View More View Less
  • 1 Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, PO Box 565 Sentrum, 0105, Oslo, Norway
  • | 2 Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • | 3 Norwegian Social Research, Oslo, Norway
Open access


Background and aims

While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias.


Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors.


Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes.


The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects.


Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.

  • P D Allison 1990 Change scores as dependent variables in regression analysis Sociological Methodology 20 93 114.

  • American Psychiatric Association 2013 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Fifth ed..

  • V Anand 2007 A study of time management: The collelation between video game usage and academic performance markers CyberPsychology & Behavior 10 552 559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G S Brunborg R A Mentzoni O R Melkevik T Torsheim O Samdal J Hetland C S Andreassen S Pallesen 2013 Gaming addiction, gaming engagement, and psychological health complaints among Norwegian adolescents Media Psychology 16 115 128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J P Charlton I D W Danforth 2007 Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing Computers in Human Behavior 23 1531 1548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • L B Derogatis R S Lipman K Rickels E H Uhlenhut L Covi 1974 The Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL): A self-report inventory Behavioral Science 19 1 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R A Desai S Krishnan-Sarin D Cavallo M N Potenza 2010 Video-gaming among high school students: Health correlates, gender differences, and problematic gaming Pediatrics 125 e1414 e1424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C J Ferguson 2011 A meta-analysis of pathological gaming prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems Journal of Psychiatry Research 45 1573 1578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C J Ferguson M Coulson J Barnett 2011 A meta-analysis of pathological gaming prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems Journal of Psychiatric Research 45 1573 1578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C J Ferguson S San Miguel A Garza J M Jerabeck 2012 A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents Journal of Psychiatric Research 46 141 146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Festl M Scharkow T Quant 2013 Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults Addiction 108 592 599.

  • D A Gentile H Choo A Liau T Sim D Li D Fung A Khoo 2011 Pathological video game use among youths: A two-year longitudinal study Pediatrics 27 E319 E329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D A Gentile P J Lynch J R Linder D A Walsh 2004 The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance Journal of Adolescence 27 5 22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M D Griffiths D J Kuss D L King 2012 Video game addiction: Past, present, future Current Psychiatry Reviews 8 308 318.

  • A B Hill 1965 The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58 295 300.

  • P Holtz M Appel 2011 Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence Journal of Adolescence 34 49 58.

  • J D Jensen A J Weaver R Ivic K Imboden 2011 Developing a brief sensation seeking scale for children: Establishing concurrent validity with video game use and rule-breaking behavior Media Psychology 14 71 95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D L King M C Haagsma P H Delfabbro M Gradisar M D Griffiths 2013 Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: A systematic review of psychometric assessment tools Clinical Psychology Review 33 331 342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J S Lemmens P M Valkenburg J Peter 2009 Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents Media Psychology 12 77 95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S Lemona S Brand N Vogler N Perkinson-Gloor M Allemand A Grob 2011 Habitual computer game playing at night is related to depressive symptoms Personality and Individual Differences 51 117 122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R A Mentzoni G S Brunborg H Molde H Myrseth K J M Skouverøe J Hetland S Pallesen 2011 Problematic video game use: Estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 14 591 596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • T Nordström H Pape 2010 Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence Addiction 105 1580 1586.

  • W Pedersen A Mastekaasa L Wichstrøm 2001 Conduct problems and early cannabis initiation: A longitudinal study of gender differences Addiction 96 415 431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G L Ream L C Elliott E Dunlap 2011 Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: Associations with substance use problems International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8 3979 3998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • F Rehbein M Kleinmann G Mediasci T Mößle 2010 Prevalence and risk factors of video game dependency in adolescence: Results of a German nationwide survey Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 13 269 277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • K J Rothman S Greenland T L Lash 2008 Modern epidemiology Third ed. Lippcott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia.

  • M M Skoric L L C Teo R L Neo 2009 Children and video games: Addiction, engagement and scholastic achievement Cyberpsychology & Behavior 12 567 572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M Verbeek 2012 A guide to modern econometrics Fourth ed. John Wiley & Sons Chichester.

  • M von Salisch J Vogelgesang A Kristen C Oppl 2011 Preference for violent electronic games and aggressive behavior among children: The beginning of the downward spiral? Media Psychology 14 233 258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J M Wooldridge 2001 Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data MIT Press Cambridge, MA.

