Urban areas have been growing radically worldwide, causing considerable changes in biodiversity of natural habitats. In floodplain forests, we studied the effects of urbanization on ground-dwelling spider assemblages along a rural–suburban–urban gradient in Hungary. We tested three traditional hypotheses (intermediate disturbance hypothesis, habitat specialist hypothesis and hygrophilous species hypothesis) and two novel expectations (shade-preferring species hypothesis, and disturbance sensitive species hypothesis) on spiders. We found that the total number of species was higher in the suburban habitat than in rural and urban ones, supporting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. We found a decrease in the species richness of forest specialist and shade-preferring species along the urbanization gradient. We found that the number of hygrophilous and disturbance sensitive species was the lowest in the urban habitat. The spider assemblages of the rural and suburban habitats were clearly separated from the assemblages of urban habitats. Based on our findings we emphasize that low and moderate intensity of forest management contributes to the preservation of the local species richness in floodplain forests.
Adler, P.H. and R.G. Foottit. 2009. Introduction. In: Foottit, R.G. and P.H. Adler (eds). Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp. 1–6.
Alaruikka, D.M., D.J. Kotze, K. Matveinen and J. Niemelä. 2002. Carabid beetle and spider assemblages along a forested urban-rural gradient in Southern Finland. J. Insect Conserv. 6:195–206.
Buchar, J. and V. Růžička. 2002. Catalogue of Spiders of the Czech Republic, 1st ed. Peres Publishers, Praha.
Cardinale, B.J, J.E. Duffy, A. Gonzalez, D.U. Hooper, C. Perrings, P. Venail, A. Narwani, G.M. Mace, D. Tilman and D.A. Wardle. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310.
Czech, B., P.R. Krausman and P.K. Devers. 2000. Economic associations among causes of species endangerment in the United States. BioScience 50:593–601.
Debnár, Z., T. Magura, R. Horváth, D.D. Nagy, S. Mizser, A. Demkó, B. Tajthi and B. Tóthmérész. 2016. Group selection harvesting supports diversity of forest specialist epigaeic arthropods (Coleoptera: Carabidae; Arachnida: Araneae; Isopoda: Oniscidae). Period. Biol. 118:311–314.
Foelix, R.F. 2011. The Biology of Spiders. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Gardnier, M.M., C.E. Burkman and S.P. Prajzner. 2013. The value of urban vacant land to support arthropod biodiversity and ecosystem services. Environ. Entomol. 42:1123–1136.
Horváth, R., Z. Elek and G.L. Lövei. 2014. Compositional changes in spider (Araneae) assemblages along an urbanization gradient near a Danish town. B. Insectol. 67:255–264.
Horváth, R., T. Magura and C. Szinetár. 2001. Effects of immission load on spiders living on black pine. Biodivers. Conserv. 10:1531–1542.
Horváth, R., T. Magura, G. Péter and B. Tóthmérész. 2002. Edge effect on weevils and spiders. Web Ecol. 3:43–47.
Horváth, R., T. Magura, C. Szinetár and B. Tóthmérész. 2009. Spiders are not less diverse in small and isolated grasslands, but less diverse in overgrazed grasslands; a field study (East Hungary, Nyírség). Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 130:16–22.
Horváth, R., T. Magura and B. Tóthmérész. 2012. Ignoring ecological demands masks the real effect of urbanization: a case study of ground-dwelling spiders along a rural–urban gradient in a lowland forest in Hungary. Ecol. Res. 27:1069–1077.
Horváth, R., T. Magura, C. Szinetár, J. Eichardt and B. Tóthmérész. 2013. Large and least isolated fragments preserve habitat specialist spiders best in dry sandy grasslands in Hungary. Biodivers. Conserv. 22:2139–2150.
Ishitani, M., D.J. Kotze and J. Niemelä. 2003. Changes in carabid beetle assemblages across an urban–rural gradient in Japan. Ecography 26:481–489.
Lambeets, K., M.L. Vandegehuchte, J.P. Maelfait and D. Bonte. 2008. Understanding the impact of flooding on trait-displacements and shifts in assemblage structure of predatory arthropods on river banks. J. Anim. Ecol. 77:1162–1174.
Legendre, P. and L. Legendre. 2012. Numerical Ecology, 3rd ed. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
Magura, T., B. Tóthmérész and T. Molnár. 2004. Changes in carabid beetle assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Landsc. Ecol. 19:747–759.
Magura, T., B. Tóthmérész and T. Molnár. 2008. A species-level comparison of occurrence patterns in carabids along an urbanization gradient. Landsc. Urban Plan. 86:134–140.
Magura, T., G.L. Lövei and B. Tóthmérész. 2010a. Does urbanization decrease diversity in ground beetle (Carabidae) assemblages? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 19:16–26.
