In the last five years, scientific interest into the potential applications of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) for the treatment of problem gambling has been growing. This paper reviews current directions, proposes conceptual applications, and discusses integration issues relating to the utilisation of BDIs as problem gambling treatments.
Aliterature search and evaluation of the empirical literature for BDIs as problem gambling treatments was undertaken.
To date, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and clinical case studies and findings indicate that Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices have the potential to play an important role in ameliorating problem gambling symptomatology. As an adjunct to mindfulness, other Buddhist-derived practices are also of interest including: (i) insight meditation techniques (e.g., meditation on ‘emptiness’) to overcome avoidance and dissociation strategies, (ii) ‘antidotes’ (e.g., patience, impermanence, etc.) to attenuate impulsivity and salience-related issues, (iii) loving-kindness and compassion meditation to foster positive thinking and reduce conflict, and (iv) ‘middle-way’ principles and ‘bliss-substitution’ to reduce relapse and temper withdrawal symptoms. In addition to an absence of controlled treatment studies, the successful operationalisation of BDIs as effective treatments for problem gambling may be impeded by issues such as a deficiency of suitably experienced BDI clinicians, and the poor provision by service providers of both BDIs and dedicated gambling interventions.
Preliminary findings for BDIs as problem gambling treatments are promising, however, further research is required.
J. Appel D. Kim-Appel 2009 Mindfulness: Implications for substance abuse and addiction International Journal of Mental Health Addiction 7 506 512.
Asanga 2001 Abhidharma Samuccaya: The compendium of the Higher Teaching (philosophy) Asian Humanities Press Berkeley.
L. A. Benson C. Norman M. D. Griffiths 2012 The role of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping, and year of study in student gambling: A pilot study International Journal of Mental Health 10 461 473.
T. Bien 2006 Mindful therapy: A guide for therapists and helping professionals Wisdom Publications Massachusetts.
A. Blaszczynski N. McConaghy A. Frankoya 1991 Control versus abstinence in the treatment of pathological gambling: A two to nine year follow-up British Journal of Addiction 86 299 306.
K. W. Brown R. M. Ryan 2003 The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84 822 848.
Buddha 2006 Dhammapada: The essential teachings of the Buddha Watkins Publishing London.
Buddha 1995 The long discourses of the Buddha: A translation of the Digha Nikaya Wisdom Publications Massachusetts.
B. R. Cahn A. Delorme J. Polich 2010 Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation Cognitive Processing 11 39 56.
A. Chah 2011 The collected teachings of Ajahn Chah Aruna Publications Northumberland.
A. Chiesa A. Serretti 2011 Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and metaanalysis Psychiatry Research 187 441 453.
K. L. Chou T. O. Afifi 2011 Disordered (pathological or problem) gambling and Axis 1 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions American Journal of Epidemiology 173 1289 1297.
J. W. Ciarrocchi 2002 Counselling problem gamblers: A self-regulation manual for individual and family therapy Academic Press San Diego.
O. S. Curry M. E. Price J. G. Price 2008 Patience is a virtue: Cooperative people have lower discount rates Personality and Individual Differences 44 780 785.
D. Lama 1997 The Gelug/Kagyu tradition of mahamudra Snow Lion Publications New York.
D. Lama 2001 Stages of meditation: Training the mind for wisdom Rider London.
S. M. de Lisle N. A. Dowling J. S. Allen 2011 Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for problem gambling Clinical Case Studies 10 210 228.
S. M. de Lisle N. A. Dowling J. S. Allen 2012 Mindfulness and problem gambling: A review of the literature Journal of Gambling Studies 28 719 739.
D. Derezotes 2000 Evaluation of yoga and meditation trainings with adolescent sex offenders Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 17 97 113.
C. Dewey Dorje R. Dudjom T. Urgyen C. Nyima Rinpoche 2008 The great gate: A guidebook to the Guru's heart practice Ranjung Yeshe Publications Kathmandu.
