View More View Less
  • 1 Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic, Slovakia
  • | 2 Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
  • | 3 Comenius University in Bratislava (JFM CU), Slovakia
  • | 4 Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
  • | 5 Comenius University in Bratislava (JFM CU), Slovakia
  • | 6 Comenius University in Bratislava, University Hospital Martin, Slovakia
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

Introduction

Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder in which treatment with antidepressant medication is associated with incidence of adverse events, such as constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, headache, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction (SDys). Escitalopram (ESC), an effective and safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with good tolerability, was used in this study. In this study, we investigated the prospective effect of Pycnogenol (PYC), an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilator agent, on ESC-induced SDys.

Methods

This was a randomized, parallel, open-label study. Seventy-two outpatients of both genders with depression were randomized into two groups as follows: 37 patients from the ESC + PYC group took 50 mg of PYC per day for 4 months in ESC co-treatment, and 35 subjects from the ESC group took ESC only. Five patients dropped out and were excluded from the analysis. The participants were examined every month (visits 1–4).

Results

ESC use led to improvement of depressive symptoms and severity scored by standardized psychiatric tests. PYC co-treatment resulted in attenuation of SDys beginning at 1 month of treatment and continuing for two consecutive months. Furthermore, an increase in heart rate in the PYC group was registered.

Conclusions

We propose that PYC-mediated SDys attenuation is based on its ability to improve endothelial functions by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, and anticoagulant action. We assume that the action of PYC on heart rate is in accordance with the aforementioned vasodilatory action of PYC and consequent baroreflex-mediated heart rate response. PYC co-treatment reduced ESC-induced SDys and elevated heart rate.

  • 1.

    Aoki H , Nagao J , Ueda T , Strong JM , Schonlau F , Yu-Jing S , Lu Y , Horie S : Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother. Res. 26, 204207 (2012)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Araghi-Niknam M , Hosseini S , Larson D , Rohdewald P , Watson RR : Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation. Integr. Med. 2, 7377 (2000)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Ashton AK , Jamerson BD , L. Weinstein W , Wagoner C : Antidepressant-related adverse effects impacting treatment compliance: results of a patient survey. Curr. Ther. Res. 66, 96106 (2005)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Bauer M , Monz BU , Montejo AL , Quail D , Dantchev N , Demyttenaere K , Garcia-Cebrian A , Grassi L , Perahia DG , Reed C , Tylee A : Prescribing patterns of antidepressants in Europe: results from the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) study. Eur. Psychiatry 23, 6673 (2008)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Belmaker RH , Agam G : Major depressive disorder. N. Engl. J. Med. 358, 5568 (2008)

  • 6.

    Cates M : Selecting antidepressant therapy for patients with major depression. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 65, 190194 (2001)

  • 7.

    Cesarone MR , Belcaro G , Rohdewald P , Pellegrini L , Ledda A , Vinciguerra G , Ricci A , Ippolito E , Fano F , Dugall M , Cacchio M , Di Renzo A , Hosoi M , Stuard S , Corsi M : Improvement of signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy with Pycnogenol®: a prospective, controlled study. Phytomedicine 17, 835839 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Clayton A , Kornstein S , Prakash A , Mallinckrodt C , Wohlreich M : Changes in sexual functioning associated with duloxetine, escitalopram, and placebo in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. J. Sex. Med. 4, 917929 (2007)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Corona G , Ricca V , Bandini E , Mannucci E , Lotti F , Boddi V , Rastrelli G , Sforza A , Faravelli C , Forti G , Maggi M : Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction. J. Sex. Med. 6, 12591269 (2009)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    D’Andrea G : Pycnogenol: a blend of procyanidins with multifaceted therapeutic applications? Fitoterapia 81, 724736 (2010)

  • 11.

    Drieling RL , Gardner CD , Ma J , Ahn DK , Stafford RS : No beneficial effects of pine bark extract on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Arch. Intern. Med. 170, 15411547 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    D̆uračková Z , Trebatický B , Novotný V , Žitňanová I , Breza J : Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by pycnogenol®, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction – a pilot study. Nutr. Res. 23, 11891198 (2003)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Enseleit F , Sudano I , Periat D , Winnik S , Wolfrum M , Flammer AJ , Fröhlich GM , Kaiser P , Hirt A , Haile SR , Krasniqi N , Matter CM , Uhlenhut K , Högger P : Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eur. Heart J. 33, 15891597 (2012)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Ferguson JM : SSRI antidepressant medications: adverse effects and tolerability. Prim. Care Companion J. Clin. Psychiatry 3, 2227 (2001)

  • 15.

