Authors:
Meghan P. NegusUniversity of Connecticut, 55 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States

Search for other papers by Meghan P. Negus in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Andrew C. MansfieldVapourtec Ltd., Bury St. Edmunds IP28 6TS, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by Andrew C. Mansfield in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Nicholas E. LeadbeaterUniversity of Connecticut, 55 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States
University of Connecticut Health Center, The Exchange, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06030, United States

Search for other papers by Nicholas E. Leadbeater in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The catalyzed and uncatalyzed preparation of ethyl levulinate from levulinic acid and ethanol is presented. In the case of acid-catalyzed reactions, conditions were optimized in batch using microwave heating and then scaled-up using continuousflow processing. Both p-toluenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid were used as catalysts, the latter proving most amenable. For the uncatalyzed reactions, all reactions were performed under continuous-flow conditions, using apparatus capable of operating at high temperature and pressure. Optimal conditions for the uncatalyzed process required heating a 3.6-M solution of levulinic acid in ethanol at 270 °C with a residence time of 30 min.

  • 1.

    For example, see: Bermudez, J. M.; Menéndez, J. A.; Romero, A. A.; Serrano, E.; Garcia-Martinez, J.; Luque, R. Green Chem. 2013, 15, 27862792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    For example, see: Pineau, B.; Barbe, J.-C.; Van Leeuwen, C.; Dubourdieu, D. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 37023708.

  • 3. (a)

    Lei, T.; Wang, Z.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; He, X.; Zhu, J. BioResources, 2013, 8, 26962707;

  • (b)

    Christensen, E.;Williams, A.; Paul, S.; Burton, S.; McCormick, R. L. Energy Fuels 2011, 25, 54225428;

  • (c)

    Windom, B. C.; Lovestead, T. M.; Mascal, M.; Nikitin, E. B.; Bruno, T. J. Energy Fuels 2011, 25, 18781890;

  • (d)

    Lei, T.;Wang, Z.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; He, X.; Zhu, J. BioResources 2013, 8, 26962707.

  • 4.

    For recent examples, see: (a) Oliveira, B. L.; Teixeira Da Silva, V. Catal. Today, 2014, 234, 257263;

  • (b)

    Yadav, G. D.; Yadav, A. R.Chem. Eng. J. 2014, 243, 556563;

  • (c)

    Kuwahara, Y.; Kaburagi, W.; Nemoto, K.; Fujitani, T. Appl. Catal., A 2014, 476, 186196;

  • (d)

    Patil, C. R.; Niphadkar, P. S.; Bokade, V. V.; Joshi, P. N. Catal. Commun. 2014, 43, 188191;

  • (e)

    Fernandes, D. R.; Rocha, A. S.; Mai, E. F.; Mota, C. J. A.; Teixeira Da Silva, V. Appl. Catal., A 2012, 425426, 199204;

  • (f)

    Budarin, V. L.; Clark, J. H.; Luque, R.; Macquarrie, D. J. Chem. Commun. 2007, 634636.

  • 5. (a)

    Mascal, M.; Nikitin, E. B. ChemSusChem 2010, 3, 13491351;

  • (b)

    Mascal, M.; Nikitin, E. Green Chem. 2010, 12, 370373.

  • 6. (a)

    Chang, C.; Xu, G.; Zhu, W.; Bai, J.; Fang, S. Fuel 2015, 140, 365370;

  • (b)

    Amarasekara, A. S.; Wiredu, B. Bioenergy Res. 2014, 7, 12371243;

  • (c)

    Hu, X.; Wu, L.;Wang, Y.; Song, Y.; Mourant, D.; Gunawan, R.; Gholizadeh, M.; Li, C.-Z. Bioresource Technol. 2013, 133, 469474;

  • (d)

    Saravanamurugan, S.; Riisager, A. Catal. Commun. 2012, 17, 7175.

  • 7.

    For reviews, see: (a) Dencic, I.; Noël, T.; Meuldijk, J.; de Croon, M.; Hessel, V. Eng. Life Sci. 2013, 13, 326343;

  • (b)

    Serrano-Ruiz, J. C.; Luque, R.; Campelo, J. M.; Romero, A. A. Challenges 2012, 3, 114132.

  • 8.

    For examples, see: (a) Wilson, N. S.; Osuma, A. T.; Van Camp, J. A.; Xu, X. Tetrahedron Lett. 2012, 53, 44984501;

  • (b)

    Glasnov, T. N.; Kappe, C. O. Chem. Eur. J. 2011, 17, 1195611968.

  • 9.

    For recent examples, see: (a) Britton, J.; Dalziel, S. B.; Raston, C. L. RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 16551660;

  • (b)

    Elgue, S.; Conté, A.; Marty, A.; Condoret, J.-S. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 2014, 89, 15901598;

  • (c)

    Patel, D.; Saha, B. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012, 51, 1196511974;

  • (d)

    Becker, R.; Koch, K.; Nieuwland, P. J.; Rutjes, F. P. J. T. Chim. Oggi 2011, 29, 4749.

  • 10.

    For a review, see: Gawande, M. B.; Bonifacio, V. D. B.; Luque, R.; Branco, P. S.; Varma, R. S. ChemSusChem 2014, 7, 2444.

  • 11.

    For a review, see: Hessel, V.; Kralisch, D.; Kockmann, N.; Noël, T.; Wang, Q. ChemSusChem 2013, 6, 746789.

  • 12.

    See, for example: (a) Go, A. W.; Nguyen, P. L. T.; Huynh, L. H.; Liu, Y.-T.; Sutanto, S.; Ju, Y. H. Energy 2014, 70, 393400;

  • (b)

    Geuens, J.; Sergeyev, S.; Maes, B. U. W.; Tavernier, S. M. F. Renewable Energy 2014, 68, 524528.

  • 13.

    See, for example: (a) Gonzalez, S. L.; Sychoski, M. M.; Navarro-Díaz, H. J.; Callejas, N.; Saibene, M.; Vieitez, I.; Jachmanián, I.; Da Silva, C.; Hense, H.; Oliveira, J. V. Energy Fuels 2013, 27, 52535259;

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • (b)

    Olivares-Carrillo, P.; Quesada-Medina, J. J. Supercrit. Fluids 2011, 58, 378384;

  • (c)

    Geuens, J.; Kremsner, J. M.; Nebel, B. A.; Schober, S.; Dommisse, R. A.; Mittelbach, M.; Tavernier, S.; Kappe, C. O.; Maes, B. U. W. Energy Fuels 2008, 22, 643645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Razzaq, T. Glasnov, T. N.; Kappe, C. O. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 13211325.

  • 15.

    de Araujo Abdala, A. C.; dos Santos Garcia, V. A.; Trentini, C. P.; Filho, L. C.; da Silva, E. A.; da Silva, C. Int. J. Chem. Eng. 2014, 2014, 803783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Vapourtec. http://www.vapourtec.co.uk (accessed February 16, 2015).

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Top

To see the editorial board, please visit the website of Springer Nature.

Manuscript Submission: HERE

For subscription options, please visit the website of Springer Nature.

Journal of Flow Chemistry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Áramlásos Kémiai Tudományos Társaság
Founder's
Address
H-1031 Budapest, Hungary Záhony utca 7.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-249X (Print)
ISSN 2063-0212 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Mar 2022 22 2 4
Apr 2022 31 0 0
May 2022 18 0 0
Jun 2022 17 0 0
Jul 2022 17 0 0
Aug 2022 5 0 0
Sep 2022 0 0 0