K. Dudjom 2005 Wisdom nectar. Dudjom Rinpoche's heart advice Snow Lion Publications New York.
GamCare 2012 Annual Review 2011 Author London.
Gampopa 1998 The Jewel Ornament of Liberation: The wishfulfilling gem of the noble teachings Snow Lion Publications New York.
P. Gilbert 2009 Introducing compassion-focused therapy Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 15 199 208.
S. M. Gillespie I. J. Mitchell D. Fisher A. R. Beech 2012 Treating disturbed emotional regulation in sexual offenders: The potential applications of mindful self-regulation and controlled breathing techniques Aggression and Violent Behavior 17 333 343.
W. Glasser 1976 Positive addictions Harper & Row New York, NY.
T. M. Gluck A. Maercker 2011 A randomized controlled pilot study of a brief web-based mindfulness training BMC Psychiatry 11 175.
P. Gooding N. Tarrier 2009 A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioural interventions to reduce problem gambling: Hedging our bets? Behaviour Research and Therapy 47 592 607.
M. D. Griffiths 1996 Behavioural addiction: An issue for everybody? Employee counselling today The Journal of Workplace Learning 8 19 25.
M. D. Griffiths 2004 Betting your life on it: Problem gambling has clear health related consequences British Medical Journal 329 1055 1056.
M. D. Griffiths 2005 A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework Journal of Substance Use 10 191 197.
M. D. Griffiths G. Cooper 2003 Online therapy: Implications for problem gamblers and clinicians British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 31 113 135.
M. D. Griffiths J. Wardle J. Orford K. Sproston B. Erens 2010 Gambling, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and health: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey Addiction Research and Theory 18 208 223.
M. D. Griffiths R. A. Wood J. Parke A. Parke 2006 Dissociative states in problem gambling C. Allcock Current issues related to dissociation Australian Gaming Council Melbourne 27 37.
G. R. Hodge K. Andereck H. Montoya 2007 The protective influence of spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco use, alcohol use, and gambling Social Work Research 31 211 219.
D. C. Hodgins S. R. Currie N. el-Guebaly K. Diskin 2007 Does providing extended relapse prevention bibliotherapy to problem gamblers improve outcome Journal of Gambling Studies 23 41 54.
S. G. Hofmann P. Grossman D. E. Hinton 2011 Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: Potential for psychological interventions Clinical Psychology Review 31 1126 1132.
S. G. Hofmann A. T. Sawyer A. A. Witt D. Oh 2010 The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 78 169 183.
K. Howells A. Tennant A. Day R. Elmer 2010 Mindfulness in forensic mental health; Does it have a role? Mindfulness 1 4 9.
A. C. Jackson K. L. Francis G. Byrne D. R. Christensen 2013 Leisure substitution and problem gambling: report of a proof of concept group intervention International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 11 64 74.
D. P. Johnson D. L. Penn B. L. Fredrickson A. M. Kring P. S. Meyer L. I. Catalino M. Brantley 2011 A pilot study of loving-kindness meditation for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia Schizophrenia Research 129 137 140.
J. Kabat-Zinn 1990 Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness Delacourt New York.
B. D. Kelly 2008 Buddhist psychology, psychotherapy and the brain: A critical introduction Transcultural Psychiatry 45 5 30.
R. C. Kessler I. Hwang R. LaBrie M. Petukhova N. A. Sampson K. C. Winters H. J. Shaffer 2008 DSM-IV pathological gambling in the National Comorbidity Survey Republication Psychological Medicine 38 1351 1360.
D. Khyentse 2006 Zurchungpa's Testament Snow Lion Publications New York.
D. Khyentse 2007 The heart of compassion: The thirty-seven verses on the practice of a bodhisattva Shambala London.
S. M. Kumar 2005 Grieving mindfully: A compassionate and spiritual guide to coping with loss New Harbinger Oakland, CA.
C. E. Lakey K. W. Campbell K. W. Brown A. S. Goodie 2007 Dispositional mindfulness as a predictor of the severity of gambling outcomes Personality and Individual Differences 43 1698 1710.