    Grimm T , Chovanová Z , Muchová J , Sumegová K , Liptáková A , Duracková Z , Högger P : Inhibition of NF-κB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). J. Inflamm. (Lond.) 3, 1 (2006)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Grimm T , Skrabala R , Chovanová Z , Muchová J , Sumegová K , Liptáková A , Durackova Z , Högger P : Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers. BMC Clin. Pharmacol. 6, 4 (2006)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hatzimouratidis K , Amar E , Eardley I , Giuliano F , Hatzichristou D , Montorsi F , Vardi Y , Wespes E , European Association of Urology: Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. Eur. Urol. 57, 804814 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Hausenblas HA , Saha D , Dubyak PJ , Anton SD : Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J. Integr. Med. 11, 377383 (2013)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Higgins A , Nash M , Lynch AM : Antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction: impact, effects, and treatment. Drug Healthc. Patient Saf. 2, 141150 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Hosseini S , Lee J , Sepulveda RT , Rohdewald P , Watson RR : A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr. Res. 21, 12511260 (2001)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Jankyova S , Hlavackova L , Kralova E , Slazneva J , Drobna V , Zuzik P , Drafi F , Mucaji P , Racanska E : The evaluation of efficacy of Pycnogenol® fractions on endothelial dysfunction. Acta Fac. Pharm. Univ. Comen. 60, 714 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kennedy SH , Andersen HF , Lam RW : Efficacy of escitalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder compared with conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine XR: a meta-analysis. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 31, 122131 (2006)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Kennedy SH , Lam RW , McIntyre RS , Tourjman SV , Bhat V , Blier P , Hasnain M , Jollant F , Levitt AJ , MacQueen GM , McInerney SJ , McIntosh D , Milev RV , Müller DJ , Parikh SV , Pearson NL , Ravindran AV , Uher R , CANMAT Depression Work Group: Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder. Can. J. Psychiatry 61, 540560 (2016)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Kobori Y , Suzuki K , Iwahata T , Shin T , Sadaoka Y , Sato R , Nishio K , Yagi H , Arai G , Soh S , Okada H , Strong JM , Rohdewald P : Improvement of seminal quality and sexual function of men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome following supplementation with L-arginine and Pycnogenol®. Arch. Ital. Urol. Androl. 87, 190193 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Lamm S , Schönlau F , Rohdewald P : Prelox® for improvement of erectile function: a review. Eur. Bull. Drug Res. 11, 2937 (2003)

  • 26.

    Ledda A , Belcaro G , Cesarone MR , Dugall M , Schönlau F : Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU Int. 106, 10301033 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Lewer D , O’Reilly C , Mojtabai R , Evans-Lacko S : Antidepressant use in 27 European countries: associations with sociodemographic, cultural and economic factors. Br. J. Psychiatry 207, 221226 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Liu X , Wei J , Tan F , Zhou S , Würthwein G , Rohdewald P : Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol® French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci. 75, 25052513 (2004)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Montgomery SA , Asberg M : A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br. J. Psychiatry 134, 382389 (1979)

  • 30.

    Mullen W , Edwards CA , Crozier A : Absorption, excretion and metabolite profiling of methyl-, glucuronyl-, glucosyl- and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. Br. J. Nutr. 96, 107116 (2006)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mülek M , Seefried L , Genest F , Högger P : Distribution of constituents and metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) into serum, blood cells, and synovial fluid of patients with severe osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 9, 443 (2017)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Müller MJ , Himmerich H , Kienzle B , Szegedi A : Differentiating moderate and severe depression using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). J. Affect. Disord. 77, 255260 (2003)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Nishioka K , Hidaka T , Nakamura S , Umemura T , Jitsuiki D , Soga J , Goto C , Chayama K , Yoshizumi M , Higashi Y : Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertens. Res. 30, 775780 (2007)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Nocun M , Ulicna O , Muchova J , Durackova Z , Watala C : French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats. Biomed. Pharmacother. 62, 168172 (2008)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Pandey KB , Rizvi SI : Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid. Med. Cell Longev. 2, 270278 (2009)

  • 36.

    Park Y-M : Serum prolactin levels in patients with major depressive disorder receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor monotherapy for 3 months: a prospective study. Psychiatry Investig. 14, 368371 (2017)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Perry AG , Potter PA , Ostendorf W (2014): Clinical Nursing Skills and Techniques (8th ed.). Mosby, St. Louis, MO

  • 38.

    Schäfer A , Chovanová Z , Muchová J , Sumegová K , Liptáková A , Durackova Z , Högger P : Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Biomed. Pharmacother. 60, 59 (2006)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Schönthal AH : Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 55, 874885 (2011)

  • 40.

    Siasos G , Tousoulis D , Antoniades C , Stefanadi E , Stefanadis C : L-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthesis: an alternative treatment for premature atherosclerosis? Int. J. Cardiol. 116, 300308 (2007)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Sivonová M , Waczulíková I , Kilanczyk E , Hrnciarová M , Bryszewska M , Klajnert B , Durackova Z : The effect of Pycnogenol on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 23, 3951 (2004)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Stanislavov R , Nikolova V : Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J. Sex. Marital. Ther. 29, 207213 (2003)

  • 43.