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science [Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch®)
  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
  • Social Sciences Citation Index®
  • Journal Citation Reports/ Social Sciences Edition
  • Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • GoogleScholar
  • PsycINFO
  • PubMed Central
  • Medline
  • CABI

Web of Science  
Total Cites
Journal Impact Factor 7,772
Rank by Impact Factor Psychiatry SCIE 26/155
Psychiatry SSCI 19/142
Impact Factor
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
Impact Factor
Journal Citation Indicator 1,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Psychiatry 34/257

Journal Rank
Scimago Quartile Score Clinical Psychology (Q1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health (Q1)
Cite Score
CIte Score Rank
Clinical Psychology 5/292 (D1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 20/529 (D1)
Medicine (miscellaneous) 17/276 (D1)

Total Cites 4024
Impact Factor
Rank by Psychiatry (SSCI) 12/143 (Q1)
Impact Factor Psychiatry 19/156 (Q1)
Impact Factor 6,052
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 8,735
Impact Factor
Journal  1,48
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Psychiatry 24/250 (Q1)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 86
Total 74
Total 12
Scimago 47
Scimago 2,265
Journal Rank
Scimago Clinical Psychology Q1
Quartile Score Psychiatry and Mental Health Q1
  Medicine (miscellaneous) Q1
Scopus 3593/367=9,8
Scite Score  
Scopus Clinical Psychology 7/283 (Q1)
Scite Score Rank Psychiatry and Mental Health 22/502 (Q1)
Scopus 2,026
Days from  38
to 1st decision  
Days from  37
to publication  
Acceptance 31%

Total Cites
2 184
Impact Factor 5,143
Impact Factor
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
Impact Factor
Article Influence
% Articles
Citable Items
Journal Rank
Scite Score
Scite Score Rank
Cllinical Psychology 16/275 (Q1)
Medicine (miscellenous) 31/219 (Q1)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 47/506 (Q1)


Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 850 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription Information Gold Open Access

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Language English
Size A4
Year of
per Year
per Year
Founder Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
H-1053 Budapest, Hungary Egyetem tér 1-3.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-5871 (Print)
ISSN 2063-5303 (Online)

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt DEMETROVICS

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla ÁGOSTON

Associate Editors

  • Joel BILLIEUX (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Beáta BŐTHE (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Matthias BRAND (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Luke CLARK (University of British Columbia, Canada)
  • Daniel KING (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Ludwig KRAUS (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • H. N. Alexander LOGEMANN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Astrid MÜLLER (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Marc N. POTENZA (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen RUMPF (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Attila SZABÓ (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Róbert URBÁN (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Aviv M. WEINSTEIN (Ariel University, Israel)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. ABBOTT (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. ABOUJAOUDE (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat ADELI (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex BALDACCHINO (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex BLASZCZYNSKI (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Judit BALÁZS (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Kenneth BLUM (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta BOWDEN-JONES (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Wim VAN DEN BRINK (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard BÜHRINGER (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook CHOI (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan DENYS (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. DEREVENSKY (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi FINEBERG (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie GRALL-BRONNEC (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. GRANT (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark GRIFFITHS (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Anneke GOUDRIAAN (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Heather HAUSENBLAS (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias HAYER (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu HIGUCHI (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David HODGINS (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric HOLLANDER (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung JEONG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser KHAZAAL (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya KIRÁLY (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel KUNTSCHE (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook LEE (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel LEJOXEUX (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó MARÁZ (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany)
  • Giovanni MARTINOTTI (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Frederick GERARD MOELLER (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor OLASON (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy PETRY (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József RÁCZ (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. REID (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. SPADA (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel SPRITZER (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. STEIN (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. STEWART (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila SZABÓ (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc TÚRY (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred UHL (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Johan VANDERLINDEN (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. VOISKOUNSKY (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Kimberly YOUNG (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)


Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jan 2022 0 492 397
Feb 2022 0 509 480
Mar 2022 0 676 558
Apr 2022 0 880 766
May 2022 0 633 607
Jun 2022 0 389 355
Jul 2022 0 24 21