F. K. Lorains S. Cowlishaw S. A. Thomas 2011 Prevalence of comorbid disorders in problem and pathological gambling: Systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys Addiction 106 490 498.
A. Lutz J. Brefczynski-Lewis T. Johnstone R. Davidson 2008 Regulation of the theme neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: Effects of the meditative expertise PLoS ONE 3 3 e1897.
M. J. Mackenzie L. E. Carlson M. Munoz M. Speca 2007 A qualitative study of self-perceived effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in a psychosocial oncology setting Stress and Health 23 59 69.
A. G. Marlatt 2002 Buddhist philosophy and the treatment of addictive behaviours Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 9 44 50.
A. McCormack M. D. Griffiths 2012 Motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling behaviour: A grounded theory study International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 10 39 53.
M. Mehwash M. D. Griffiths 2010 Online gaming addiction: The role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 13 313 316.
Mental Health Foundation 2010 Mindfulness Report Author London.
M. Michalon 2001 “Selflessness” in the service of the ego: Contributions, limitations and dangers of Buddhist psychology for Western psychotherapy American Journal of Psychotherapy 55 202 218.
S. Monaghan A. Blaszczynski 2009 Internet-based interventions for the treatment of problem gambling Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Toronto.
Nagarjuna 1995 The fundamental wisdom of the middle way: Nàgàrjuna's Mülamadhymakakàrikà Oxford University Press New York.
Nance-Nash, S. (July 22, 2011). “The High Price of America's Gambling Addiction”. Retrieved November 10, 2012, from Daily Finance: http://www.dailyfinance.com/2011/07/22/thehigh-price-of-americas-gambling-addiction/.
K. D. Neff K. L. Kirkpatrick S. S. Rude 2007 Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning Journal of Research in Personality 41 139 154.
T. Nhat Hanh 1992 The sun my heart Rider London.
J. Orford H. Wardle M. D. Griffiths 2012 What proportion of gambling is problem gambling? Estimates from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey International Gambling Studies 13 4 18.
A. Ortiz de Gotari K. Aronnson M. D. Griffiths 2011 Game transfer phenomena in video game playing: A qualitative interview study International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning 1 15 33.
Parhami, I., Siani, A., Rosenthal, R. & Fong, T. (2012). Pathological gambling, problem gambling and sleep complaints: An analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey: Replication (NCS-R). Journal of Gambling Studies, doi: .
A. Parke M. D. Griffiths P. Irving 2004 Personality traits in pathological gambling: Sensation seeking, deferment of gratification and competitiveness as risk factors Addiction Research & Theory 12 201 212.
J. Parke M. D. Griffiths A. Parke 2007 Positive thinking among slot machine gamblers: A case of maladaptive coping? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 5 39 52.
A. M. Perelman S. L. Miller C. B. Clements A. Rodriguez K. Allen R. Cavanaugh 2012 Meditation in a deep south prison: A longitudinal study of the effects of vipassana Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 51 176 198.
L. Rabjam 2002 The Practice of Dzogchen Snow Lion Publications New York.
D. Rickwood A. Blaszczynski P. Delfabbro N. Dowling K. Heading 2010 The psychology of gambling InPsych 32 11 21.
J. Rigbye M. D. Griffiths 2011 Problem gambling treatment within the British National Health Service International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 9 276 281.
Riley, B. (2012). Experiential avoidance mediates the association between thought suppression and mindfulness with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, doi: .
B. Roth T. W. Stanley 2002 Mindfulness-based stress reduction and healthcare utilization in the inner city: Preliminary findings Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 8 60 66.
S. Rungreangkulkji W. Wongtakee S. Thongyot 2011 Buddhist Group Therapy for diabetes patients with depressive symptoms Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 25 195 205.
B. K. Sahdra P. R. Shaver K. W. Brown 2010 A scale to measure nonattachment: A Buddhist complement to Western research on attachment and adaptive functioning Journal of Personality Assessment 92 116 127.
