Text Linguistic Approach. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Vol. 10. No. 4. 402416.

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  • Sundbye, N. 1987. Text Explicitness and Inferential Questioning: Effects on Story Understanding and Recall. Reading Research Quarterly Vol. 22. 8298.

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  • Szarkowska A. 2010. Accessibility to the Media by Hearing Impaired Audiences in Poland: Problems, Paradoxes, Perspectives. In: Díaz Cintas, J., Matamala, A. & Neves, J. (eds) New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility. Media for All Vol. 2. Amsterdam–New York: Rodopi. 139158.

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  • Szarkowska, A., Krejtz, I., Klyszejko, Z. & Wieczorek, A. 2011. Verbatim, Standard, or Edited? Reading Patterns of Different Captioning Styles among Deaf, Hard of Hearing, and Hearing Viewers. American Annals of the Deaf Vol. 156. No. 4. 363378.

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  • Szarkowska, A. & Laskowska, M. 2014. Jakie Powinny Byc Napisy? Raport z badania preferencji widzów na temat napisów telewizyjnych. [‘What should subtitles be like? A report on viewers’ preferences concerning television subtitling.’] http://avt.ils.uw.edu.pl/files/2014/07/ Jakie-powinny-byc-napisy_Raport.pdf

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  • Szarkowska, A. 2013. Towards Interlingual Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Perspectives Vol. 21. No. 1. 6881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2012.722650.

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  • Szarkowska, A., Krejtz, I., Klyszejko, Z. & Wieczorek, A. 2015. Eyetracking in Poland. In: Romero-Fresco, P. (ed.) The Reception of Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Europe. Bern: Peter Lang. 235262.

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  • Tomaszkiewicz, T. 2006. Przeklad Audiowizualny [‘Audiovisual translation’]. Warszawa: PWN.

  • Tyler, M. D., Jones, C., Grebennikov, L., Leigh, G., Noble, W. & Burnham, D. 2009. Effect of Caption Rate on the Comprehension of Educational Television Programmes by Deaf School Students. Deafness and Education International Vol. 11. No. 3. 152162.

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  • Ward, P., Wang, Y., Paul. P. & Loeterman, M. 2007. Near-Verbatim Captioning versus Edited Captioning for Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Preliminary Investigation of Effects on Comprehension. American Annals of the Deaf Vol. 152. No. 1. 2028.

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  • Yurkowski P. & Ewoldt C. 1986. A Case for the Semantic Processing of the Deaf Reader. American Annals of the Deaf Vol. 131. 243247.

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  • WoS Arts & Humanities Citation Index
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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
283
Journal Impact Factor 0.7
Rank by Impact Factor

Linguistics (Q3)

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0.6
5 Year
Impact Factor
1.4
Journal Citation Indicator 0.66
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Linguistics (Q3)
Language & Linguistics (Q2)

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
20
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.796
Scimago Quartile Score

Linguistics and Language 67/1103 (Q1)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Language and Linguistics 208/1001 (79th PCTL)
Linguistics and Language 243/1078 (77th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.868

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
214
Journal Impact Factor 1,292
Rank by Impact Factor Linguistics 98/194
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,208
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,210
Journal Citation Indicator 0,85
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Language & Linguistics 108/370
Linguistics 122/274
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
19
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,994
Scimago Quartile Score Linguistics and Language 67/1103 (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
2,5
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Language and Linguistics 121/968 (Q1, D2)
Linguistics and Language 128/1032 (Q1, D2)
Scopus
SNIP
1,576

2020  
Total Cites
WoS
169
Journal Impact Factor 1,160
Rank by Impact Factor

Linguistics 99/193 (Q3)
Languages & Linguistics 57/205 (Q2)

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,040
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,095
Journal Citation Indicator 1,01
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Linguistics 107/259 (Q2)
Language & Linguistics 94/356 (Q2)

Citable
Items
12
Total
Articles
12
Total
Reviews
0
Scimago
H-index
14
Scimago
Journal Rank
1,257
Scimago Quartile Score

Language and Linguistics Q1
Linguistics and Language Q1

Scopus
Cite Score
93/50=1,9

Scopus
Cite Score Rank

Language and Linguistics 130/879 (Q1)
Linguistics and Language 147/935 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,670

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
91
Impact Factor 0,360
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,320
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,500
Immediacy
Index
0,083
Citable
Items
12
Total
Articles
12
Total
Reviews
0
Cited
Half-Life
n/a
Citing
Half-Life
12,7
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00018
Article Influence
Score
0,234
% Articles
in
Citable Items
100,00
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,02306
Average
IF
Percentile
20,053 (Q1)
Scimago
H-index
13
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,648
Scopus
Scite Score
94/51=1,8
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Language and Linguistics 120/830 (Q1)
Linguistics and Language 135/884 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1.357

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