Magura, T., R. Horváth and B. Tóthmérész. 2010b. Effects of urbanization on ground-dwelling spiders in forest patches, in Hungary. Landsc. Ecol. 25:621–629.
Magura, T., D. Nagy and B. Tóthmérész. 2013. Rove beetles respond heterogeneously to urbanization. J. Insect Conserv. 17:715–724.
McDonald, R.I., P. Kareiva and R.T. Forman. 2008. The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141:1695–1703.
McIntyre, N.E. 2000. Ecology of urban arthropods: a review and a call to action. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 93:825–835.
McIntyre, N.E., J. Rango, W.F. Fagan and S.H. Faeth. 2001. Ground arthropod community structure in a heterogeneous urban environment. Landsc. Urban Plan. 52:257–274.
McKinney, M.L. 2006. Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biol. Cons. 127:247–260.
McKinney, M.L. 2008. Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosyst. 11:161–176.
Miyashita, T., A. Shinkai and T. Chida. 1998. The effects of forest fragmentation on web spider communities in urban areas. Biol. Cons. 86:357–364.
Nagy, D.D., T. Magura, S. Mizser, Z. Debnár, R. Horváth and B. Tóthmérész. 2016. Recovery of surface-dwelling assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae) during clear-cut originated reforestation with native tree species. Period. Biol. 118:195–203.
Nentwig, W., T. Blick, D. Gloor, A. Hänggi and C. Kropf. 2018. Spiders of Europe. http://www.araneae.unibe.ch. Accessed 15 January 2018.
Niemelä, J. and D.J. Kotze. 2009. Carabid beetle assemblages along urban to rural gradients: a review. Landsc. Urban Plan. 92:65–71.
Niemelä, J., D.J. Kotze and A. Ashworth. 2000. The search for common anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity: a global network. J. Insect Conserv. 4:3–9.
Niemelä, J., D.J. Kotze, S. Venn, L. Penev, I. Stoyanov, J. Spence and D. Hartley. 2002. Carabid beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae) across urban-rural gradients: an international comparison. Landsc. Ecol. 17:387–401.
Nyffeler, M. 2000. Ecological impact of spider predation: a critical assessment of Bristowe’s and Turnbull’s estimates. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 11:367–373.
Oksanen, J., G.F. Blanchet, M. Friendly, R. Kindt, P. Legendre,. D. McGlinn, P.R. Minchin, R.B. O'Hara, G.L. Simpson, P. Solymos, M.H.H Stevens, E. Szoecs and H. Wagner. 2007. vegan: Community Ecology Package, R package version 2.4-4, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
Olden, J.D. and N.L. Poff (2003) Toward a mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization. Amer. Nat. 162:442–460.
Patil, G.P. and C. Taillie. 1982. Diversity as a concept and its measurement. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 77:548-567.
R Core Team. 2017. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Renofalt, B.M., C. Nilsson and R. Jansson. 2005. Spatial and temporal patterns of species richness in a riparian landscape. J. Biogeogr. 32:2025–2037.
Ryndock, J.A., G.E. Stratton, J.S. Brewer and M.M. Holland. 2012. Differences in spider community composition among adjacent sites during initial stages of oak woodland restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20:24–32.
Samu, F. and C. Szinetár. 1999. Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 11:161–184.
Sattler, T., M.K. Obrist, P. Duelli and M. Moret. 2011. Urban arthropod communities: Added value or just a blend of surrounding biodiversity? Landsc. Urban Plan. 103:347–361.
Smith, R.M., K. Thompson, J.G. Hodgson, P.H. Warren and K.J. Gaston. 2006. Urban domestic gardens (IX): Composition and richness of the vascular plant flora, and implications for native biodiversity. Biol. Cons. 129:312–322.
Stork, N.E. 2010. Re-assessing current extinction rates. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:357–371.
Tóthmérész, B. 1995. Comparison of different methods for diversity ordering. J. Veg. Sci. 6:283–290.
Tóthmérész, B. 1998. On the characterization of scale-dependent diversity. Abstr. Bot. 22:149–156.
Tóthmérész, B., I. Máthé, E. Balázs and T. Magura. 2011. Responses of carabid beetles to urbanization in Transylvania (Romania). Landsc. Urban Plan. 101:330–337.
Vergnes, A., V. Pellissier, G. Lemperiere, C. Rollard and P. Clergeau. 2014. Urban densification causes the decline of ground-dwelling arthropods. Biodivers. Conserv. 23:1859–1877.
World Spider Catalog 2017. World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. http://wsc.nmbe.ch. Accessed 15 January 2018.
|H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245|
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
|H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
|Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó|
|Abstract Views||Full Text Views||PDF Downloads|