Z. V. Segal J. M. Williams J. D. Teasdale 2002 Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse Guilford New York.
L. Sharpe 2004 Patterns of autonomic arousal in imaginal situations of winning and losing in problem gambling Journal of Gambling Studies 20 95 104.
E. Shonin W. Van Gordon M. D. Griffiths 2012 The health benefits of mindfulness-based interventions for children and adolescents Education and Health 30 94 97.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W. & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for improved psychological wellbeing: A qualitative examination of participant experiences. Religion and Health, doi: .
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Slade, K. & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Mindfulness and other Buddhist derived interventions in correctional settings: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, doi: .
M. T. Sumpter E. Monk-Turner C. Turner 2009 The benefits of meditation practice in the correctional setting Journal of Correctional Health Care 15 47 57.
J. P. Tangney R. F. Baumeister A. L. Boone 2004 High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success Journal of Personality 72 271 324.
T. Toneatto L. Vettese L. Nguyen 2007 The role of mindfulness in the cognitive-behavioural treatment of problem gambling Journal of Gambling Issues 19 91 101.
T. Urgyen 2000 As it is Rangjung Yeshe Publications Hong Kong.
N. T. Van Dam S. C. Sheppard J. P. Forsyth M. Earleywine 2011 Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25 123 130.
Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Sumich, A., Sundin, E. & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for psychological wellbeing in a sub-clinical sample of university students: A controlled pilot study. Mindfulness, doi: .
J. M. Walsh J. W. Ciarrocchi R. L. Piedmont D. Haskins 2007 Spiritual transcendence and religious practices in recovery from pathological gambling: Reducing pain or enhancing quality of life? Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 18 155 175.
H. Wardle A. Moody S. Spence J. Orford R. Volberg D. Jotangia M. D. Griffiths D. Hussey F. Dobbie 2011 British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010. London: The Stationery Office. (2011) British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010 National Centre for Social Research London.
A. Wells 1997 Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide Wiley Chichester.
M. J. Williams F. McManus K. Muse J. M. Williams 2011 Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis): An interpretive phenomenological analysis of patients' experiences British Journal of Clinical Psychology 50 379 397.
K. C. Winters S. Specker R. S. Stinchfield 2002 Measuring pathological gambling with the diagnostic interview for gambling severity (DIGS) J. J. Marotta J. A. Cornelius W. R. Eadington The downside: Problem and pathological gambling University of Nevada-Reno Reno, NV 143 148.
R. A. Wood M. D. Griffiths 2007 A qualitative investigation of problem gambling as an escape-based coping strategy Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice 80 107 125.
R. A. Wood R. Gupta J. L. Derevensky M. D. Griffiths 2004 Video game playing and gambling in adolescents Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 14 77 100.
E. Yoder 2010 Compassion fatigue in nurses Applied Nursing Research 23 191 197.
Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Indexing and Abstracting Services:
|Web of Science|
|Journal Impact Factor||7,772|
|Rank by Impact Factor||Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Journal Self Cites
|Journal Citation Indicator||1,39|
|Rank by Journal Citation Indicator||
|Scimago Quartile Score||Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
CIte Score Rank
|Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)
|Rank by||Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)|
|Impact Factor||Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)|
|Journal Self Cites|
|Rank by Journal||Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)|
|Scimago||Clinical Psychology Q1|
|Quartile Score||Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1|
|Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1|
|Scopus||Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)|
|Scite Score Rank||Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)|
|to 1st decision|
Journal Self Cites
Scite Score Rank
|Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)
|Journal of Behavioral Addictions|
|Publication Model||Gold Open Access|
|Article Processing Charge||850 EUR/article|
|Printed Color Illustrations||40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece|
|Regional discounts on country of the funding agency||World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
|Further Discounts||Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
|Subscription Information||Gold Open Access|
|Journal of Behavioral Addictions|
|Founder||Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem|
|H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.|
|H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.|
|Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó|
Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS
Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON
|Abstract Views||Full Text Views||PDF Downloads|