    Stanislavov R , Nikolova V , Rohdewald P : Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Int. J. Impot. Res. 20, 173180 (2008)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Taner G , Aydın S , Aytaç Z , Başaran AA , Başaran N : Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic potential of Pycnogenol® in in vitro mammalian cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 61, 203208 (2013)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Yagi H , Sato R , Nishio K , Arai G , Soh S , Okada H : Effects of a supplement combining Pycnogenol® and L-arginine aspartate on lower urinary dysfunction compared with saw palmetto extract. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 7, 117120 (2017)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

The author instruction is available in PDF.

Please, download the file from HERE

 

 

Editor-in-Chief

László ROSIVALL (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor

Anna BERHIDI (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Co-Editors

  • Gábor SZÉNÁSI (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Ákos KOLLER (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zsolt RADÁK (University of Physical Education, Budapest, Hungary)
  • László LÉNÁRD (University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán UNGVÁRI (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Assistant Editors

  • Gabriella DÖRNYEI (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna MIKLÓS (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • György NÁDASY (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Hungarian Editorial Board

  • György BENEDEK (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Zoltán BENYÓ (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Mihály BOROS (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • László CSERNOCH (University of Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Magdolna DANK (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • László DÉTÁRI (Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zoltán GIRICZ (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary and Pharmahungary Group, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Zoltán HANTOS (Semmelweis University, Budapest and University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • László HUNYADI (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gábor JANCSÓ (University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Zoltán KARÁDI (University of Pecs, Hungary)
  • Miklós PALKOVITS (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gyula PAPP (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Gábor PAVLIK (University of Physical Education, Budapest, Hungary)
  • András SPÄT (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gyula SZABÓ (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Zoltán SZELÉNYI (University of Pécs, Hungary)
  • Lajos SZOLLÁR (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gyula TELEGDY (MTA-SZTE, Neuroscience Research Group and University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • József TOLDI (MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group and University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Árpád TÓSAKI (University of Debrecen, Hungary)

International Editorial Board

  • Dragan DJURIC (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
  • Christopher H.  FRY (University of Bristol, UK)
  • Stephen E. GREENWALD (Blizard Institute, Barts and Queen Mary University of London, UK)
  • Osmo Otto Päiviö HÄNNINEN (Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland)
  • Helmut G. HINGHOFER-SZALKAY (Medical University of Graz, Austria)
  • Tibor HORTOBÁGYI (University of Groningen, Netherlands)
  • George KUNOS (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA)
  • Massoud MAHMOUDIAN (Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
  • Tadaaki MANO (Gifu University of Medical Science, Japan)
  • Luis Gabriel NAVAR (Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA)
  • Hitoo NISHINO (Nagoya City University, Japan)
  • Ole H. PETERSEN (Cardiff University, UK)
  • Ulrich POHL (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research and Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Planegg, Germany)
  • Andrej A. ROMANOVSKY (University of Arizona, USA)
  • Anwar Ali SIDDIQUI (Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan)
  • Csaba SZABÓ (University of Fribourg, Switzerland)
  • Eric VICAUT (Université de Paris, UMRS 942 INSERM, France)
  • Nico WESTERHOF (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

 

Editorial Office:
Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt.
Prielle Kornélia u. 21–35, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary

Editorial Correspondence:
Physiology International
Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine Institute of Pathophysiology
Nagyvárad tér 4, H-1089 Budapest, Hungary
Phone/Fax: +36-1-2100-100
E-mail: pi@semmelweis-univ.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • Global Health
  • Index Copernicus
  • Index Medicus
  • Medline
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal
  • SCOPUS
  • Social Science Citation Index

 

 

2020  
Total Cites 245
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
2,090
Rank by Physiology 62/81 (Q4)
Impact Factor  
Impact Factor 1,866
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 1,703
Impact Factor
Journal  0,51
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Physiology 67/84 (Q4)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 42
Items
Total 42
Articles
Total 0
Reviews
Scimago 29
H-index
Scimago 0,417
Journal Rank
Scimago Physiology (medical) Q3
Quartile Score  
Scopus 270/1140=1,9
Scite Score  
Scopus Physiology (medical) 71/98 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank  
Scopus 0,528
SNIP  
Days from  172
submission  
to acceptance  
Days from  106
acceptance  
to publication  

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
137
Impact Factor 1,410
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1,361
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,221
Immediacy
Index
0,294
Citable
Items
34
Total
Articles
33
Total
Reviews
1
Cited
Half-Life
2,1
Citing
Half-Life
9,3
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00028
Article Influence
Score
0,215
% Articles
in
Citable Items
97,06
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,03445
Average
IF
Percentile
12,963
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,267
Scopus
Scite Score
235/157=1,5
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Physiology (medical) 73/99 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,38

 

Physiology International
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2021 Online subsscription: 632 EUR / 788 USD 
Print + online subscription: 736 EUR / 920 USD
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 644 EUR / 806 USD
Print + online subscription: 752 EUR / 942 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Physiology International
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2006 (1950)
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 108
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2498-602X (Print)
ISSN 2677-0164 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2021 49 0 0
Jul 2021 32 2 5
Aug 2021 44 0 0
Sep 2021 32 0 0
Oct 2021 79 0 0
Nov 2021 50 0 0
Dec 2021 10 0 0